Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1897

Search results for: gender equality

1897 Effect of Gender Norms and Gender Equality on Depression and Quality of Life among Young and Old Married Couples

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen, Fatima Zahra Khan, Hamida Bano, Faiza Anjum, Sara Tahir, Kainat Umar, Uzma Azam

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gender norms and gender equality on depression and quality of life among young and old married couples. The sample consisted of 60 old and 100 young married couples. It was mainly conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. However, since it was convenient and snowball sampling, we were able to get the data from other cities of Pakistan as well. By using Beck Depression Scale (Aaron T. Beck), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener), the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske,1996), and Gender Norms Attitude Scale(Waszak et al., 2000). It was found that the old couples have a high quality of life than young couples, which further proved them to have positive attitude towards gender equality, negative attitude towards gender norms and low level of depression. Also, couples having positive attitude towards gender equality have high level of satisfaction with life than the ones having negative attitude towards gender norms, who have low level of depression. Also, having a negative attitude towards gender norms has adverse effects on the level of depression. To achieve a high quality of life, it would be helpful to evolve with the world, especially with respect to the concepts of gender norms and equality.

Keywords: depression, gender equality, gender norms, married couples, quality of life

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1896 An Analytical Exploration of the Gender-Corruption Thesis in the Nigerian Context

Authors: Francisca Anene

Abstract:

Studies indicate that gender equality and corruption are negatively correlated. This has been attributed to two opposing arguments - 'fairer-sex' and 'fairer-system'. Though there is no agreement on the reason for the correlation, it has been suggested that gender equality can be actively pursued as a means of combating corruption and instituting good governance in countries perceived to be more corrupt. This paper explores the relationship between gender, corruption and good governance in Nigeria. With the aid of secondary empirical data from various sources including Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, World Values Survey, World Bank Enterprise Survey and Afrobarometer, a correlation is established between gender and corruption and the causative factors are explored in the Nigerian context. On the basis of the above, the paper demonstrates that though a numerical increase of women in leadership/influence may result in the achievement of gender equality in Nigeria, true equality must go beyond numbers if it is to be used as a means for instituting good governance.

Keywords: corruption, gender equality, good governance, Nigeria

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1895 Gender Equality and the Politics of Presence among the Maasai in Kenya

Authors: Shillah Memusi

Abstract:

Underrepresentation of women in governance structures is a global phenomenon, with patriarchal considerations being among the main, if not the top, reason for this in Sub Saharan Africa. This paper demonstrates that gender norms and informal rules have perpetuated a culture of stereotypical gender roles that have limited women’s public participation and leadership in society. To achieve this, the paper explores barriers to women’s political engagement, and how these are navigated in the face of gender equality laws. Situated in Kenya’s Maasai community, the paper investigates the influence of set laws on the increased involvement of women from the patriarchal community in the political economy. It gives special attention to the intersectionality of formal and informal laws and the subsequent interpretation and implementation of gender equality. The paper then concludes by demonstrating the benefits of exploring alternative gender equality pathways, as informed by contextual realities of settings such as patriarchal communities.

Keywords: equality, Kenya, patriarchy, public participation, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1894 Approaches and Implications of Working on Gender Equality under Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Two Corporate Social Responsibilities in India

Authors: Shilpa Vasavada

Abstract:

One of the 17 SustainableDevelopmentGoals focuses on gender equality. The paper is based on the learning derived from working with two Corporate Social Responsibility cases in India: one, CSR of an International Corporate and the other, CSR of a multi state national level corporate -on their efforts to integrate gender perspective in their agriculture and livestock based rural livelihood programs. The author tries to dissect how ‘gender equality’ is seen by these two CSRs, where the goals are different. The implications of a CSR’sunderstandingon ‘gender equality’ as a goal; versus CSR’s understanding of working 'with women for enhancing quantity or quality of production’ gets reflected in their orientation to staff, resource allocation, strategic level and in processes followed at the rural grassroots level. The paper comes up with examples of changes made at programmatic front when CSR understands and works with the focus on gender equality as a goal. On the other hand, the paper also explores the differential, at times, the negative impact on women and the programmes;- when the goals differ. The paper concludes with recommendations for CSRs to take up at their resource allocation and strategic level if gender equality is the goal- which has direct implication at their grassroots programmatic work. The author argues that if gender equality has to be implemented actually in spirit by a CSR, it requires change in mindset and thus an openness to changes in strategies and resource allocation pattern of the CSR and not simply adding on women in the way intervention has been going on.

Keywords: gender equality, approaches, differential impact, resource allocation

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1893 Promoting Gender Equality within Islamic Tradition via Contextualist Approach

Authors: Ali Akbar

Abstract:

The importance of advancing women’s rights is closely intertwined with the development of civil society and the institutionalization of democracy in Middle Eastern countries. There is indeed an intimate relationship between the process of democratization and promoting gender equality, since democracy necessitates equality between men and women. In order to advance the issue of gender equality, what is required is a solid theoretical framework which has its roots in the reexamination of pre-modern interpretation of certain Qurʾānic passages that seem to have given men more rights than it gives women. This paper suggests that those Muslim scholars who adopt a contextualist approach to the Qurʾānic text and its interpretation provide a solid theoretical background for improving women’s rights. Indeed, the aim of the paper is to discuss how the contextualist approach to the Qurʾānic text and its interpretation given by a number of prominent scholars is capable of promoting the issue of gender equality. The paper concludes that since (1) much of the gender inequality found in the primary sources of Islam as well as pre-modern Muslim writings is rooted in the natural cultural norms and standards of early Islamic societies and (2) since the context of today’s world is so different from that of the pre-modern era, the proposed models provide a solid theoretical framework for promoting women’s rights and gender equality.

Keywords: contextualism, gender equality, Islam, the rights of women

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1892 Gender Equality in Brazil: Advances and Retreats in Times of Social Networks

Authors: Lara Góes Da Costa

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the social dimension of the empowerment of women in Brazil, following the principles of human development of the UN WOMEN, in particular the sixth principle, which establishes the promotion of gender equality through social policy initiatives and activism in general aimed at community. In Brazil, women's empowerment has taken social networks through the creation of avatars and pages of dissemination and promotion of gender equality, as well as denunciations and educational posts such as 'Observe Gender', 'Empower Two Women', 'Black Intellectual Women', among others. At the same time, women's social inclusion bills in various sectors are trailing in the legislative apparatus, with little or no relation to the current discussion of gender diversity and intersectionality. In this sense, this article establishes an analytical parallel between the media manifestations of social networks and the social distance of the representatives of the legislative power. This parallelly shows the political failing to meet the social demands of inclusion, as to multiply the creation of laws and the effectiveness of the principle of promoting gender equality.

Keywords: gender, rights, justice, social networks

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1891 Gender Diversity in Early Years Education: An Exploratory Study Applied to Preschool Curriculum System in Romania

Authors: Emilia-Gheorghina Negru

Abstract:

As an EU goal, gender diversity in early year’s education aims and promotes equality of chances and respect for gender peculiarities of the pupils which are involved in formal educational activities. Early year’s education, as the first step to the Curriculum, prints to teachers the need to identify the role of the gender dimension on this stage, depending on the age level of preschool children through effective, complex, innovative and analytical awareness of gender diversity teaching and management strategies. Through gender educational work we, as teachers, will examine the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the gender development of school-aged children. PATHS and a school-based preventive intervention model are necessary to be designed to improve children's ability to discuss and understand equality and gender concepts. Our teachers must create an intervention model and provide PATHS lessons during the school year. Results of the intervention will be effective for both low- and high-risk children in improving their range of math’s skills for girls and vocabulary, fluency and emotional part for boys in discussing gender experiences, their efficacy beliefs regarding the management of equality in gender area, and their developmental understanding of some aspects of gender.

Keywords: gender, gender differences, gender equality, gender role, gender stereotypes

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1890 Gender Equality and Career Opportunities among Female Civil Servants for Better Public Services in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Nefi Aris Ambar Asmara

Abstract:

This paper discusses gender equality and career opportunities among female civil servants for better public services in a regency in West Java, Indonesia. Those two areas have not been considered comprehensively in terms of the goals of gender equality and career opportunities. The purposes of this paper are to describe (1) the number of available positions in relation to the number of female civil servants, (2) the socio-cultural outlook on female civil servants in relation to gender equality and career opportunities, and (3) socio-cultural views on gender equality and a career in politics. To achieve these three objectives, this paper used a qualitative approach with survey and interview techniques. The results showed that (1) only 37% of the official positions were presided by female civil servants. In contrast, male civil servants occupy 63% of the available positions, (2) the sociocultural view of female civil servants affirms that they are still regarded as male companions; (3) in addition, female civil servants do not need to compete with gender opponents, including the fact that women enter politics because the political world is considered dirty for women.

Keywords: gender equality, career opportunities, female civil servants, Indonesia

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1889 Gender Equality for the Environment: Positioning India

Authors: Nivedita Roy, Aparajita Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Gender discrimination is already one of the major factors why India is still in the list of the 3rd World Countries, but, when it comes to gender inclusion in the environmental arena, this umbrella concept is quite unheard of by our countrymen. The main objective was to assess gender equality for the environment through calculating Environment and Gender Index on a country level, India, in this case. 22 states out of 29 were considered for calculation. Also, out of the 72 countries chosen by IUCN to calculate EGI, the lower middle income group of countries was chosen to assess the position of India, also a lower middle income group country, among them. Linear Regression is executed through SPSS and simple graphs and tables are prepared through MS-EXCEL for analysis. India portrays good governance, reporting activities well to the UN but in terms of basic livelihood and gender equality, the performance is comparatively weak.

Keywords: environment, gender, livelihood, rights, participation, development, conservation

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1888 Equality at Home and Equality at Work: The Effect of European Court of Human Rights Jurisprudence on Turkish Gender Policy

Authors: Olgun Akbulut

Abstract:

Turkey has entered in the European human rights monitoring in the early 1990s. Since then many improvements have been observed in domestic law. However, one area stays the least developed one: gender discrimination. Although the country is proud of the fact that electoral rights for women were recognized in Turkey even before many developed countries in the west, interestingly the first Turkish case where the European Court of Human Rights (ECrtHR) found discrimination concerned gender discrimination. With the proposed paper, the author is willing to determine and analyze the findings of the ECrtHR in cases decided against Turkey concerning gender discrimination, identify whether Turkish public institutions display coordination in engagement or disengagement in implementing the judgments where the ECrtHR found discrimination on the basis of gender and evaluate the effectiveness of the Court's jurisprudence on Turkish gender policy.

Keywords: equality, gender discrimination, human rights, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1887 Bridging the Gap: Gender Equity in Nigerian Science Education

Authors: Onyia Comfort Ngozi, Iketaku Ifeoma Roseline

Abstract:

Inspite of the laudable goals and objectives in education, Nigerian women, still face a lot of challenges that hinder the personal and national development. There are unbalances between males and females at all levels of the science education sector in Nigeria. Educate a woman, and you educate a nation, and if you educate a man, you educate an individual. It is on this note that the paper focuses on bridging the gender gap as it concerns science education in Nigeria. Suggestions were made as measures of bridging the gender gap in Nigerian education sector. The researchers concluded that achieving gender equality will promote greater equality in employment, help postpone early marriages, reduce infant mortality rates and improve health and education for a future generation. Thus, the paper recommended that government should involve women in policy making to take care of any gender issue and bias that may be included either consciously or not, during formulation stage.

Keywords: education, gender, science education, women, equality

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1886 Dance Skirts As Strategy For Gender Equality Work In Swedish Preschools Dance Education

Authors: Martha Pastorek Gripson, Anna Lindqvist

Abstract:

The research project points at, and discusses, strategies, problems and possibilities when preschool teachers describe their work with dance in two Swedish preschools. The use of dance itself is a strategy for a more inclusive preschool practice and the use of so-called “dance skirts” is regarded as central for facilitating both dance qualities and to promote gender equality. The research is carried out in an action research project, involving two preschools with specific focus on gender equality work. The result problematizes the use of so-called “dance skirts”, as those can be both a tool for appreciation of aesthetics associated with femininity but at the same time create dance mainly as ballet related activity.

Keywords: dance, body, education, preschool, gender

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1885 Gender Inequality in the Nigerian Labour Market as a Cause of Unemployment among Female Graduates

Authors: Temitope Faloye

Abstract:

The absence of equity and transparency in Nigeria's economic system has resulted in unemployment. Women’s unemployment rate remains higher because women's range of jobs is often narrower due to discriminatory attitudes of employers and gender segregation in the labor market. Gender inequality is one of the strong factors of unemployment, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where the female gender is marginalized in the labor force market. However, gender equality in terms of labor market access and employment condition has not yet been attained. Feminist theory is considered as an appropriate theory for this study. The study will use a mixed-method design, collecting qualitative and quantitative data to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the present situation of gender inequality in the Nigerian labor market.

Keywords: unemployment, gender inequality, gender equality, labor market, female graduate

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1884 Gender Differences in E-Society: The Case of Slovenia

Authors: Mitja Dečman

Abstract:

The ever-increasing presence and use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences the different social relationships of today's society. Gender differences are especially important from the viewpoint of modern society since ICT can either deepen the existing inequalities or diminish them. In a developed Western world, gender equality has been a well-focused area for decades in many parts of society including education, employment or politics and has led to a decrease in the inequality of women and men in these and other areas. The area of digital equality, or inequality for that matter, is one of the areas where gender differences still exist in many countries of the world. The research presented in this paper focuses on Slovenia, one of the smallest EU member states, being an average achiever in the area of e-society according to the many different European benchmarking indexes. On the other hand, Slovenia is working in an alignment with many European gender equality guidelines and showing good results. The results of our research are based on the analysis of survey data from 2014 to 2017 dealing with Slovenian citizens and their households and the use of ICT. Considering gender issues, the synthesis showed that cultural differences influence some measured ICT indicators but on the other hand the differences are low and only sometimes statistically significant.

Keywords: digital divide, gender inequality, Slovenia, e-society

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1883 Gender Equality: A Constitutional Myth When Featured with Domestic Violence

Authors: Suja S. Nayar, Mayuri Pandya

Abstract:

The foundation of legal system of any nation is its constitution and the strive to achieve equality amongst different classes prevailing in the social system. The most traditional form of inequality that is prevailing in the society is the gender inequality. The existence of inequality on the basis of gender prevails since the ancient era which has with the passing time merely continued and aggravated to a great extent. The founding fathers of our constitution were well aware of the then prevailing situation and being concerned about the future if this inequality continued to prevail, and in such view, the provisions of Article 14, 15, 38 and 44 of our Constitution were enacted with specific intent for the upliftment of women. The strive for equality is the rule of law embodied with the principle of foreseeability which is necessitated in the stability of justice system of any nation, and when it comes to equality, the first form of equality we need to achieve is gender equality. Time and again various initiatives have been announced and attempted to achieve the objective of gender equality, but analysis of the ground reality always have yielded disappointing results. The research that is proposed to be undertaken intends to cover all the above issues concerning the failures ineffective implementation of the gender-specific laws especially the provisions concerning the protection provided under Domestic Violence Act. The researchers will analyze the judgment of last five years' judgments of Supreme Court of India. In Hiral P. Harsora and ors. v Kusum Narottamdas Harsora and Ors. the Hon'ble Supreme Court recently deleting the words 'adult male' from the definition of respondent disclosed it is intent and understanding that domestic violence is being caused by a female on female also and not only restricted to males on females only. The procedure as prescribed under the act for claiming reliefs though is as per the criminal mandate, but the reliefs are of civil nature and so same needs to deal emphatically which now makes it a lengthier process. The pros and cons of such pronouncements are being weighed on the balance of constitution and social equality that is strived by the entire women fraternity.

Keywords: domestic, violence, constitution, gender, equality, women

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1882 Analyzing Culture as an Obstacle to Gender Equality in a Non-Western Context: Key Areas of Conflict between International Women’s Rights and Cultural Rights in South Sudan

Authors: C. Leiber

Abstract:

International human rights treaties ensure basic rights to all people, regardless of nationality. These treaties have developed in a predominantly Western environment, and their implementation into non-western contexts often raises questions of the transfer-ability of value systems and governance structures. International human rights treaties also postulate the right to the full enjoyment and expression of one’s own culture, known as cultural rights. Many cultural practices and traditions in South Sudan serve as an obstacle to the adaptation of human rights and internationally agreed-upon standards, specifically those pertaining to women’s rights and gender equality. This paper analyzes the specific social, political, and economic conflicts between women’s rights and cultural rights within the context of South Sudan’s evolution into a sovereign nation. It comprehensively evaluates the legal status of South Sudanese women and –based on the empirical evidence- assesses gender equality in four key areas: Marriage, Education, Violence against Women, and Inheritance. This work includes an exploration into how South Sudanese culture influences, and indeed is intertwined with, social, political, and economic spheres, and how it limits gender equality and impedes the full implementation of international human rights treaties. Furthermore, any negative effects which systemic gender inequality and cultural practices that are oppressive to women have on South Sudan as a developing nation are explored. Finally, those areas of conflict between South Sudanese cultural rights and international women’s rights are outlined which can be mitigated or resolved in favor of elevating gender equality without imperializing or destroying South Sudanese culture.

Keywords: cultural rights, gender equality, international human rights, South Sudan

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1881 The Gender Equality within the European Union Reconciliation of Work and Family Life Policies: Tackling Gender Inequality or Tackling Unemployment

Authors: Nazli Kazanoglu

Abstract:

Reconciliation of work and family life has been an area of interest within the academic as well as in the political debate for more than three decades. With the dramatic changes in the extent to which women and men contribute to unpaid domestic work and paid employment, the reconciliation of work and family life issues have become more prominent than ever before. And they have begun to enjoy an increased attention of policy makers both at the EU and national levels. Over the last three decades the EU has initiated numerous equality programs and strategies and roadmaps regarding reconciliation of work and family life, though particularly because of the crisis and increasing willingness of achieving the EUs target of seventy five per cent of men and women in employment by 2020, those programs, strategies and roadmaps emphasized on eradicating womens familial burdens while entering labor market and providing them as equal opportunities as their male counterparts have. Reconciliation of work and family life policies thus bit by bit moved away from the objectives with a strong commitment to ensuring gender equality towards employment objectives. This paper is thus an endeavor to look at the nature of EU reconciliation of work and family life policies from the angle of gender equality. More precisely relying on the feminist literature, this paper rests on the assumption that reconciliation of work and family policies should provide the sufficient measures indeed with a more emphasis on endorsing gender equality rather than economic concerns and prioritizes two inter-related aspects while evaluating the gender equality of reconciliation of work and family life policies. First providing free choice to women in terms of their family and work lives and second challenge the unequal division of labor at home. In that sense, it investigates the nature of the changing uses and meanings of gender equality in reconciliation of work and family life policies in different stages of the EU social policy development particularly after the introduction of European Employment Strategy which gave a tremendous importance to reconciliation of work and family life during their collaborations with other issues on the EU agenda as well as the major rationale behind their development and implementation and locates them in terms of two inter-related parameters mentioned above.

Keywords: European Union, division of unpaid work, gender equality, rhetoric of free choice

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1880 The Legal Implications of Gender Quota for Public Companies

Authors: Murat Can Pehlivanoglu

Abstract:

Historically, gender equality has been mainly defended in the legal arenas of constitutional law and employment law. However, social and economic progress has required corporate law to provide gender equality on corporate boards. Recently, following the trend in Europe, the State of California (United States) enacted a law requiring that every publicly traded corporation based in California should have women on its board of directors. Still, the legal, social and economic implications of this law are yet to be discovered. The contractarian view of corporate law is predominant in the U.S. jurisprudence. However, gender quota law may not be justified through contractarian theory grounds. Therefore, the conformity of gender quota law with the general principles of U.S. corporate law remains questionable, and the immunity of close corporations from the scope of gender quota legislation provides support for the discrepancy. The methodology employed in this paper in the discussion of the rule’s conformity with corporate law is doctrinal, and American case law and legal scholarship are the basis for this discussion. This paper uses the aforementioned California law as sample legislation to evaluate the gender quota laws’ conformity with the contractarian theory of corporate law. It chooses California law as the sample due to its newness and the presence of pending shareholder lawsuits against it. Also, since California is home to global companies, the effect of such law is expected to be wider. As alternative theories laid down by corporate law may already be activated to provide gender equality on boards of publicly traded corporations, enacting a specific gender quota law would not be justified by an allegedly present statutory deficiency based on contractarian theory. However, this theoretical reality would not enable shareholders to succeed in their lawsuits against such law on corporate law grounds, and investors will have limited options against its results. This will eventually harm the integrity of the marketplace. Through the analysis of the contractarian theory of corporate law and California gender quota law, the major finding of this paper is that the contractarian theory of corporate law does not permit mandating board room equality through corporate law. In conclusion, it expresses that the issue should be dealt with through separate legislation with a different remedial structure, to preserve the traditional rationale of corporate law in U.S. law.

Keywords: board of directors, gender equality, gender quota, publicly traded corporations

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1879 Socio-Cultural and Religious Contributions to Gender Wage Gap: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: R. Alothaim, T. Mishra

Abstract:

Different researchers have reviewed the gender wage gap since early days between women and men to point out their difference to help bring about equality in production among them. Many fingers have been pointed out towards culture and religion as one of the major factors contributing to the gender wage gap throughout the years passed. Recent research has been done to give out equalization to this gap between men and women. The gender wage gap has raised serious concerns among nations and societies. Additionally, data, methodology and time periods have been affected by the gender wage gap, thus needing special decision making to help in the meta-study in the provision of quantitative review. Quality indicators have played a crucial role towards the education through stressing on enough consideration to help give a solution of equality and worth in the research study. The different research reviewed have given enough evidence and impact to point out that the major causes of this gender wage gap has resulted due to culture. On the other pedestal, religion may play a role to the issues of gender wage gap but with more emphasis on culture playing the bigger part. Furthermore, social status of individual has contributed to the wage gap difference between men and women. Labor market has played a vital role in empowering women, leading to the lower rate of the raw wage difference in the recent years.

Keywords: culture, gender wage gap, social, religion

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1878 The Impact of a Weak Constitutional Review of Executive Actions in Implementing Women Rights in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aysha Alshehri

Abstract:

This paper provides a literature review of the sources of women’s rights under the Saudi legal framework, taking account of the constitutional primacy of Sharia under the Saudi legal system as well as the state’s obligations under international law. Building on one of the central aims of the paper, it conducts an exploration of how Saudi Arabia already has or might be further able to more clearly delineate its position and reservations in the adoptions of international human rights agreements while preserving its core religious beliefs and societal practices in regard to women’s rights at the domestic level. In this regard, the paper will consider the apparent tension between certain jurisprudential and customary aspects on gender equality and contemporary discourses of women’s rights from within and outside the Muslim world. Particular attention will be devoted to the question of the causes behind the lack of direct application of women’s rights mentioned by international reports and any challenges this may bring in the contexts of Saudi Arabia’s evolving gender equality policies.

Keywords: Islamic Constitution, executive actions, gender equality, judicial review

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1877 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

Abstract:

In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

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1876 Gender Policy in Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development in the Fourth Republic

Authors: Adadu Yahaya, Abdullahi Erunke Canice

Abstract:

The study sets out to examine the interface that tends to exist in the relationship between gender policy and Nigeria’s socio-economic development. Despite Nigeria’s ratification of virtually all international instruments on the protection and promotion of gender rights and equality, it appears that the practice is honored in the breach than in observance; hence, these policies have not been adequately domesticated and implemented. The implication of this is that the women folks have generally been isolated from mainstream politics and their political rights and privileges truncated in the scheme of things. The paper observes that gender inequality and marginalization in Nigeria has practically occasioned the unwholesome subjugation of Nigerian women to the background, hence poses more critical questions and challenges to the national question. The consequence of this, to this paper, is that Nigeria’s development process will be adversely affected if this trend is not checked. The paper sums up with appropriate policy options which are believed to have the potentials of giving women the right pride of place in the socio-economic and political dynamics in the 21st century Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: development, equality, gender, policy

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1875 Analysis of Gender Budgeting in Healthcare Sector: A Case of Gujarat State of India

Authors: Juhi Pandya, Elekes Zsuzsanna

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Health is related to every aspect of human being. Even a quintal change leads to ill-health of an individual. Gender plays an eminent role in determining an individual health exposure. Political implications on health have implicit effects on the individual, societal and economical. The inclusion of gender perspective into policies have plunged enormous attention globally, nationally and locally to detract inequalities and achieve economic growth. Simultaneously, there is an initiation of policies with gender perspective which are named differently but hold similar meaning or objective. They are named gender mainstreaming policies or gender sensitization policies. Gender budgeting acts as a tool for the application of gender mainstreaming policies. It incorporates gender perspective into the budgetary process by restricting the revenues and expenditures at all level of the budget. The current study takes into account the analysis of Gender Budgeting reports in terms of healthcare from the 2014-16 year of Gujarat State, India. The expenditures and literature under the heading of gender budgeting reports named “Health and Family Welfare Department” are discussed in the paper. The data analytics is done with the help of reports published by the Gujarat government on Gender Budgeting. The results discuss upon the expenditure and initiation of new policies as a roadmap for the promotion of gender equality from the path of gender budgeting. It states with the escalation of the budgetary numbers for the health expenditure. Additionally, the paper raises the questions on the hypothetical loopholes pertaining to the gender budgeting in Gujarat. The budget reports do not show a specify explanation to the expenditure use of budget for the schemes mentioned in healthcare. It also does not clarify that how many beneficiaries are benefited through gender budget. The explanation just provides an overlook of theory for healthcare Schemes/Yojana or Abhiyan.

Keywords: gender, gender budgeting, gender equality, healthcare

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1874 Girl Child Education: A Veritable Tool to Gender Equality and Empowerment

Authors: Egena Obaje Innocent

Abstract:

In Africa generally and Nigeria in particular one the major setbacks for the girl-child is her deprivation or denial if you like to equal opportunity to education. In most Nigerian communities which are male dominated parents make no pretense of their preference of the male children when it come to the choice of who to send to school between the male and female child. Indeed, certain inhibiting cultural and religious practices are the root cause of this annually. It is against this background that this paper looked at the phenomenon the girl-child education, causes of the negligent its effects on the girl child and nation remedies and conclusion.

Keywords: education, empowerment, girl child, gender equality

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1873 Implementation of Gender Policy in the Georgian National Defence: Key Issues and Challenges

Authors: Vephkhvia Grigalashvili

Abstract:

The defense of Georgia is every citizen’s duty. The present article reviews the principles and standards of gender policy in the Georgian national defense sector. In addition, it looks at mechanisms for ensuring gender equality, going through the relevant Georgian legislation. Furthermore, this work aims to conduct a comparative analysis of defense models of Georgia, Finland, and the Baltic States in order to identify core institutional challenges. The study produced the following findings:(a) The national defense planning is based on the Total Defense approach, which implies a wide involvement of the country`s population in state defense. (b) This political act does not specify gender equality aspects of the Total Defense strategy; (c) According to the Constitution of Georgia, irrespective of gender factors, every citizen of Georgia is legally obliged to participate in state security activities. However, the state has an authority (power of choice) to decide which gender group (male or/and female citizen) must fulfill above mentioned their constitutional commitment. For instance, completion of compulsory military and reserve military services is a male citizen’s duty, whereas professional military service is equally accessible to both genders. The study concludes that effective implementation of the Total Defense concept largely depends on how Georgia uses its capabilities and human resources. Based on the statistical fact that more than 50% of the country’s population are women, Georgia has to elaborate on relevant institutional mechanisms for implementation of gender equality in the national defense organization. In this regard, it would be advisable: (i) to give the legal opportunity to women to serve in compulsory military service, and (ii) to develop labor reserve service as a part of the anti-crisis management system of Georgia.

Keywords: gender in defense organisation, gender mechanisms, gender in defense policy, gender policy

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1872 Cross-Sectional Analysis of Sustainability Activities in the Pharmaceutical Companies

Authors: Kanika Saxena, Sunita Balani

Abstract:

Purpose - The aim of the study is to compare the reported sustainability activities in areas of emission, water management and gender equality, currently undertaken by the seven major pharmaceutical companies. Methodology: The published corporate sustainability activity reports for the year 2017 for seven pharmaceutical companies have been studied. The two main criteria for the inclusion of pharmaceutical companies in this study are that they are globally recognized and active in the field of sustainability reporting. Company’s actions and initiatives have been grouped under three categories: (i) Emissions (ii) Water management (iii) Gender Equality in terms of employee workforce. Findings: Based on the sustainability reports, quantification and grading of the companies showed interesting results. Johnson & Johnson and Bayer are leading their activities under emissions and water management categories. The number of activities under emission and water management in case of Eli Lily, Roche, Sanofi, Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline were 19, 16, 16, 11 and 6 respectively. Johnson & Johnson and Eli Lily are leading in taking the initiatives to curb the problem of emissions as compared with other 5 companies. Under the category of gender equality in terms of employee workforce, Eli Lily is leading the group of sampled companies with 47% of women employee workforce globally followed by Sanofi with 46.2% (42.2% of managers) female employees. It has also been observed that in some of the reports, gender diversification in the workforce has not been mentioned though the total number of employees were mentioned. Conclusion: This study could serve as the informative material for future in-depth industry-specific studies in order to find out the participation of the pharmaceutical companies in the reporting of the sustainability activities especially in reference to emission, water management and gender equality in the workforce. In addition to it, this can be helpful as a reference point for other companies in the pharmaceutical sector who are yet to explore the field of sustainability initiatives and reporting. Due to the limited scope of this study, only seven major players of the pharmaceutical sector who are active in the field of sustainability have been considered.

Keywords: emission, gender equality workforce, pharmaceutical, sustainability, water management

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1871 The New Family Law in Kuwait: A Step Towards International Standards

Authors: Dina Hadad

Abstract:

Women empowerment in the Arab world remains a central issue in the context of development and human rights. Akin to many societies around the globe, gender equality is yet to be achieved. This research will provide an introduction into the current legal stand of some Arab countries in terms of gender equality and women rights in the context of family law. It will look specifically into the recent family law in Kuwait and why many women consider it a positive step towards affirming their rights and their needs. Depending on comparative material from the area, the research argues that whilst some countries made efforts to promote women’s empowerment as a concept and practice throughout its policies, others have indeed some unique journeys that reflect organic and from within evolutions. Nonetheless, these efforts are yet to reflect a comprehensive structure that addresses women legal and political empowerment let alone social status. A contradiction in the realities of different Arab states is nothing new since the lack of comprehensive rights-based policy making in Arab countries has contributed to the disconnect between economic growth and development challenges.

Keywords: women empowerment, cultural challenges, gender equality, Islamic law, international standards, family law

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1870 Study on Gender Mainstreaming: The Case Study of a Rural University in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Tsoaledi D. Thobejane, Barnabas C. Okere

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Gender mainstreaming has been adopted as a strategy for promoting gender equality in institutions of higher learning Worldwide, not least in Africa. This study investigated Gender Mainstreaming at the University of Venda, in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was based on the Feminist Theoretical Framework. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A case study research design was adopted. The study involved a population of 60 participants and a sample of 25 male and female workers selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data were presented in pie charts, tables, themes and in textual forms. Data were analysed through descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The major findings and conclusions of the study were that the University of Venda faces enormous challenges in mainstreaming gender in the university functions. There are perceptions that most strategic higher positions in the institution are dominated by men while women are marginalized. Although the University has policies on gender, staff members do not know about them while management does not implement its policies. University of Venda makes use of the Employment Equity Act of 1998, but it is not clear whether line managers are aware of its implementation and how. In addition, favouritism, nepotism, patronage, and patriarchy played a role in gender mainstreaming. The study recommended that there should be more gender awareness activities, such as workshops, conferences, and symposia for workers and staff members in order to sensitize them about gender towards understanding. The study also recommended that deserving female staff members should be promoted, and all employees should be encouraged to read and understand gender policies. In addition, management should implement the institutions and national gender policies without fear or favour.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, gender equality, institutions, representation

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1869 Polish Catholic Discourse on Gender Equality in the Face of Social and Cultural Changes in Poland

Authors: Anna Jagielska

Abstract:

Five years ago, the word ‘gender’ was discussed in Poland exclusively in academic contexts. One year later, it was chosen as the word of the year and omnipresent in the Polish media. The rapid career of this word is due to the involvement of the Polish church hierarchy who strategically brought this term into relation with abortion, pornography and paedophilia. ‘Gender’ is more than a political slogan. It is a symbol of social anxiety and moral panic in Poland which need to be historically considered. The aim of this paper is to present selected rhetorical strategies used by the Polish Catholic clergy who strive to have an impact on the current gender discourse in Poland. In particular, the gender debate, culminated in the pastoral letter of the Bishops' Conference of Poland, will be discussed. The church’s protest against the Council of Europe’s Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence will be analyzed and the recent heated debates in Poland on contraception, abortion, in vitro fertilization, and sex education will be mentioned. To provide explanations on the specificity of Polish gender debates the role of the Catholic Church in the fall of communism in Poland as well as the charismatisation of Polish society by Pope John Paul II will be explained. The social constructions of communism and feminism which are manifested in both written and symbolic contracts on gender equality between the Church and the State will be demonstrated. At the end of the paper, theories about the changing role of religion in society will be applied.

Keywords: gender, Poland, religion, catholicism, feminism

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1868 Educational Impact of Participatory Theatre Based Intervention on Gender Equality Attitudes, Youth in Serbia

Authors: Jasna Milošević Đorđević, Jelisaveta Blagojević, Jovana Timotijević, Alison Mckinley

Abstract:

Young people in Serbia, have grown up in turbulent times during the Balkan wars, in a cultural and economic isolation without adequate education on (ethnic, gender, social,..) equality. They often have very strong patriarchal gender stereotypes. The perception of gender in Serbia is still heavily influenced by traditional worldview and young people have little opportunity in traditional educational system to challenge it, receiving no formal sex education. Educational policies have addressed achieving gender equality as one of the goals, supporting all young people to gain better educational opportunities, but there are obvious shortcomings of the official education system in implementation of those goals. Therefore new approaches should be implemented. We evaluate the impact of non traditional approach, such as participatory theatre performance with strong transformative potential, especially in relation to gender issues. Theatre based intervention (TBI) was created to provoke the young people to become aware of their gender constructs. Engaging young people in modern form of education such as transformative gender intervention through participatory theatre could have positive impact on their sex knowledge and understanding gender roles. The transformative process in TBI happens on two levels – the affective and the cognitive. The founding agency of the project and evaluation is IPPF. The most important aim of this survey is evaluation of the transformative TBI, as a new educational approach related to better understanding gender as social construct. To reach this goal, we have measured attitude change in three indicators: a) gender identity/ perception of feminine identity, perception of masculine identity, importance of gender for personal identity, b) gender roles on the labor market, c) Gender equality in partnership & sexual behavior. Our main hypothesis is that participatory theatre-based intervention can have a transformational potential in challenging traditional gender knowledge and attitudes among youth in Serbia. To evaluate the impact of TB intervention, we implement: online baseline and end-line survey with nonparticipants of the TBI on the representative sample in targeted towns (control group). Additionally we conducted testing the experimental group twice: pretest at the beginning of each TBI and post testing of participants after the play. A sample of 500 respondents aged 18-30 years, from 9 towns in Serbia responded to online questionnaire in September 2017, in a baseline research. Pre and post measurement of all tested variables among participants in nine towns would be performed. End-line survey with 500 respondents would be conducted at the end of the project (early year 2018). After the first TBI (60 participants) no impact was detected on measured indicators: perception of desirable characteristics of man F(1,59)= 1.291, p=.260; perception of desirable characteristics of women F(1,55)=1.386, p= .244; gender identity importance F(1,63)= .050, p=.824; sex related behavior F(1,61)=1,145, p=.289; gender equality on labor market F(1,63)=.076, p=.783; gender equality in partnership F(1,61)=.201, p=.656; However, we hope that following intervention would bring more data showing that participatory theatre intervention explaining gender as a social construct could have additional positive impact in traditional educational system.

Keywords: educational impact, gender identity, gender role, participatory theatre based intervention

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