Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: loneliness

57 Loneliness and Depression in Relation to Latchkey Situation

Authors: Samaneh Sadat Fattahi Massoom, Hossein Salimi Bajestani

Abstract:

The study examines loneliness and depression in students who regularly care for themselves after school (latchkey students) in Mashhad and compares them with parent supervised students using a causal-comparative research method. The 270 participants, aged 7 -13, were selected using convenience and cluster random-assignment sampling. Independent t-test results showed significant differences between loneliness (-4.32, p ≤ 0.05) and depression (-3.02, p ≤0.05) among latchkey and non-latchkey students. Using the Pearson correlation test, significant correlation between depression and loneliness among latchkey students was also discovered (r=0.59, p ≤ 0.05). However, regarding non latchkey students, no significant difference between loneliness and depression was observed (r= 0.02. p ≥ 0.05). Multiple regression results also showed that depression variance can be determined by gender (22%) and loneliness (34%). The findings of this study, specifically the significant difference between latchkey and non-latchkey children regarding feelings of loneliness and depression, carries clear implications for parents. It can be concluded that mothers who spend most of their time working out of the house and devoid their children of their presence in the home may cause some form of mental distress like loneliness and depression. Moreover, gender differences affect the degree of these psychological disorders.

Keywords: loneliness, depression, self-care students, latchkey and non-latchkey students, gender

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56 Relationship among Mild Cognitive Impairment, Loneliness and Depression among Old People Living in Old Age Home and Family Home Residence

Authors: Jawaria Zafaror, Najma Iqbal Malik

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The present study has been undertaken to explore the relationship among mild cognitive impairment, loneliness and depression among a convenient sample of old people (N = 100) living in old age homes (n = 50) and family home residence (n = 50). Mild Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire, Depression Subscale of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scales were used. Results revealed that Mild cognitive impairment had a significant positive relationship with depression and loneliness among old people both living in old age homes and family home residences. Results also showed that loneliness was the significant positive predictor of depression. However, t-test analysis revealed that old females had higher depression as compared to old males, but old males suffered a significantly high level of cognitive distortions and loneliness as compared to old females. Mediation analysis suggests that loneliness was the partial mediator between mild cognitive impairment and loneliness among old people. Limitations, suggestions and implications were also discussed.

Keywords: loneliness, mild cognitive impairment, depression, old age

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
55 Technological Loneliness; The Effect on Loneliness of Internet Addiction of University Students; The Case of Turkey

Authors: Adem Pala, Mustafa Biner

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Nowadays, despite the fact that technology and internet shorten the virtual distance, too much use and misuse of internet create distance among people. There is a considerable number of people living in the same house even sitting at the same table but busy themselves with mobiles and computers for long hours without talking to each other. Internet usage is very common among young people especially university students. Evolving out of this problem, internet addiction of university students and effect on their loneliness, and relationship between them consist of the purpose of this study. The study is important because it discusses what can be done in order to make the young people more social via determining the university students’ loneliness and their internet addiction. The study was carried out with 440 university students studying at different universities and departments. The group consists of 200 female and 240 male students with average of age 20,9. In the study, 19 questions, “internet addiction scale” consisting of 3 subscales, and UCLA loneliness scale were used as data collection tools. As a result, it is found out that the loneliness of individuals with internet addiction is higher than the other individuals. The males’ loneliness related to internet addiction is higher than the females; on the other hand, it is determined females feel more lonesome in general loneliness. It is thought that the findings of the study will determine the individuals under risk, prevent them, help researchers and people doing clinical studies during rehabilitation progress.

Keywords: internet addiction, loneliness, Turkey, university students

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54 Circumstantial Loneliness and Existential Isolation in the Works of Flutura Açka

Authors: Elvira Lumi & Hans Jazxhi

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In the works of the writer Flutura Açka, the play with these questions is acute, and in almost each of them, the act of loneliness and isolation builds in a completely involuntary way unique and frequent conceptual spaces. Because the object of study is too broad to grasp all the works, this study lays out a rapid paradox of our access to three of the novels in the line of numerous authorial works. The novel "Woman Loneliness" (2001), also marked as the first work in prose by the author, declares in the title the paradigm of what she has decided to confess. The gender segregation proclaimed in the title will be revealed step by step in the work as conventional human segregation without gender. In this novel, the analysis of the state of "loneliness" will require a contemplation beyond man, when the role of the environment and the distance from the center of the narrative base will be extremely visible in the work. The novel "Cross of Oblivion" (2004) has another form of perception of loneliness, which, unlike the one built by the characters themselves in the novel "Woman Loneliness," is imposed and obligatory to live by the circumstances. Its characters are trapped in loneliness, as loneliness that comes from impossibility, from the past, from dependence on fate, from fear of change, and from the obligation to accept it. At the heart of the novel, the plot of the novel game is dictated by the Kanun and its rules and the loneliness of the basis of life in unbroken waves towards the periphery of the event, a periphery that has very large geography and is played in today's Europe. The novel "Where are you?" (2009) has a completely different form of constructing the concept of loneliness and isolation that comes under conditions of repression and political pressure. The loneliness in this novel takes the form of the protective element from the circumstances that actually require a social inclusion; it is personal loneliness that ensures relative mental health of the characters, up to a new trap created by the circumstances, thus building life fragmentary “healthy” in the order of a mentally ill and socially ill society.

Keywords: loneliness, existential, isolation, woman, prose

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
53 The Intervention Effect of Gratitude Skills Training on the Reduction of Loneliness

Authors: T. Sakai, A. Aikawa

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This study defined 'gratitude skills training' as a social skills training which would become a new intervention method about gratitude intervention. The purpose of this study was to confirm the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness. The participants in this study were university students (n = 36). A waiting list control design was used, in which the participants were assigned either to a training group (n = 18) or a waiting list control group (n = 18); the latter group took the same training after the first group had been trained. The two-week gratitude skills training comprised of three sessions (50 minutes per each of sessions). In the three sessions, the guidebook and the homework developed in this study were used. Results showed that gratitude skills training improved the participants’ gratitude skills. The results also indicated the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness during the follow-up after three weeks. This study suggests that gratitude skills training can reduce loneliness. The gratitude skills training has a possibility of becoming a new treatment to reduce loneliness.

Keywords: gratitude skills, loneliness, social skills training, well-being

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52 Dispositional Loneliness and Mental Health of the Elderly in Cross River State, Nigeria

Authors: Peter Unoh Bassey

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The study is predicated on the current trend of the rate of dispositional loneliness experienced by the elderly in society today as a result of the breakdown in the family attachment patterns, loss of close associates, and interpersonal conflicts. The research adopted the ex-post facto research design through a survey data collected from a total of 500 elderly comprising of both retirees and community-based elders. Both the stratified and simple sampling techniques were used to select the sample. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the elderly should be trained in acquiring specific attachment styles as well as be trained in developing appropriate social skills to counter loneliness.

Keywords: dispositional loneliness, mental health, elderly, cross river state

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
51 Internet Use, Social Networks, Loneliness and Quality of Life among Adults Aged 50 and Older: Mediating and Moderating Effects

Authors: Rabia Khaliala, Adi Vitman-Schorr

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Background: The increase in longevity of people on one hand, and on the other hand the fact that the social networks in later life become increasingly narrower, highlight the importance of Internet use to enhance quality of life (QoL). However, whether Internet use increases or decreases social networks, loneliness and quality of life is not clear-cut. Purposes: To explore the direct and/or indirect effects of Internet use on QoL, and to examine whether ethnicity and time the elderly spent with family moderate the mediation effect of Internet use on quality of life throughout loneliness. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was carried out in 2016 by structured interviews with a convenience sample of 502 respondents aged 50 and older, living in northern Israel. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing mediation a model. Results: Use of the Internet was found to be positively associated with QoL. However, this relationship was mediated by loneliness, and moderated by the time the elderly spent with family members. In addition, respondents' ethnicity significantly moderated the mediation effect between Internet use and loneliness. Conclusions: Internet use can enhance QoL of older adults directly or indirectly by reducing loneliness. However, these effects are conditional on other variables. The indirect effect moderated by ethnicity, and the direct effect moderated by the time the elderly spend with their families. Researchers and practitioners should be aware of these interactions which can impact loneliness and quality of life of older persons differently.

Keywords: internet use, loneliness, quality of life, social contacts

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50 Factor Structure of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale: Gender, Age, and Marital Status Differences

Authors: Hamzeh Dodeen

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This study aims at examining the effects of item wording effects on the factor structure of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale: gender, age, and marital status differences. A total of 2374 persons from the UAE participated, representing six different populations (teenagers/elderly, males/females, and married/unmarried). The results of the exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring with (oblique) rotation revealed that two factors were extracted from the 20 items of the scale. The nine positively worded items were highly loaded on the first factor, while 10 out of the 11 negatively worded items were highly loaded on the second factor. The two-factor solution was confirmed on the six different populations based on age, gender, and marital status. It has been concluded that the rating of the UCLA scale is affected by a response style related to the item wording.

Keywords: UCLA Loneliness Scale, loneliness, positively worded items, factor structure, negatively worded items

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49 Health Promotion Programs for Fifteen Years Decreased Loneliness and Increased Happiness for Elementary School Children in Yuzawa Town, Japan

Authors: Takeo Shibata, Arihito Endo, Chika Hiraga, Akemi Kunimatsu, Yoko Shimizu

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Introduction: A health promotion program, Yuzawa family health plan, was initiated in 2002. It has been held for fifteen years. Yuzawa Town is famous with hot springs and ski resorts. We evaluated the changes in mental status in elementary school children. Methods: questionnaires survey had been held every five years. 196 questionnaires were corrected (94 boys and 102 girls). Changes for their anxieties, loneliness, confiding, problem-solving, risk breaching, communications, happiness, and life satisfaction were evaluated by chi-square test. Results: The rate of loneliness and life dissatisfactions decreased. The rates of happiness, confiding in grandparents, and risk breaching, increased. Especially, happiness rates increased for boys, loneliness rate decreased for girls, confiding in grandparents and risk breaching rate increased for girls. Conclusion: Our health promotion programs could increase mental health status in elementary school children.

Keywords: health promotion, mental status, elementary school, loneliness, happiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
48 New to Vancouver: The Effects of Residential Relocation on Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Authors: Rachel Karasenty Saltoun, Charlotte Roddick, Chelsea D. Christie, Frances Chen

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Moving has become an integral part of many people’s lives. This research explores whether relocating to a new city is associated with an increase in loneliness and cardiovascular disease risk and if this increased risk diminishes with continued residency. To test this, various psychosocial variables and three cardiovascular disease risk markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, blood pressure) were assessed on two groups of individuals: those who have moved to Vancouver, Canada in the previous 6 weeks (‘Movers’) and those who have lived in Vancouver for at least five years (‘Non-Movers’). It was hypothesized that individuals who had recently relocated would have heightened levels of loneliness, blood pressure (BP), albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) compared to those who had not recently relocated. Length of residency was hypothesized to moderate these effects, such that after a few months, loneliness levels and cardiovascular disease risk would decrease among those who had recently relocated. Correlational analysis indicated a trend between the change in CRP and albumin levels and loneliness overtime on an individual level. However, these results must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. As Vancouver’s immigration rates continue to grow, this study has important implications regarding the social support resources offered to new immigrants, as well as bringing awareness at the healthcare level of the potential increase in cardiovascular disease risk among those who have recently relocated.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease risk, loneliness, moving, residential mobility

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47 The Lonely Entrepreneur: Antecedents and Effects of Social Isolation on Entrepreneurial Intention and Output

Authors: Susie Pryor, Palak Sadhwani

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The purpose of this research is to provide the foundations for a broad research agenda examining the role loneliness plays in entrepreneurship. While qualitative research in entrepreneurship incidentally captures the existence of loneliness as a part of the lived reality of entrepreneurs, to the authors’ knowledge, no academic work has to date explored this construct in this context. Moreover, many individuals reporting high levels of loneliness (women, ethnic minorities, immigrants, low income, low education) reflect those who are currently driving small business growth in the United States. Loneliness is a persistent state of emotional distress which results from feelings of estrangement and rejection or develops in the absence of social relationships and interactions. Empirical work finds links between loneliness and depression, suicide and suicide ideation, anxiety, hostility and passiveness, lack of communication and adaptability, shyness, poor social skills and unrealistic social perceptions, self-doubts, fear of rejection, and negative self-evaluation. Lonely individuals have been found to exhibit lower levels of self-esteem, higher levels of introversion, lower affiliative tendencies, less assertiveness, higher sensitivity to rejection, a heightened external locus of control, intensified feelings of regret and guilt over past events and rigid and overly idealistic goals concerning the future. These characteristics are likely to impact entrepreneurs and their work. Research identifies some key dangers of loneliness. Loneliness damages human love and intimacy, can disturb and distract individuals from channeling creative and effective energies in a meaningful way, may result in the formation of premature, poorly thought out and at times even irresponsible decisions, and produce hard and desensitized individuals, with compromised health and quality of life concerns. The current study utilizes meta-analysis and text analytics to distinguish loneliness from other related constructs (e.g., social isolation) and categorize antecedents and effects of loneliness across subpopulations. This work has the potential to materially contribute to the field of entrepreneurship by cleanly defining constructs and providing foundational background for future research. It offers a richer understanding of the evolution of loneliness and related constructs over the life cycle of entrepreneurial start-up and development. Further, it suggests preliminary avenues for exploration and methods of discovery that will result in knowledge useful to the field of entrepreneurship. It is useful to both entrepreneurs and those work with them as well as academics interested in the topics of loneliness and entrepreneurship. It adopts a grounded theory approach.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, grounded theory, loneliness, meta-analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
46 Reducing Later Life Loneliness: A Systematic Literature Review of Loneliness Interventions

Authors: Dhruv Sharma, Lynne Blair, Stephen Clune

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Later life loneliness is a social issue that is increasing alongside an upward global population trend. As a society, one way that we have responded to this social challenge is through developing non-pharmacological interventions such as befriending services, activity clubs, meet-ups, etc. Through a systematic literature review, this paper suggests that currently there is an underrepresentation of radical innovation, and underutilization of digital technologies in developing loneliness interventions for older adults. This paper examines intervention studies that were published in English language, within peer reviewed journals between January 2005 and December 2014 across 4 electronic databases. In addition to academic databases, interventions found in grey literature in the form of websites, blogs, and Twitter were also included in the overall review. This approach yielded 129 interventions that were included in the study. A systematic approach allowed the minimization of any bias dictating the selection of interventions to study. A coding strategy based on a pattern analysis approach was devised to be able to compare and contrast the loneliness interventions. Firstly, interventions were categorized on the basis of their objective to identify whether they were preventative, supportive, or remedial in nature. Secondly, depending on their scope, they were categorized as one-to-one, community-based, or group based. It was also ascertained whether interventions represented an improvement, an incremental innovation, a major advance or a radical departure, in comparison to the most basic form of a loneliness intervention. Finally, interventions were also assessed on the basis of the extent to which they utilized digital technologies. Individual visualizations representing the four levels of coding were created for each intervention, followed by an aggregated visual to facilitate analysis. To keep the inquiry within scope and to present a coherent view of the findings, the analysis was primarily concerned the level of innovation, and the use of digital technologies. This analysis highlights a weak but positive correlation between the level of innovation and the use of digital technologies in designing and deploying loneliness interventions, and also emphasizes how certain existing interventions could be tweaked to enable their migration from representing incremental innovation to radical innovation for example. This analysis also points out the value of including grey literature, especially from Twitter, in systematic literature reviews to get a contemporary view of latest work in the area under investigation.

Keywords: ageing, loneliness, innovation, digital

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
45 Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction

Authors: Eui Jun Jeong, Hye Rim Lee, Ji Hye Yoo

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Recent studies have verified the significant relationship of user personality with Internet use. However, in game studies, little research has emphasized on the effects of personality traits on game addiction. This study examined whether big five personality traits affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789 game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism conscientiousness, agreeableness, & openness) with the degree of game addiction. Results showed that neuroticism increase game addiction with no effect of extraversion on the addiction. General self-efficacy negatively affected game addiction, whereas game self-efficacy increased the degree of game addiction. Loneliness enhanced game addiction while depression showed a negative effect on the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

Keywords: game addiction, big five personality, social activities, self-efficacy, loneliness, depression

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44 The Protective Effect of Stress Mindset for Loneliness and Depression During the COVID-19 Pandemic among Japanese University Students: Results of a Nationwide Survey

Authors: Yanyan Liu, Masumi Sugawara, Naomi Yoshitake, Satoko Matsumoto, Aya Saito

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The impact of COVID-19 on people's lives and health is drastic. The effects on mental health are even more far-reaching. University students in Japan have also been forced to live a restricted life due to COVID-19. With the government's declaration of a state of emergency, many universities are rapidly pushing for online classes. There are concerns that this will make it difficult for university students to communicate with faculty and friends and will lead to isolation and loneliness. In addition, changes in lifestyle, such as a decrease in part-time jobs and extracurricular activities and long-term exposure to coronavirus fatigue and fear of being infected, threaten the mental health of university students. For university students facing the unprecedented challenges, can resilience protect them from loneliness and worse mental health? This study aims to examine the protective effects of stress mindset on loneliness and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic among university students in Japan. An online survey was conducted in November 2021 via a research company to university students across Japan. 4120 university students (2,387 females, Mage = 20.66 years, SD = 1.63) from 47 prefectures completed the questionnaire. The following variables were examined: age, gender, major, infection rate of residence, coronavirus fatigue, coronavirus fear, stress mindset, frequency of part-time jobs and extracurricular activities, vaccination status, loneliness, and depression. Firstly, the factor structure of the Stress Mindset Measure in Japanese was clarified because of discrepancies in previous studies. The results showed that the two-factor structure was appropriate: stress-is-enhancing mindset and stress-is-debilitating mindset. Then, to confirm the main effects of stress mindset on loneliness and depression, two path analysis were conducted. Even after controlling for the effects of demographic variables (age, gender, major), infection rates by prefecture, coronavirus fatigue and coronavirus fear, negative paths from stress-is-enhancing mindset to depression and loneliness, and positive paths from stress-is-debilitating mindset to depression and loneliness were significant. The results suggest a protective effect of stress mindset on mental health. Furthermore, we tested a mediation model that included behavioral variables such as frequency of part-time jobs and extracurricular activities, as well as vaccination status, and the fit was good (χ²(14) = 96.60, p = .00, GFI = .996, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .04; χ²(17) = 142.28, p = .00, GFI = .99, CFI = .89, RMSEA = .04). The stress-is-enhancing mindset was mediated by vaccination status (higher scores indicate progress in vaccination), leading to a decrease in loneliness, and the stress-is-debilitating mindset was mediated by a decrease in part-time jobs and extracurricular activities, leading to an increase in depression. Although it is difficult to maintain the usual routine of life in the midst of the COVID-19, continuing to play one's role and to carry out daily activities may lead to better coping with the coronavirus crisis. The present study revealed the protective effect of stress mindset on the mental health of Japanese university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, Japanese university students, main effect, mediating variables, mental health, stress mindset

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43 Seven Brothers and Sisters of Severely Disabled Children Speak up about Their Everyday Challenges and Needs : A Multiple Case Study

Authors: Myriam Castonguay, Florence Vinit

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This study aims to gain a better understanding of the lived experience of seven children growing up in a family where another child is severely disabled, informed by family systems theory and the socio-ecological model of development. In depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven children who described they everyday life since their brother’s or sister’s diagnosis. Thematic analysis revealed four themes : struggling with loneliness inside the family, supporting the disabled child through its journey, accommodating to a changing routine and keeping a “bubble” for oneself. Brothers and sisters depict a family life characterized by much loneliness, with severe disabilities requiring ongoing care and prolonged hospitalizations. In the midst of adversity, siblings describe themselves as highly committed to supporting the disabled child and to preserve family cohesion, even if that means getting exposed to emotionally challenging situations and adjusting their daily routine frequently. Children recount that keeping up with schoolwork and leisure activities of their own is central to their well-being. Having a space where one can reconnect with his ordinary life as a kid is also deemed very important. This study reminds us that more needs to be done to counteract the loneliness experienced by siblings through the family experience of disability. Family members and clinicians need to be extra vigilant to ensure siblings’ needs don’t go unnoticed or dismissed, as it may be difficult for this population of children to voice their own experience and needs. Family, school and other actors in the community may help brothers and sisters pursue their personal dreams, goals and projects, to continue experiencing well-being despite adverse life circumstances.

Keywords: sibling’s lived experience of disability, sibling’s needs at various levels of the ecosystem, family adjustment to the disability experience, supporting family wellness through the disability experience

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42 Exercise and Social Activities for Elderly with an Impairment Who Are Living Alone in the Community: Effects and Influencing Factors of a Dutch Program

Authors: Renate Verkaik, Mieke Rijken, Hennie Boeije

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Elderly who are living alone and who are having one or more impairments are vulnerable for a loss of wellbeing and institutionalization. Physical exercise and social activities together with peers have the potential to make them more resilient. The Dutch program ‘More Resilience, Longer at Home’ initiated by FNO funded 126 local projects to stimulate vulnerable older citizens to participate in exercise and social activities, and as such to improve wellbeing and independent living. The program evaluation addressed the following questions: (1) what are the effects of the program on older (65+) participants exercise behavior, social activities and what is the relationship with wellbeing?, (2) which factors contribute to successful implementation of the projects and their outcomes? A mixed method approach was used. Effects on participants were assessed with a short survey, containing questions on exercise, social engagement, daily functioning, loneliness and life satisfaction. Results of the participants were compared with those of a reference group from the Dutch national population. Perceived influencing factors were investigated with a questionnaire for project leaders. This questionnaire was based on site visits and interviews with project leaders, volunteers and participating elderly. Preliminary results show that social engagement of the participating elderly rises significantly (p ≤ .05) as do their exercise levels and daily functioning. They experience less social loneliness, but not less emotional loneliness. Additionally, there is a positive association between daily functioning and life satisfaction and between exercise and life satisfaction. Perceived influencing factors that contribute to successful implementation of the projects can be categorized in 4 types: (1) characteristics of the activities; (2) profiles of the involved staff (professionals and volunteers), (3) characteristics of the organization, (4) the social political environment. Conclusions are that local projects have been successful in stimulating older citizens to participate in exercise and social activities. Multiple factors need to be addressed to ensure sustainability and scaling-up of the good practices.

Keywords: elderly living alone in the community, exercise and social activities, resilience, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
41 The Mediating Role of Psychological Factors in the Relationships Between Youth Problematic Internet and Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Dorit Olenik-Shemesh, Tali Heiman

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The rapid increase in the massive use of the internet in recent yearshas led to an increase in the prevalence of a phenomenon called 'Problematic Internet use' (PIU), an emerging, growing health problem, especially during adolescents, that poses a challenge for mental health research and practitioners. Problematic Internet use (PIU) is defined as an excessive overuse of the internet, including an inability to control time spent on the internet, cognitivepreoccupation with the Internet, and continued use in spite of the adverse consequences, which may lead to psychological, social, and academic difficulties in one's life and daily functioning. However, little is known about the nature of the nexusbetween PIU and subjective well-being among adolescents. The main purpose of the current study was to explore in depth the network of connections between PIU, sense of well-being, and fourpersonal-emotional factors (resilience, self-control, depressive mood, and loneliness) that may mediate these relationships. A total sample of 433 adolescents, 214 (49.4%) girls and 219 (50.6%) boys between the ages of 12–17 (mean = 14.9, SD = 2.16), completed self-reportquestionnaires relating to the study variables. In line with the hypothesis, analysis of a Structural Equation modeling (SEM) revealed the main following results: high levels of PIU predicted low levels of well-being among adolescents. In addition, low levels of resilience and high levels of depressivemood (together), as well as low levels of self control and high levels of depressivemood (together), as well as low levels of resilience and high levels of loneliness, mediated the relationships between PIU and well-being. In general, girls were found to be higher in PIU and inresilience than boys. The study results revealed specific implications for developing intervention programs for adolescents in the context of PIU; aiming at more balanced adjusted use of the Internet along withpreventingthe decrease in well being.

Keywords: probelmatic inetrent Use, well-being, adolescents, SEM model

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40 An Examination of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Adults with Hearing Loss

Authors: Christine Maleesha Withanachchi, Eithne Heffernan, Derek Hoare

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Background: Social isolation (SI} is a major consequence of hearing loss (HL}. Isolation can lead to serious health problems (e.g., dementia and depression). Hearing Aids (HA) is the primary intervention for HL. However, these are less effective in social situations. Interventions are needed for SI in adults with hearing loss (AHL). Objectives: Investigated the relationship between HL and SI. Explored the views of AHL and hearing healthcare professionals (HHP) towards interventions for isolation. Methods: Individual and group semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were conducted at the Nottingham Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). Six AHL and seven HHP were recruited via maximum variation sampling. The interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Social impacts of HL: Most participants described that HL hurt them. This was in the form of social withdrawal, strain on relationships, and identity loss. Downstream effects of HL: Most audiologists acknowledged that isolation from HL could lead to depression. HL can also lead to exhaustion and unemployment. Impact of stigma: There are negative connotations around HL and HA (e.g. old age) and there is difficulty talking about isolation. The complexity of SI: There can be difficulty separating SI due to HL from SI due to other contributing factors (e.g. comorbidities). Potential intervention for isolation: Participants were unfamiliar with interventions for isolation and few, if any, were targeted for AHL specifically. Most participants thought an intervention should be patient-centered and run by an AHL in the community. Opinions differed regarding whether it should hear specific or generic. Implementation of intervention: Challenges to the implementation of an intervention for SI exist due to the sensitivity of the subject. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that SI is a major consequence of HL and uncovered novel findings related to its interventions. Uptake of interventions offered to AHL to reduce loneliness and social isolation is expected to be better if led by AHL in the community as opposed to HHP led interventions in the hospital or clinic settings.

Keywords: adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, interventions, social isolation

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39 Gender Discrimination and Wellbeing in Family Sphere Due to Male Migration and Remittances: A Study of Doaba Region of Punjab

Authors: Atinder Pal Kaur

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A central characteristic of people is their apparent movement from one station to other for their sustenance. Human migration has become one of the most challenging issues faced by the world today. Migration represents an important dimension in world-wide setting; and remittances received by families constitute a major agent in integrating societies in the all over the world, both economically and socially. This paper is an attempt to explore the impact of male migration and remittances upon the family system. This paper brings out how the women play the role of head of the household and take all the economic decisions, but still faces discrimination in the family, that bring loneliness and emotional breakdown on their personal front. For the purpose of this study, data was collected using 30 interviews and 10 case studies in the Doaba region of Punjab. The respondents were classified into two age groups 20-35 years and above 40 years aged women whose husbands migrated abroad. The findings of this study revealed that even though the women were taking some of the economic decisions, but in majority of the cases the patriarchal structure still existed and power remained in the hands of their husbands or in-laws. It was found that women of different age groups reported differently in terms of authority that they have regarding remittances and its consequences in their emotional well-being. The distinction related to their participation in public and private spheres still exists and public spheres are mostly dominated by male members of the family. It can be concluded that freedom of women to take decision on their own is still restricted and they are subjugated to follow their husband or in-law’s opinion in matters related to both public and private spheres. However, old age group women enjoyed more independence and freedom to take decision in comparison to young age women. Loneliness and depression were more common in the young age respondent’s group than in old age women.

Keywords: gender discrimination, migration, patriarchal structure, remittances

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38 Pet Care Monitoring with Arduino

Authors: Sathapath Kilaso

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Nowadays people who live in the city tend to have a pet in order to relief the loneliness more than usual. It can be observed by the growth of the local pet industry. But the essentials of lifestyle of the urban people which is restricted by time and work might not allow the owner to take care of the pet properly. So this article will be about how to develop the prototype of pet care monitoring with Arduino Microcontroller. This prototype can be used to monitor the pet and its environment around the pet such as temperature (both pet’s temperature and outside temperature), humidity, food’s quantity, air’s quality and also be able to reduce the stress of the pet. This prototype can report the result back to the owner via online-channel such as website etc.

Keywords: pet care, Arduino Microcontroller, monitoring, prototype

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
37 Activation-TV® to Reduce Elderly Loneliness and Insecurity

Authors: Hannele Laaksonen, Seija Nyqvist, Kari Nurmes

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Objectives: In the year 2011 the City of Vaasa started to develop know-how in the technology and the introduction of services for aging people in cooperation with the Polytechnic Novia University of Applied Sciences and VAMK, University of Applied Sciences. The project´s targets included: to help elderly people to maintain their ability to function, to provide them social and physical activities, to prevent their social exclusion, to decrease their feelings of loneliness and insecurity and to develop their technical know-how. Methods: The project was built based on open source code, tailor-made service system and user interface for the elderly living at home and their families, based on the users´ expectations and experiences of services. Activation-TV®-project vas carried out 1.4.2011-31.3.2014. A pilot group of eight elderly persons, who were living at home, were selected to the project. All necessary technical means as well as guidance and teaching equipment were provided to the pilot group. The students of University of Applied Sciences (VAMK, Novia) and employees of Center of Ageing were made all programs to the Activation-TV®. The project group were interviewed after and before intervention. The data were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The built service includes a video library, a group room for interactive programs and a personal room for bilateral meetings and direct shipment. The program is bilingual and produced in both national languages. The Activation TV® reduced elderly peoples´ (n=8) feelings of emptiness, added mental well-being and quality of life with social contacts. Relatives felt, that they were able to get in to older peoples´ everyday life with Activation TV®. Discussion: The built application was tailored to the model that has not been developed elsewhere in Finland. This model can be copied from one server to another and thus transferred to other municipalities but the program requires its own personnel system management and maintenance as well as program production cooperation between the different actors. This service can be used for the elderly who are living at home without dementia.

Keywords: mental well-being, quality of life, elderly people, Finland

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36 Evaluation of Intervention Effectiveness from the Client Perspective: Dimensions and Measurement of Wellbeing

Authors: Neşe Alkan

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Purpose: The point that applied/clinical psychology, which is the practice and research discipline of the mental health field, has reached today can be summarized as the necessity of handling the psychological well-being of people from multiple perspectives and the goal of moving it to a higher level. Clients' subjective assessment of their own condition and wellbeing is an integral part of evidence-based interventions. There is a need for tools through which clients can evaluate the effectiveness of the psychotherapy/intervention performed with them and their contribution to the wellbeing and wellbeing of this process in a valid and reliable manner. The aim of this research is to meet this need, to test the reliability and validity of the index in Turkish, and explore its usability in the practices of both researchers and psychotherapists. Method: A total of 213 adults aged between 18-54, 69.5% working and 29.5% university students, were included in the study. Along with their demographic information, the participants were administered a set of scales: wellbeing, life satisfaction, spiritual satisfaction, shopping addiction, and loneliness, namely via an online platform. The construct validity of the wellbeing scale was tested with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, convergent and discriminant validity were tested with two-way full and partial correlation analyses and, measurement invariance was tested with one-way analysis of variance. Results: Factor analyzes showed that the scale consisted of six dimensions as it is in its original structure. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be Cronbach α = .82. Two-way correlation analyzes revealed that the wellbeing scale total score was positively correlated with general life satisfaction (r = .62) and spiritual satisfaction (r = .29), as expected. It was negatively correlated with loneliness (r = -.51) and shopping addiction (r = -.15). While the scale score did not vary by gender, previous illness, or nicotine addiction, it was found that the total wellbeing scale scores of the participants who had used antidepressant medication during the past year were lower than those who did not use antidepressant medication (F(1,204) = 7.713, p = .005). Conclusion: It has been concluded that the 12-item wellbeing scale consisting of six dimensions can be used in research and health sciences practices as a valid and reliable measurement tool. Further research which examines the reliability and validity of the scale in different widely used languages such as Spanish and Chinese is recommended.

Keywords: wellbeing, intervention effectiveness, reliability and validity, effectiveness

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35 Intertextuality as a Dialogue Between Postmodern Writer J. Fowles and Mid-English Writer J. Donne

Authors: Isahakyan Heghine

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Intertextuality, being in the centre of attention of both linguists and literary critics, is vividly expressed in the outstanding British novelist and philosopher J. Fowles' works. 'The Magus’ is a deep psychological and philosophical novel with vivid intertextual links with the Greek mythology and authors from different epochs. The aim of the paper is to show how intertextuality might serve as a dialogue between two authors (J. Fowles and J. Donne) disguised in the dialogue of two protagonists of the novel : Conchis and Nicholas. Contrastive viewpoints concerning man's isolation, loneliness are stated in the dialogue. Due to the conceptual analysis of the text it becomes possible both to decode the conceptual information of the text and find out its intertextual links.

Keywords: dialogue, conceptual analysis, isolation, intertextuality

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34 Adjustment with Changed Lifestyle at Old Age Homes: A Perspective of Elderly in India

Authors: Priyanka V. Janbandhu, Santosh B. Phad, Dhananjay W. Bansod

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The current changing scenario of the family is a compelling aged group not only to be alone in a nuclear family but also to join the old age institutions. The consequences of it are feeling of neglected or left alone by the children, adding a touch of helpless in the absence of lack of expected care and support. The accretion of all these feelings and unpleasant events ignite a question in their mind that – who is there for me? The efforts have taken to highlight the issues of the elderly after joining the old age home and their perception about the current life as an institutional inmate. This attempt to cover up the condition, adjustment, changed lifestyle and perspective in the association with several issues of the elderly, which have an essential effect on their well-being. The present research piece has collected the information about institutionalized elderly with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. This study interviewed 500 respondents from 22 old age homes of Pune city of Maharashtra State, India. This data collection methodology consists of Multi-stage random sampling. In which the stratified random sampling adopted for the selection of old age homes and sample size determination, sample selection probability proportional to the size and simple random sampling techniques implemented. The study provides that around five percent of the elderly shifted to old age home along with their spouse, whereas ten percent of the elderly are staying away from their spouse. More than 71 percent of the elderly have children, and they are an involuntary inmate of the old age institution, even less than one-third of the elderly consulted to the institution before the joining it. More than sixty percent of the elderly have children, but they joined institution due to the unpleasant response of their children only. Around half of the elderly responded that there are issues while adjusting to this environment, many of them are still persistent. At least one elderly out of ten is there who is suffering from the feeling of loneliness and left out by children and other family members. In contrast, around 97 percent of the elderly are very happy or satisfied with the institutional facilities. It illustrates that the issues are associated with their children and other family members, even though they left their home before a year or more. When enquired about this loneliness feeling few of them are suffering from it before leaving their homes, it was due to lack of interaction with children, as they are too busy to have time for the aged parents. Additionally, the conflicts or fights within the family due to the presence of old persons in the family contributed to establishing another feeling of insignificance among the elderly parents. According to these elderly, have more than 70 percent of the share, the children are ready to spend money indirectly for us through these institutions, but not prepared to provide some time and very few amounts of all this expenditure directly for us.

Keywords: elderly, old age homes, life style changes and adjustment, India

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33 Designing Program for Developing Self-Esteem of Gifted Children

Authors: Mohammad Jamalallail

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Self-esteem implies a person’s overall self-worth, self-respect, and self-value. It helps a person to maintain good mental health, personality, and achievement. Gifted students face some emotional problems, sometimes, which cause decreases in their self-esteem. Such emotional problems include loneliness, anxiety, and depression as examples. For this reason, designing a counseling program is necessary for gifted students who need a high level of self-esteem. The available counseling programs focused on developmental aspect only to the best of the writer’s knowledge. While the proposed program focuses on both clinical and developmental counseling by applying psychoanalytic play therapy. The proposed program consists of; Theoretical background such as; Behavior, and RET. It also consists of counseling procedures and therapeutic interventions.

Keywords: self-esteem, gifted, program, design

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32 Between the House and the City: An Investigation of the Structure of the Family/Society and the Role of the Public Housing in Tokyo and Berlin

Authors: Abudjana Babiker

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The middle of twenty century witnessed an explosion in public housing. After the great depression, some of the capitalists and communist countries have launched policies and programs to produce public housing in the urban areas. Concurrently, modernity was the leading architecture style at the time excessively supported the production, and principally was the instrument for the success of the public housing program due to the modernism manifesto for manufactured architecture as an international style that serves the society and parallelly connect it to the other design industries which allowed for the production of the architecture elements. After the second world war, public housing flourished, especially in communist’s countries. The idea of public housing was conceived as living spaces at the time, while the Workplaces performed as the place for production and labor. Michel Foucault - At the end of the twenty century- the introduction of biopolitics has had highlighted the alteration in the production and labor inter-function. The house does not precisely perform as the sanctuary, from the production, for the family, it opens the house to be -part of the city as- a space for production, not only to produce objects but to reproduce the family as a total part of the production mechanism in the city. While the public housing kept altering from one country to another after the failure of the modernist’s public housing in the late 1970s, the society continued changing parallelly with the socio-economic condition in each political-economical system, and the public housing thus followed. The family structure in the major cities has been dramatically changing, single parenting and the long working hours, for instance, have been escalating the loneliness in the major cities such as London, Berlin, and Tokyo and the public housing for the families is no longer suits the single lifestyle for the individuals. This Paper investigates the performance of both the single/individual lifestyle and the family/society structure in Tokyo and Berlin in a relation to the utilization of public housing under economical policies and the socio-political environment that produced the individuals and the collective. The study is carried through the study of the undercurrent individual/society and case studies to examine the performance of the utilization of the housing. The major finding is that the individual/collective are revolving around the city; the city identified and acts as a system that magnetized and blurred the line between production and reproduction lifestyle. The mass public housing for families is shifting to be a combination between neo-liberalism and socialism housing.

Keywords: loneliness, production reproduction, work live, publichousing

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31 Tinder, Image Merchandise and Desire: The Configuration of Social Ties in Today's Neoliberalism

Authors: Daniel Alvarado Valencia

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Nowadays, the market offers us solutions for everything, creating the idea of an immediate availability of anything we could desire, and the Internet is the mean through which to obtain all this. The proposal of this conference is that this logic puts the subjects in a situation of self-exploitation, and considers the psyche as a productive force by configuring affection and desire from a neoliberal value perspective. It uses Tinder, starting from ethnographical data from Mexico City users, as an example for this. Tinder is an application created to get dates, have sexual encounters and find a partner. It works from the creation and management of a digital profile. It is an example of how futuristic and lonely the current era can be since we got used to interact with other people through screens and images. However, at the same time, it provides solutions to loneliness, since technology transgresses, invades and alters social practices in different ways. Tinder fits into this contemporary context, it is a concrete example of the processes of technification in which social bonds develop through certain devices offered by neoliberalism, through consumption, and where the search of love and courtship are possible through images and their consumption.

Keywords: desire, image, merchandise, neoliberalism

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30 The Use of Mobile Phones by Refugees to Create Social Connectedness: A Literature Review

Authors: Sarah Vuningoma, Maria Rosa Lorini, Wallace Chigona

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Mobile phones are one of the main tools for promoting the wellbeing of people and supporting the integration of communities on the margins such as refugees. Information and Communication Technology has the potential to contribute towards reducing isolation, loneliness, and to assist in improving interpersonal relations and fostering acculturation processes. Therefore, the use of mobile phones by refugees might contribute to their social connectedness. This paper aims to demonstrate how existing literature has shown how the use of mobile phones by refugees should engender social connectedness amongst the refugees. Data for the study are drawn from existing literature; we searched a number of electronic databases for papers published between 2010 and 2019. The main findings of the study relate to the use of mobile phones by refugees to (i) create a sense of belonging, (ii) maintain relationships, and (iii) advance the acculturation process. The analysis highlighted a gap in the research over refugees and social connectedness. In particular, further studies should consider evaluating the differences between those who have a refugee permit, those who are waiting for the refugee permit, and those whose request was denied.

Keywords: belonging, mobile phones, refugees, social connectedness

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29 Participatory Culture and Value Perception Amongst the Korean and Chinese Drama International Fandom

Authors: Patricia P. M. C. Lourenco, Javier Bringué Sala, Anaisa D. A. de Sena

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Almost everyone in Dramaland knows the names of big Korean stars that grace their computer screens on a roll through social media and video streaming platforms that enable awareness of Korean dramas and lifestyle at a click. A surface culture instilled with notions of belonging has redefined the meaning of friendship and challenged deep inner values. Not everyone, however, knows Chinese Dramas or their stars, which is a consequence of Dramaland's focus on Korean dramas and promoting the Korean experience. Despite a parity in terms of production quality, star power, scripts and compelling visual settings, Chinese Dramas have been playing catch up to their famous counterparts. While they might have a strong competitive soft power for international drama fans, the soft power of Korean dramas is imbued with substantial societal values that they want to share with others. Those values are portrayed in an artistic way that connects with audiences who experience loneliness in the non-virtual world contrary to the way Chinese Dramas are perceived.

Keywords: Chinese dramas, fandom, Korean dramas, participatory culture, value perception, soft power, surface culture

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28 The Manifestation of Decadent Mood in Vagif Samadoglu's Poetry

Authors: İlahe Hajiyeva Mesim

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The term "Azerbaijani decadent literature" that dates back to the 70s of the 20th century emerged due to the frustration of the people's wishes concerning egalitarian society and bright future pledged by Soviet Russia. The decadent mood - despair, loneliness, stagnation born of this delusion became the major theme of Azerbaijani literature. One of the zealous promulgators of the philosophy of decadence in Azerbaijani literature, so to speak, the founder of "Azerbaijani decadent literature" appeared to be Vagif Samadoglu known as a poet, playwright, essayist whose poems reflecting his decadent mood and motifs have become the scope of research in this paper. In his poems, the poet depicts realities with unusual metaphors, symbols and similes, giving them new breath. Vagif Samadoglu's poetry is particularly based on absurd situations of life. The figurative language and non-traditional forms of expression of associative thinking unique to the poet distinguish him from his other counterparts. A different view of reality and special approach to objects had enabled Vagif Samadoglu to occupy a leading place among modernist writers. The key purpose of the article is to reveal similar properties of decadent character in Vagif Samadoglu's poetry.

Keywords: Azerbaijan decadent literature, Vagif Samadoglu, poetry, modernism

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