Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Fabio Casati

48 Sociodemographic Predictors of Flourishing among Older Adults in Rural and Urban Mongolia

Authors: Saranchuluun Otgon, Sugarmaa Myagmarjav, Khorolsuren Lkhagvasuren, Fabio Casati

Abstract:

Background: Flourishing is a eudaimonic dimension of psychological well-being that has been associated with positive social and health-related outcomes. Determining the factors associated with health and well-being is important to the development of evidence-based intervention programs, policies, and action plans targeting the older adult population, especially in low- and middle-income countries, such as Mongolia, where evidence-based research on aging, health, and well-being is still scarce. This study makes important contributions to the study of well-being at a later age and also for policy activities for the older population in Mongolia. Methods: We employed multiple regression models to predict the factors of flourishing using data of 304 older adults living in urban and rural Mongolia. Data is collected by the standardized and validated questionnaire adapted from Ed Diener. Results: The median score of the flourishing of urban and rural older adults in Mongolia was significantly different, 53 and 50 respectively. The sex (β = 2.52,p = 0.034), level of education (β = 0.94, p = 0.026), receive help for ADL (β = 2.16, p = 0.022) determine flourishing of older adults living in rural area, while self-reported health (β = 0.94, p = 0.026), number of social activities, friends network determine flourishing of older adults living urban area. Conclusion. Older adults who live in urban areas have more psychological resources and strengths than those in the rural areas. Determinants of flourishing are different in the different settings. For instance, individual and family factors determine flourishing in rural areas, and social ties determine flourishing in urban areas.

Keywords: flourishing, predictors, older adults, Mongolia, psychological well-being

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47 Cyber-Social Networks in Preventing Terrorism: Topological Scope

Authors: Alessandra Rossodivita, Alexei Tikhomirov, Andrey Trufanov, Nikolay Kinash, Olga Berestneva, Svetlana Nikitina, Fabio Casati, Alessandro Visconti, Tommaso Saporito

Abstract:

It is well known that world and national societies are exposed to diverse threats: anthropogenic, technological, and natural. Anthropogenic ones are of greater risks and, thus, attract special interest to researchers within wide spectrum of disciplines in efforts to lower the pertinent risks. Some researchers showed by means of multilayered, complex network models how media promotes the prevention of disease spread. To go further, not only are mass-media sources included in scope the paper suggests but also personificated social bots (socbots) linked according to reflexive theory. The novel scope considers information spread over conscious and unconscious agents while counteracting both natural and man-made threats, i.e., infections and terrorist hazards. Contrary to numerous publications on misinformation disseminated by ‘bad’ bots within social networks, this study focuses on ‘good’ bots, which should be mobilized to counter the former ones. These social bots deployed mixture with real social actors that are engaged in concerted actions at spreading, receiving and analyzing information. All the contemporary complex network platforms (multiplexes, interdependent networks, combined stem networks et al.) are comprised to describe and test socbots activities within competing information sharing tools, namely mass-media hubs, social networks, messengers, and e-mail at all phases of disasters. The scope and concomitant techniques present evidence that embedding such socbots into information sharing process crucially change the network topology of actor interactions. The change might improve or impair robustness of social network environment: it depends on who and how controls the socbots. It is demonstrated that the topological approach elucidates techno-social processes within the field and outline the roadmap to a safer world.

Keywords: complex network platform, counterterrorism, information sharing topology, social bots

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
46 Comparative Analysis of Two Modeling Approaches for Optimizing Plate Heat Exchangers

Authors: Fábio A. S. Mota, Mauro A. S. S. Ravagnani, E. P. Carvalho

Abstract:

In the present paper the design of plate heat exchangers is formulated as an optimization problem considering two mathematical modeling. The number of plates is the objective function to be minimized, considering implicitly some parameters configuration. Screening is the optimization method used to solve the problem. Thermal and hydraulic constraints are verified, not viable solutions are discarded and the method searches for the convergence to the optimum, case it exists. A case study is presented to test the applicability of the developed algorithm. Results show coherency with the literature.

Keywords: plate heat exchanger, optimization, modeling, simulation

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45 Interference of Contaminants in the Characterization of Sugarcane Straw for Energy Purpose

Authors: Gabriela T. Nakashima, Ana Larissa S. Hansted, Gabriela B. Belini, Carlos R. Sette Jr, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fabio M. Yamaji

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the interference from contaminants in the characterization of sugarcane straw. The sugarcane straw was collected after the harvest and taken to the drying oven, and then it was crushed in the mill type Willey. Analyzes of ash contents and Klason lignin were done in triplicate and high heating value (HHV) in duplicate, according to ASTM standard. The results obtained for the sugarcane straw were 5.29% for ash content, 29.87% for Klason lignin and 17.67 MJ.kg-1 for HHV. Also, the material was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of contaminants was observed, such as silica. The high amount of contaminants in the samples may impact the results of analyzes, also raising its values, for example in the Klason lignin content. These contaminants can also adversely affect the quality of the biomass. Even using the standards is important to know what the purpose of the analysis and care mainly of sampling.

Keywords: biomass, bioenergy, residues, solid fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
44 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese

Abstract:

The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models

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43 Ensuring Consistency under the Snapshot Isolation

Authors: Carlos Roberto Valêncio, Fábio Renato de Almeida, Thatiane Kawabata, Leandro Alves Neves, Julio Cesar Momente, Mario Luiz Tronco, Angelo Cesar Colombini

Abstract:

By running transactions under the Snapshot isolation we can achieve a good level of concurrency, specially in databases with high-intensive read workloads. However, Snapshot is not immune to all the problems that arise from competing transactions and therefore no serialization warranty exists. We propose in this paper a technique to obtain data consistency with Snapshot by using some special triggers that we named Daemon Triggers. Besides keeping the benefits of the Snapshot isolation, the technique is specially useful for those database systems that do not have an isolation level that ensures serializability, like Firebird and Oracle. We describe all the anomalies that might arise when using the Snapshot isolation and show how to preclude them with Daemon Triggers. Based on the methodology presented here, it is also proposed the creation of a new isolation level: Daemon Snapshot.

Keywords: data consistency, serialization, snapshot, isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
42 Vr-GIS and Ar-GIS In Education: A Case Study

Authors: Ilario Gabriele Gerloni, Vincenza Carchiolo, Alessandro Longheu, Ugo Becciani, Eva Sciacca, Fabio Vitello

Abstract:

ICT tools and platforms endorse more and more educational process. Many models and techniques for people to be educated and trained about specific topics and skills do exist, as classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices and others. The choice to what extent ICT is applied within learning contexts is related to personal access to technologies as well as to the infrastructure surrounding environment. Among recent techniques, the adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) provides significant impulse in fully engaging users senses. In this paper, an application of AR/VR within Geographic Information Systems (GIS) context is presented. It aims to provide immersive environment experiences for educational and training purposes (e.g. for civil protection personnel), useful especially for situations where real scenarios are not easily accessible by humans. First acknowledgments are promising for building an effective tool that helps civil protection personnel training with risk reduction.

Keywords: education, virtual reality, augmented reality, GIS, civil protection

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41 Using Wiki for Enhancing the Knowledge Transfer to Newcomers: An Experience Report

Authors: Hualter Oliveira Barbosa, Raquel Feitosa do Vale Cunha, Erika Muniz dos Santos, Fernanda Belmira Souza, Fabio Sousa, Luis Henrique Pascareli, Franciney de Oliveira Lima, Ana Cláudia Reis da Silva, Christiane Moreira de Almeida

Abstract:

Software development is intrinsic human-based knowledge-intensive. Due to globalization, software development has become a complex challenge and we usually face barriers related to knowledge management, team building, costly testing processes, especially in distributed settings. For this reason, several approaches have been proposed to minimize barriers caused by geographic distance. In this paper, we present as we use experimental studies to improve our knowledge management process using the Wiki system. According to the results, it was possible to identify learning preferences from our software projects leader team, organize and improve the learning experience of our Wiki and; facilitate collaboration by newcomers to improve Wiki with new contents available in the Wiki.

Keywords: mobile product, knowledge transfer, knowledge management process, wiki, GSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
40 Hominin Niche in the Times of Climate Change

Authors: Emilia Hunt, Sally C. Reynolds, Fiona Coward, Fabio Parracho Silva, Philip Hopley

Abstract:

Ecological niche modeling is widely used in conservation studies, but application to the extinct hominin species is a relatively new approach. Being able to understand what ecological niches were occupied by respective hominin species provides a new perspective into influences on evolutionary processes. Niche separation or overlap can tell us more about specific requirements of the species within the given timeframe. Many of the ancestral species lived through enormous climate changes: glacial and interglacial periods, changes in rainfall, leading to desertification or flooding of regions and displayed impressive levels of adaptation necessary for their survival. This paper reviews niche modeling methodologies and their application to hominin studies. Traditional conservation methods might not be directly applicable to extinct species and are not comparable to hominins. Hominin niche also includes aspects of technologies, use of fire and extended communication, which are not traditionally used in building conservation models. Future perspectives on how to improve niche modeling for extinct hominin species will be discussed.

Keywords: hominin niche, climate change, evolution, adaptation, ecological niche modelling

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39 Method for Evaluating the Monetary Value of a Customized Version of the Digital Twin for the Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Fabio Oettl, Sebastian Hoerbrand, Tobias Wittmeir, Johannes Schilp

Abstract:

By combining the additive manufacturing (AM)- process with digital concepts, like the digital twin (DT) or the downsized and basing concept of the digital part file (DPF), the competitiveness of additive manufacturing is enhanced and new use cases like decentral production are enabled. But in literature, one can´t find any quantitative approach for valuing the usage of a DT or DPF in AM. Out of this fact, such an approach will be developed within this paper in order to further promote or dissuade the usage of these concepts. The focus is set on the production as an early lifecycle phase, which means that the AM-production process gets analyzed regarding the potential advantages of using DPF in AM. These advantages are transferred to a monetary value with this approach. By calculating the costs of the DPF, an overall monetary value is a result. Thereon a tool, based on a simulation environment is constructed, where the algorithms are transformed into a program. The results of applying this tool show that an overall value of 20,81 € for the DPF can be realized for one special use case. For the future application of the DPF there is the recommendation to integrate especially sustainable information because out of this, a higher value of the DPF can be expected.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, digital concept costs, digital part file, digital twin, monetary value estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
38 Sport Facilities and Social Change: European Funds as an Opportunity for Urban Regeneration

Authors: Lorenzo Maiorino, Fabio Fortuna, Giovanni Panebianco, Marco Sanzari, Gabriella Arcese, Valerio Maria Paolozzi

Abstract:

It is well known that sport is a factor of social cohesion and the breaking down of barriers between people. From this point of view, the aim is to demonstrate how, through the (re)generation of sustainable structures, it is possible to give life to a new social, cultural, and economic pathway, where possible, in peripheral areas with problems of abandonment and degradation. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to study realities such as European programs and funds and to highlight the ways in which planning can be used to respond to critical issues such as urban decay, abandonment, and the mitigation of social differences. For this reason, the analysis will be carried out through the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) package, the Next Generation EU, the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the Cohesion Fund, the European Social Fund, and other managed funds. The procedure will rely on sources and data of unquestionable origin, and the relation to the object of study in question will be highlighted. The project lends itself to be ambitious and exploring a further aspect of the sports theme, which, as we know, is one of the foundations for a healthy society.

Keywords: sport, social inclusion, urban regeneration, sports facilities, European funds

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37 Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Julien Romieux, Fabio Verdicchio

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy. Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the network.

Keywords: cooperative signal processing, signal representation and approximation, power management, wireless sensor networks

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36 Investigating the Effect of the Pedagogical Agent on Visual Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Students

Authors: Nasrin Mohammadhasani, Rosa Angela Fabio

Abstract:

The attention to relevance information is the key element for learning. Otherwise, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) students have a fuzzy visual pattern that prevents them to attention and remember learning subject. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence of a pedagogical agent can effectively support ADHD learner's attention and learning outcomes in a multimedia learning environment. The learning environment was integrated with a pedagogical agent, named Koosha as a social peer. This study employed a pretest and posttest experimental design with control group. The statistical population was 30 boys students, age 10-11 with ADHD that randomly assigned to learn with/without an agent in well designed environment for mathematic. The results suggested that experimental and control groups show a significant difference in time when they participated and mathematics achievement. According to this research, using the pedagogical agent can enhance learning of ADHD students by gaining and guiding their attention to relevance information part on display, so it can be considered as asocial cue that provides theme cognitive supports.

Keywords: attention, computer assisted instruction, multimedia learning environment, pedagogical agent

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35 Mapping the Relationship between Elements of Urban Morphology Density of Crime

Authors: Fabio Salvador Aparecido Santos, Spencer Chainey, Richard Wortley

Abstract:

Urban morphology can be understood as the study of the physical form of cities through its elements. Crime, at this turn, can be oversimplified as an action that breaks the rules established in a certain society. This study involves these two subjects through the relationship between elements of urban morphology and density of crime occurrences. We consider that there is a research gap about the influence of urban features on crime occurrences using statistic methods and mapping techniques on Geographic Information Systems. The investigation will comprehend three main phases. The first phase involves examining how theoretical principles associated with urban morphology can be viewed in terms of their influence on crime patterns. The second phase involves the development of tools to be used to model elements of urban morphology, and measure the relationship between these urban morphological elements and patterns of crime. The third phase involves determining the extent to which elements of the urban environment can contribute to crime reduction. Understanding the relationship between urban morphology and crime patterns in a Latin American context will help highlight the influence urban planning has on the crime problems that emerge in these settings, and how effectively urban planning can contribute to reducing crime.

Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Environmental Criminology, Geographic Information System, Urban Morphology

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34 Meta-Learning for Hierarchical Classification and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Fabio Fabris, Alex A. Freitas

Abstract:

Hierarchical classification is a special type of classification task where the class labels are organised into a hierarchy, with more generic class labels being ancestors of more specific ones. Meta-learning for classification-algorithm recommendation consists of recommending to the user a classification algorithm, from a pool of candidate algorithms, for a dataset, based on the past performance of the candidate algorithms in other datasets. Meta-learning is normally used in conventional, non-hierarchical classification. By contrast, this paper proposes a meta-learning approach for more challenging task of hierarchical classification, and evaluates it in a large number of bioinformatics datasets. Hierarchical classification is especially relevant for bioinformatics problems, as protein and gene functions tend to be organised into a hierarchy of class labels. This work proposes meta-learning approach for recommending the best hierarchical classification algorithm to a hierarchical classification dataset. This work’s contributions are: 1) proposing an algorithm for splitting hierarchical datasets into new datasets to increase the number of meta-instances, 2) proposing meta-features for hierarchical classification, and 3) interpreting decision-tree meta-models for hierarchical classification algorithm recommendation.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, meta-learning, bioinformatics, hierarchical classification

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33 Comparing Image Processing and AI Techniques for Disease Detection in Plants

Authors: Luiz Daniel Garay Trindade, Antonio De Freitas Valle Neto, Fabio Paulo Basso, Elder De Macedo Rodrigues, Maicon Bernardino, Daniel Welfer, Daniel Muller

Abstract:

Agriculture plays an important role in society since it is one of the main sources of food in the world. To help the production and yield of crops, precision agriculture makes use of technologies aiming at improving productivity and quality of agricultural commodities. One of the problems hampering quality of agricultural production is the disease affecting crops. Failure in detecting diseases in a short period of time can result in small or big damages to production, causing financial losses to farmers. In order to provide a map of the contributions destined to the early detection of plant diseases and a comparison of the accuracy of the selected studies, a systematic literature review of the literature was performed, showing techniques for digital image processing and neural networks. We found 35 interesting tool support alternatives to detect disease in 19 plants. Our comparison of these studies resulted in an overall average accuracy of 87.45%, with two studies very closer to obtain 100%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, image processing, deep learning, precision agriculture, smart farming, agricultural automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
32 Analysis of Energy Efficiency Behavior with the Use of Train Dynamics Simulator and Statistical Tools: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil

Authors: Eric Wilson Santos Cabral, Marta Monteiro Da Costa Cruz, Fabio Luis Maciel Machado, Henrique Andrade, Rodrigo Pirola Pestana, Vivian Andrea Parreira

Abstract:

The large variation in the price of diesel in Brazil directly affects the variable cost of companies operating in the transportation sector. In rail transport, the great challenge is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported with cost reduction in relation to previous years, becoming more efficient every year. Some effective measures are necessary to achieve the reduction of the liter ratio consumed by KTKB (Gross Ton per Kilometer multiplied by thousand). This acronym represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in the world. This study is divided into two parts: the first, to identify using statistical tools, part of the controlled variables in the railways, which have a correlation with the energy efficiency indicator, seeking to aid decision-making. The second, with the use of the train dynamics simulator, within scenarios defined in the operational reality of a railroad, seeks to optimize the train formations and the train stop model for the change of train drivers. With the completion of the study, companies in the rail sector are expected to be able to reduce some of their transportation costs.

Keywords: railway transport, railway simulation, energy efficiency, fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
31 Old and New Paradigms for Pre-Earthquake Prevention and Post-Earthquake Regeneration of Territories in Crisis in Italy

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

Abstract:

Most of the Italian territory is at seismic risk. Many earthquakes have hit Italy, and devastating effects have been generated. The specific objective of the research is to distinguish the negative approaches that have generated unacceptable social situations of marginalization, abandonment, and economic regression, from positive methodological approaches. On the basis of the different situations examined, the study proposes strategies and guidelines to obtain the best possible results, in Italy or abroad, in the event of new earthquakes. At national and international level, many theoretical studies address the aspects of prevention, while the comparisons, carried out in this study, between the techniques and the operative procedures applied and the results obtained are rare. The adopted methodology compares the different pre-earthquake urban-planning approaches, for the emergency (temporary urban planning), and for the post-earthquake (socio-economic-territorial processes) in Italy. Attention is placed on the current consolidated planning and programming acquisitions, pre and post-earthquake. The main results of the study concern the prospects in Italy of protection from seismic risks in the next decades. An integrated settlement system for a new economic and social model, aimed at the rebirth of territories in crisis, is proposed. Finally, the conclusions describe the disciplinary positions, procedures and the fundamental points generally shared by the scientific community for each approach, in order to identify the strategic choices and the disciplinary and management paths that will be followed in the coming decades.

Keywords: post-earthquake, seismic emergency, seismic prevention, urban planning interventions in Italy

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
30 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador

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Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
29 Experimental Simulation Set-Up for Validating Out-Of-The-Loop Mitigation when Monitoring High Levels of Automation in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Oliver Ohneiser, Francesca De Crescenzio, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jan Kraemer, Bruno Berberian, Sara Bagassi, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Borghini, Fabio Babiloni

Abstract:

An increasing degree of automation in air traffic will also change the role of the air traffic controller (ATCO). ATCOs will fulfill significantly more monitoring tasks compared to today. However, this rather passive role may lead to Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) effects comprising vigilance decrement and less situation awareness. The project MINIMA (Mitigating Negative Impacts of Monitoring high levels of Automation) has conceived a system to control and mitigate such OOTL phenomena. In order to demonstrate the MINIMA concept, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed. This set-up consists of two parts: 1) a Task Environment (TE) comprising a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) simulator as well as 2) a Vigilance and Attention Controller (VAC) based on neurophysiological data recording such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking devices. The current vigilance level and the attention focus of the controller are measured during the ATCO’s active work in front of the human machine interface (HMI). The derived vigilance level and attention trigger adaptive automation functionalities in the TE to avoid OOTL effects. This paper describes the full-scale experimental set-up and the component development work towards it. Hence, it encompasses a pre-test whose results influenced the development of the VAC as well as the functionalities of the final TE and the two VAC’s sub-components.

Keywords: automation, human factors, air traffic controller, MINIMA, OOTL (Out-Of-The-Loop), EEG (Electroencephalography), HMI (Human Machine Interface)

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28 Experimental Study of Unconfined and Confined Isothermal Swirling Jets

Authors: Rohit Sharma, Fabio Cozzi

Abstract:

A 3C-2D PIV technique was applied to investigate the swirling flow generated by an axial plus tangential type swirl generator. This work is focused on the near-exit region of an isothermal swirling jet to characterize the effect of swirl on the flow field and to identify the large coherent structures both in unconfined and confined conditions for geometrical swirl number, Sg = 4.6. Effects of the Reynolds number on the flow structure were also studied. The experimental results show significant effects of the confinement on the mean velocity fields and its fluctuations. The size of the recirculation zone was significantly enlarged upon confinement compared to the free swirling jet. Increasing in the Reynolds number further enhanced the recirculation zone. The frequency characteristics have been measured with a capacitive microphone which indicates the presence of periodic oscillation related to the existence of precessing vortex core, PVC. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the jet velocity field was carried out, enabling the identification of coherent structures. The time coefficients of the first two most energetic POD modes were used to reconstruct the phase-averaged velocity field of the oscillatory motion in the swirling flow. The instantaneous minima of negative swirl strength values calculated from the instantaneous velocity field revealed the presence of two helical structures located in the inner and outer shear layers and this structure fade out at an axial location of approximately z/D = 1.5 for unconfined case and z/D = 1.2 for confined case. By phase averaging the instantaneous swirling strength maps, the 3D helical vortex structure was reconstructed.

Keywords: acoustic probes, 3C-2D particle image velocimetry (PIV), precessing vortex core (PVC), recirculation zone (RZ)

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
27 Exoskeleton-Enhanced Manufacturing: A Study Exploring Psychological and Physical Effects on Assembly Operators' Wellbeing

Authors: Iveta Eimontaite, Sarah R. Fletcher, Michele Surico, Alfio Minissale, Fabio F. Abba

Abstract:

Industry 4.0 offers possibilities for increased production volumes and greater efficiency whilst at the same time presenting new opportunities and challenges for the human workforce. Exoskeletons have been used in healthcare and are now starting to be adopted in manufacturing. The potential benefits of reducing fatigue and physical strain are attractive prospects of the technology for industry; however, the novelty of exoskeletons and surrounding ethical issues raise concerns amongst the stakeholders. The current case study investigated the introduction of an upper body exoskeleton designed to support posture but not increase physical strength in a factory over three time points: before the exoskeleton was introduced, and one and two months post-introduction once operators had experienced working with it. The main focus was to evaluate changes in operators' workload, situation awareness, technology self-efficacy, and physical discomfort following the introduction of the exoskeleton. After using the exoskeleton over two months, operators reported a decrease in temporal demand and an increase in performance of the NASA TLX instrument. Furthermore, over the second month, operators' self-reported technology self-efficacy scores increased, but at the same time, their situation awareness decreased. Interestingly, operators' physical discomfort after using the exoskeleton for two months increased from not uncomfortable to quite uncomfortable in the shoulder, arm, and middle back regions. The results suggest that self-perceived task efficiency improved; however, increased discomfort and decreased situation awareness scores indicate that two months might not be long enough for the exoskeleton to be integrated into operators’ mental body schema. The paper will discuss further implications and suggestions for exoskeleton introduction to manufacturing environments.

Keywords: exoskeleton, manufacturing, mental workload, physical discomfort, situation awareness, technology self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
26 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista, Matthieu Tubino

Abstract:

Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, oxidative stability, storage, synthetic antioxidants

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25 Wear Progress and -Mechanisms in Torpedo Ladles in Steel Industry

Authors: Mattahias Maj, Fabio Tatzgern, Karl Adam, Damir Kahrimanovic, Markus Varga

Abstract:

Torpedo ladles are necessary transport carriages in steel production to move the molten crude iron from the blast furnace to the steel refining plant. This requires the ladles to be high temperature resistant and insulate well to preserve the temperature and hold the risk of solidification at bay. Therefore, the involved refractories lining the inside of the torpedo ladles are chosen mostly according to their thermal properties, although wear of the materials by the liquid iron is also of major importance. In this work, we combined investigations of the thermal behaviour with wear studies of the lining over the whole lifetime of a torpedo ladle. Additional numerical simulations enabled a detailed model of the mechanical loads and temperature propagation at the various stations (heating, filling, emptying, cooling). The core of the investigation were detailed 3D measurements of the ladle’s cavity and thereby quantitative information of the wear progress at different time intervals during the lifetime of the ladles. The measurements allowed for a separation of different wear zones according to severity, namely the “splash zone” where the melt directly hits the ladle, the “melt zone” where during transport always liquid melt is present, and the “slag zone”, where the slag floats on the melt causing the most severe wear loss. Numerical simulations of the filling process were taken to calculate stress levels and temperature gradients, which led to the different onset of wear on those zones. Thermal imaging and punctual temperature measurements allowed for a study of the thermal consequences entailed by the wear onset. Additional “classical” damage analysis of the worn refractories complete the investigation. Thereby the wear mechanisms leading to the substantial wear loss were disclosed.

Keywords: high temperature, tribology, liquid-solid interaction, refractories, thermography

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24 Failure Analysis: Solid Rocket Motor Type “Candy” - Explosion in a Static Test

Authors: Diego Romero, Fabio Rojas, J. Alejandro Urrego

Abstract:

The sounding rockets are aerospace vehicles that were developed in the mid-20th century, and Colombia has been involved in research that was carried out with the aim of innovating with this technology. The rockets are university research programs with the collaboration of the local government, with a simple strategy, develop and reduce the greatest costs associated with the production of a kind type of technology. In this way, in this document presents the failure analysis of a solid rocket motor, with the real compatibly to reach the thermosphere with a low-cost fuel. This solid rocket motor is the latest development of the Uniandes Aerospace Project (PUA for its Spanish acronym), an undergraduate and postgraduate research group at Universidad de los Andes (Bogotá, Colombia), dedicated to incurring in this type of technology. This motor has been carried out on Candy-type solid fuel, which is a compound of potassium nitrate and sorbitol, and the investigation has allowed the production of solid motors powerful enough to reach space, and which represents a unique technological advance in Latin America and an important development in experimental rocketry.To outline the main points the explosion in a static test is an important to explore and demonstrate the ways to develop technology, methodologies, production and manufacturing, being a solid rocket motor with 30 kN of thrust. In conclusion, this analysis explores different fields such as: design, manufacture, materials, production, first fire and more, with different engineering tools with principal objective find root failure. Following the engineering analysis methodology, was possible to design a new version of motor, with learned lessons new manufacturing specification, therefore, when publishing this project, it is intended to be a reference for future research in this field and benefit the industry.

Keywords: candy propellant, candy rockets, explosion, failure analysis, static test, solid rocket motor

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23 Full-Scale Shake Table Tests of a R.C. Building Equipped with an Active Mass Damper: Experimental Results and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Giovanni Rebecchi, Fabio Menardo, Matteo Rosti, Alberto Bussini

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental program involving shake table testing of two full-scale reinforced concrete frame buildings at the Eucentre laboratory in Pavia (Italy). These tests were conducted to investigate the effectiveness and reliability of an Active Mass Damper (AMD) that can be designed to enhance the target seismic performance of a building at multiple earthquake intensity levels. The two nominally identical case-study buildings were intentionally designed to exhibit a “soft story” mechanism at the first level when subject to ground shaking of sufficient intensity, but one was equipped with the newly proposed AMD installed on the roof. The two specimens were then subject to the same loading protocol consisting of a ground shaking sequence of varying intensity, with the seismic input consisting of a selected natural ground motion. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed AMD is extremely effective at enhancing building seismic performance. Specifically, the AMD provided peak displacement reductions in the order of 70% and was shown capable of absorbing more than 60% of the total input energy. Therefore, the un-retrofitted structure suffered nontrivial structural and non-structural damage, while the AMD-retrofitted building remained virtually undamaged at all shaking intensities considered. Therefore, numerical models of both structures have been developed using a commercial FEM software for the interpretation of the experimental results. In addition, an in-house software has been developed to run simulations that fully describe the operational mechanism of the building equipped with the active control system.

Keywords: vibration control, active mass damper, @non linear dynamic analysis, experimental tests

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22 Species Selection for Phytoremediation of Barium Polluted Flooded Soils

Authors: Fabio R. Pires, Paulo R. C. C. Ribeiro, Douglas G. Viana, Robson Bonomo, Fernando B. Egreja Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti Filho, Luiz F. Martins, Leila B. S. Cruz, Mauro C. P. Nascimento

Abstract:

The use of barite (BaSO₄) as a weighting agent in drilling fluids for oil and gas activities makes barium a potential contaminant in the case of spills onto flooded soils, where barium sulfate solubility is increased due to low redox conditions. In order to select plants able to remove barium in such scenarios, seven plant species were evaluated on barium phytoextraction capacity: Brachiaria arrecta; Cyperus cf. papyrus; Eleocharis acutangula; Eleocharis interstincta; Nephrolepsis cf. rivularis; Paspalum conspersum and Typha domingensis. Plants were grown in pots with 13 kg of soil each, and exposed to six barium concentrations (established with BaCl₂): 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0; 30.0; 65.0 mg kg-1. To simulate flooding conditions, every pot was manteined with a thin irrigation water depth over soil surface (~1.0 cm). Treatments were carried out in triplicate, and pots were distributed randomly inside the greenhouse. Biometric and chemical analyses were performed throughout the experiment, including Ba²⁺ accumulation in shoots and roots. The highest amount of barium was observed in T. domingensis biomass, followed by C. cf. papyrus. However, the latter exported most of the barium to shoot, especially in higher BaCl₂ doses, while the former accumulated barium preferentially in roots. Thus, barium removal with C. cf. papyrus could be achieved by simply harvesting aerial biomass. The amount of barium in C. cf. papyrus was a consequence of high biomass production rather than barium concentration in plant tissues, whereas T. domingensis showed high barium concentration in plant tissues and high biomass production as well. These results make T. domingensis and C. cf. papyrus potential candidates to be applied in phytoremediation schemes to remove barium from flooded soils.

Keywords: barium sulfate, cyperus, drilling fluids, phytoextraction, Typha

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21 Magnetic Chloromethylated Polymer Nanocomposite for Selective Pollutant Removal

Authors: Fabio T. Costa, Sergio E. Moya, Marcelo H. Sousa

Abstract:

Nanocomposites designed by embedding magnetic nanoparticles into a polymeric matrix stand out as ideal magnetic-hybrid and magneto-responsive materials as sorbents for removal of pollutants in environmental applications. Covalent coupling is often desired for the immobilization of species on these nanocomposites, in order to keep them permanently bounded, not desorbing or leaching over time. Moreover, unwanted adsorbates can be separated by successive washes/magnetic separations, and it is also possible to recover the adsorbate covalently bound to the nanocomposite surface through detaching/cleavage protocols. Thus, in this work, we describe the preparation and characterization of highly-magnetizable chloromethylated polystyrene-based nanocomposite beads for selective covalent coupling in environmental applications. For synthesis optimization, acid resistant core-shelled maghemite (γ-Fe₂O₃) nanoparticles were coated with oleate molecules and directly incorporated into the organic medium during a suspension polymerization process. Moreover, the cross-linking agent ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was utilized for co-polymerization with the 4-vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC) to increase the resistance of microbeads against leaching. After characterizing samples with XRD, ICP-OES, TGA, optical, SEM and TEM microscopes, a magnetic composite consisting of ~500 nm-sized cross-linked polymeric microspheres embedding ~8 nm γ-Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles was verified. This nanocomposite showed large room temperature magnetization (~24 emu/g) due to the high content in maghemite (~45 wt%) and resistance against leaching even in acidic media. Moreover, the presence of superficial chloromethyl groups, probed by FTIR and XPS spectroscopies and confirmed by an amination test can selectively adsorb molecules through the covalent coupling and be used in molecular separations as shown for the selective removal of 4-aminobenzoic acid from a mixture with benzoic acid.

Keywords: nanocomposite, magnetic nanoparticle, covalent separation, pollutant removal

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20 Analysing Time Series for a Forecasting Model to the Dynamics of Aedes Aegypti Population Size

Authors: Flavia Cordeiro, Fabio Silva, Alvaro Eiras, Jose Luiz Acebal

Abstract:

Aedes aegypti is present in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is a vector of several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, zika etc. The growth in the number of arboviruses cases in the last decades became a matter of great concern worldwide. Meteorological factors like mean temperature and precipitation are known to influence the infestation by the species through effects on physiology and ecology, altering the fecundity, mortality, lifespan, dispersion behaviour and abundance of the vector. Models able to describe the dynamics of the vector population size should then take into account the meteorological variables. The relationship between meteorological factors and the population dynamics of Ae. aegypti adult females are studied to provide a good set of predictors to model the dynamics of the mosquito population size. The time-series data of capture of adult females of a public health surveillance program from the city of Lavras, MG, Brazil had its association with precipitation, humidity and temperature analysed through a set of statistical methods for time series analysis commonly adopted in Signal Processing, Information Theory and Neuroscience. Cross-correlation, multicollinearity test and whitened cross-correlation were applied to determine in which time lags would occur the influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of the mosquito abundance. Among the findings, the studied case indicated strong collinearity between humidity and precipitation, and precipitation was selected to form a pair of descriptors together with temperature. In the techniques used, there were observed significant associations between infestation indicators and both temperature and precipitation in short, mid and long terms, evincing that those variables should be considered in entomological models and as public health indicators. A descriptive model used to test the results exhibits a strong correlation to data.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, cross-correlation, multicollinearity, meteorological variables

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19 Protection from Risks of Natural Disasters and Social and Economic Support to the Native Population

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

Abstract:

The risk of natural disasters affects all the countries of the world, whether it refers to seismic events or tsunamis or hydrogeological disasters. In most cases, the risk can be considered in its three components: hazard, exposure, vulnerability (and urban vulnerability). The aim of this paper is to evaluate how the Italian scientific community has related the contribution of these three components, superimposing the three different maps that summarize the fundamental structure of the risk. Based on the three components considered, the study applies the Regional Planning methodology on the three phases of the risk protection and mitigation process: the prevention phase, the emergency intervention phase, the post-disaster phase. The paper illustrates the Italian experience of the pre-during-post-earthquake intervention. Main results: The study deepens these aspects in the belief that “a historical center” and an “island” can present similar problems at the international level, both in the phase of prevention (earthquake, tsunamis, hydrogeological disasters), in emergency phase (protocols and procedures of intervention) and in the post-disaster phase. The conclusions of the research identify the need to plan in advance how to deal with the post-disaster phase and consider it a priority with respect to the simple reconstruction of destroyed buildings. In fact the main result of the post-disaster intervention must be the return and the social and economic support of the indigenous population, and not only the construction of new housing and equipment. In this sense, the results of the research show that the elderly inhabitants of a historic center can be compared to the indigenous population of an atoll of fishermen, as both constitute the most important resource: the human resource. Their return in conditions of security testifies, with their presence, the culture, customs, and values rooted in the history of a people.

Keywords: post-disaster interventions, risk of natural disasters in Italy and abroad, seismic events in Italy, social and economic protection and support for the native population of historical centers

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