Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: osteoarthritis

64 Comparative Study Between Continuous Versus Pulsed Ultrasound in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Karim Mohamed Fawzy Ghuiba, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa, Shams Elbaz

Abstract:

Objectives: To compare between the effects continuous and pulsed ultrasound on pain and function in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized-Single blinded Study. Participants: 6 patients with knee osteoarthritis with mean age 53.66±3.61years, Altman Grade II or III. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; Group A received continuous ultrasound and Group B received pulsed ultrasound. Outcome measures: Effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound were evaluated by pain threshold assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant decrease in VAS and WOMAC scores in patients treated with pulsed or continuous ultrasound; and there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: there is no difference between the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound in pain relief or functional outcome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound therapy, continuous ultrasound

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63 Scoliosis Effect towards of Incidence of the Secondary Osteoarthritis on the Knee in Athletes at the National Sports Cibubur Hospital on July 2013-April 2014

Authors: Basuki Supartono, Nunuk Nugrohowati, Ryan Gamma Andiraldi

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis of the knee can occur due to scoliosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of scoliosis cause secondary osteoarthritis on the knee. This research use an analytic cross-sectional design. The total sample of 92 athletes scoliosis taken by simple random sampling technique. The data obtained were analyzing with Chi-square test, Fisher and Prevalence Ratio. The results of analysis show that there are influences on the incidence of scoliosis secondary osteoarthritis on the knee in athletes at the National Sports Hospital. Based on the criteria in the Cobbs angle had the results (p = 0.022 (p <0.05)), moderate Cobbs angle degree were 7.5 times more at risk of causing secondary osteoarthritis on the knee than a mild degree. While the shape of the curve scoliosis is getting results (p = 0.038 (p <0.05)), the shape of the S curve scoliosis 3.2 times more at risk of causing secondary osteoarthritis on the knee than the curve C. It can be concluded that there is significant influence between the Cobbs angle, shape of the curve scoliosis on the incidence of secondary osteoarthritis on the knee in National Sports Cibubur Hospital on July 2013- April 2014

Keywords: Cobbs angle, curve shape scoliosis, secondary osteoarthritis on the knee, analytic cross-sectional design

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62 Peculiarities of the Clinical Course of the Osteoarthritis in Shift-Workers: Analysis of Clinical Data and Questionnaries

Authors: Oksana Mykytyuk

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Chronic desynchronosis is an important factor of progression of osteoarthritis in shift workers. 80 patients with primary osteoarthritis (female:male ratio = 3:1, average age: 57.6 years, average disease duration: 6.4 years, radiological stage: II-III) were examined, 42% reported systematic night shift-work for more than two years. Full clinical examination was performed, all patients filled in SF-36, WOMAC questonnaries, marked visual analog scales for estimation of pain intensity and general well-being. Patients who had been exposed to night work had significantly worse clinical course of osteoarthritis marked by more (27.5%, p < 0.05) extensive pain syndrome, especially at night hours, (10.00 pm-2.00 am period) and estimated life quality as poorer comparing those working at day time. Osteoarthritis initiation occurred at earlier age in them comparing those who worked in non-shifted regimen. They showed a trend to generalized affliction of bigger quantity of joint groups, higher frequency of synovitis as well. Shift-workers administered higher doses of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and estimated their effect as lower (39.6% average daily relief vs 62.5% in non-shift workers after 10 days of regular application of therapy). Frequency of chronic NSAID-induced gastropathy was 25% higher among night-workers. Shift-workers are predisposed to worse course of osteoarthritis with marked clinical symptoms, requiring higher doses on NSAIDs and with inclination towards bigger frequency of complication. That should be kept in mind while developing individual treatment and secondary prophylaxis strategy.

Keywords: desynchronosis, osteoarthritis, questionnaries, shift-work

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61 A Systematic Review on The Usage of CRISPR-Cas System in The Treatment of Osteoarthritis(OA)

Authors: Atiqah Binti Ab Aziz

Abstract:

Background: It has been estimated that about 250 million people all over the world suffer from osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, OA is a major health problem in urgent need of better treatment. Problem statement: Current therapies for OA can temporarily relieve clinical symptoms and for pain management, rather than preventing or curing OA. Total knee replacement performed at the end stage of the disease is considered the only cure available. Objectives: This article aimed to explore the potential of treating osteoarthritis via the CRISPR Cas system. Methods: Articles that relate to the application of the CRISPR Cas system in osteoarthritis were extracted, categorized, and reviewed through the PRISMA method using PubMed, an engine published from November 2016 to November 2021. Results: There were 30 articles screened. Articles that fall under the categories of non-English articles, full articles that were not available, articles that were not an original articles were excluded. Ultimately, 13 articles were reviewed. Discussion: This review provides an information on the introduction of CRISPR and discussed on their mechanism of actions in extracted studies for OA treatment. Conclusions: It can be seen that not many medical research utilize the CRISPR Cas system as part of the method in the treatment of OA. Hence exploring the extent of the usage of the CRISPR Cas system in OA treatment is important to determine the research gap and point out at which of the research is needed further investigation to avoid redundancy of existing research and ensure the novelty of the research.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, treatment, CRISPR, review, therapy

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60 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: Interlukin-18, knee osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

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59 Relationship between Matrilin-3 (MATN-3) Gene Single Nucleotide Six Polymorphism, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 and Radiographic Grading in Primary Osteoarthritis

Authors: Heba Esaily, Rawhia Eledl, Daila Aboelela, Rasha Noreldin

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Objective: Assess serum level of Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) and Matrilin-3 (MATN3) SNP6 polymorphism in osteoarthritic patients Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal disease characterized by pain and joint stiffness. TGF-β 2 is involved in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, It has found that MATN3 gene and protein expression was correlated with the extent of tissue damage in OA. Findings suggest that regulation of MATN3 expression is essential for maintenance of the cartilage extracellular matrix microenvironment Subjects and Methods: 72 cases of primary OA (56 with knee OA and 16 with generalized OA were compared with that of 18 healthy controls. Radiographs were scored with the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Serum TGF-β2 was measured by using (ELISA), levels of marker were correlated to radiographic grading of disease and MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism was determined by (PCR-RFLP). Results: MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and serum level of TGF-β2 were higher in OA compared with controls. Genotype, NN and N allele frequency were higher in patients with OA compared with controls. NN genotype and N allele frequency were higher in knee osteoarthritis than generalized OA. Significant positive correlation between level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in group with knee OA, but no correlation between serum level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in generalized OA. Conclusion: MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and TGF-β2 implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Association of N/N genotype with primary osteoarthritis emphasizes on the need for prospective study include larger sample size to confirm the results of the present study.

Keywords: Matrilin-3, transforming growth factor beta 2, primary osteoarthritis, knee osteoarthritis

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58 The Effect of SIRT1 on NLRP3 (Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3) Inflammasome of Osteoarthritis

Authors: So Youn Park, Yi Sle Lee, Ki Whan Hong, Chi Dae Kim

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The role of metabolism in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is an emerging field. Metabolic alterations may be a role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, and these changes influence joint destruction via several cytokine. Especially, in OA patients, levels of IL-1β are elevated in the synovial fluid, synovial membrane, subchondral bone, and cartilage. The IL-1β is activated by NLRP3 inflammasomes, and NLRP3 inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that drive the production of other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β. In this study, we examined that SIRT1 suppresses IL-1β through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes and SIRT1 ameliorates osteoarthritis. OA fibroblasts were isolated from synovium of OA patients. IL-1β and NLRP3 were detected in synovium of OA patients by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulated the expression of active IL-1β mRNA in OA fibroblasts and combination of LPS, and adenosine triphosphate increased more the expression of active IL-1β in OA fibroblasts. The level of IL-1β was measured by western blot and ELISA assay. NLRP3 inflammasomes complex were measured by western blot. SIRT1 did not inhibit expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. So caspase-1, apoptotic speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLRP3 protein were expressed in OA fibroblasts. But SIRT1 suppressed activation of IL-1β by inhibiting activity of caspase-1 via NLRP3 inflammasome in OA fibroblasts under LPS plus ATP stimulation. These results suggest that SIRT1 is a modulator of NLRP3 inflammasomes in OA fibroblasts and ameliorate IL-1β, so expression of SIRT1 in OA fibroblast may be a potential strategy for OA inflammation treatment.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, inflammasome, SIRT1, IL-1beta

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57 Curcumin Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Osteoarthritis: A Molecular Docking Study

Authors: F. Ambreen, A.Naheed

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO) was found to play a catabolic role in the development of osteoarthritis. It is a toxic free radical gas generated during the metabolism of L-arginine by the enzyme Nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) is one of the isoform of NOS, and its overexpression leads to the excessive formation of NO that results in pathophysiological joint conditions. Several synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors are present to date, but all showed side effects and complications. Therefore, the pursuit of natural disease-modifying drugs remains a top priority. Curcumin is an active component of turmeric, and the past few decades have witnessed intense research devoted to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. The present study focused on curcumin and its derivatives in the search for new iNOS inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis. We conducted a molecular docking study on curcumin and its four derivatives; cyclocurcumin, tetrahydrocurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside with iNOS using CLC Drug discovery work bench 3.02. We selected two co-crystallized ligands for this study; tetrahydrobiopterin and N-omega-propyl-L-arginine present in complex with the enzyme iNOS. Results showed the best binding affinity of N-omega-propyl-L-arginine with cyclocurcumin and curcumin monoglucoside that exhibit binding energies of -65.2 kcal/mol and -68 kcal/mol respectively. Whereas with tetrahydrobiopterin, best binding scores of -64.7 kcal/mol and -62.2 kcal/mol were found with tetrahydrocurcumin and demethoxycurcumin respectively. This information could open doors of research for the designing of novel drugs using herbs such as curcumin for the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases.

Keywords: curcumin, iNOS, molecular docking, osteoarthritis

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56 Evaluation of Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor A (TNF-A) Changes in Synovial Fluid and Serum in Dogs with Osteoarthritis; An Experimental Study

Authors: Behrooz Nikahval, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari-Khafi, Sakineh Behroozpoor, Saeed Nazifi

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative condition of the articular cartilage and other joints’ structures. It is essential to diagnose this condition as early as possible. The present research was performed to measure the Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in synovial fluid and blood serum of dogs with surgically transected cruciate ligament as a model of OA, to evaluate if measuring of these parameters can be used as a way of early diagnosis of OA. In the present study, four mature, clinically healthy dogs were selected to investigate the effect of experimental OA, on OPG and TNF-α as a way of early detection of OA. OPG and TNF-α were measured in synovial fluid and blood serum on days 0, 14, 28, 90 and 180 after surgical transaction of cranial cruciate ligament in one stifle joint. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was a significant increase in TNF-α in both synovial fluid and blood serum. OPG showed a decrease two weeks after OA induction. However, it fluctuated afterward. In conclusion, TNF-α could be used in both synovial fluid and blood serum as a way of early detection of OA; however, further research still needs to be conducted on OPG values in OA detection.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, osteoprotegrin, tumor necrosis factor α, synovial fluid, serum, dog

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55 Obesity and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Large Joint Osteoarthritis

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Anna Musiienko, Nataliia Zaverukha, Roksolana Povoroznyuk

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Along with the global aging of population, the number of people with somatic diseases is increasing, including such interrelated pathologies as obesity, osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP). The objective of the study is to examine the connection between body mass index (BMI), OA and bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, femoral neck and trabecular bone score (TBS) in postmenopausal women with OA. We have observed 359 postmenopausal women (50-89 years old) and divided them into four groups by age: 50-59 yrs, 60-69 yrs, 70-79 yrs and over 80 years old. In addition, according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Clinical classification criteria for knee and hip OA, we divided them into 2 groups: group I – 117 females with symptomatic OA (including 89 patients with knee OA, 28 patients with hip OA) and group II –242 women with a normal functional activity of large joints. Analysis of data was performed taking into account their BMI, classified by World Health Organization (WHO). Diagnosis of obesity was established when BMI was above 30 kg/m2. In woman with obesity, a symptomatic OA was detected in 44 postmenopausal women (41.1%), a normal functional activity of large joints - in 63 women (58.9%). However, in women with normal BMI – 73 women, who account for 29.0% of cases, a symptomatic OA was detected. According to a chi-squared (χ2) test, a significantly higher level of BMI was detected in postmenopausal women with OA (χ2 = 5.05, p = 0.02). Women with a symptomatic OA had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine compared with women who had a normal functional activity of large joints. No significant differences of BMD of femoral necks or TBS were detected in either the group with OA or with a normal functional activity of large joints.

Keywords: bone mineral density, body mass index, obesity, overweight, postmenopausal women, osteoarthritis

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54 Potential Role of IL-1β in Synovial Fluid in Modulating Multiple Joint Tissue Pathologies Leading to Inflammation and Accelerating Cartilage Degeneration

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Datta Shinde, Shantanu Deshpande, Narendrakumar Wagh, Abhay Harsulkar

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with multiple and overlapping aetiologies. IL-1β is produced by stressed tissue and known to aggravate disease pathologies. We selected 10 patients with elevated IL-1β in their synovial fluids (SF). We hypothesized IL-1β as nodal-point connecting different pathologies. IL-1β was higher in all meniscal tear (MT) patients perhaps as the earliest response to injury. Since MT above age of 30 leads to OA in less than 5 years, it is attributed that IL-1β modulates OA pathology. Among all bilateral OA patients, an interesting case operated for Total-Knee-Replacement revealed differential cartilage degeneration demonstrating strong association with higher IL-1β. Symptoms like acute-pain, effusion and redness were correlated with higher IL-1β and NO (Nitric-oxide). However, higher IL-1β was also found without typical-inflammation characterized by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Cultured synoviocytes responded to IL-1β by releasing NO. In conclusion, IL-1β in SF acquires central position influencing different OA pathologies and aetiologies.

Keywords: IL-1β, meniscal tear, osteoarthritis, synovial fluid

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53 Clinical Prediction Rules for Using Open Kinetic Chain Exercise in Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Mohamed Aly, Aliaa Rehan Youssef, Emad Sawerees, Mounir Guirgis

Abstract:

Relevance: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease seen in all populations. It causes disability and substantial socioeconomic burden. Evidence supports that exercise are the most effective conservative treatment for patients with OA. Therapists experience and clinical judgment play major role in exercise prescription and scientific evidence for this regard is lacking. The development of clinical prediction rules to identify patients who are most likely benefit from exercise may help solving this dilemma. Purpose: This study investigated whether body mass index and functional ability at baseline can predict patients’ response to a selected exercise program. Approach: Fifty-six patients, aged 35 to 65 years, completed an exercise program consisting of open kinetic chain strengthening and passive stretching exercises. The program was given for 3 sessions per week, 45 minutes per session, for 6 weeks Evaluation: At baseline and post treatment, pain severity was assessed using the numerical pain rating scale, whereas functional ability was being assessed by step test (ST), time up and go test (TUG) and 50 feet time walk test (50 FTW). After completing the program, global rate of change (GROC) score of greater than 4 was used to categorize patients as successful and non-successful. Thirty-eight patients (68%) had successful response to the intervention. Logistic regression showed that BMI and 50 FTW test were the only significant predictors. Based on the results, patients with BMI less than 34.71 kg/m2 and 50 FTW test less than 25.64 sec are 68% to 89% more likely to benefit from the exercise program. Conclusions: Clinicians should consider the described strengthening and flexibility exercise program for patents with BMI less than 34.7 Kg/m2 and 50 FTW faster than 25.6 seconds. The validity of these predictors should be investigated for other exercise.

Keywords: clinical prediction rule, knee osteoarthritis, physical therapy exercises, validity

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52 Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics and Use of Herbal Medicine among Patients Seeking Consultation for Knee Osteoarthritis at Secondary Healthcare Facilities in Oman

Authors: Thuraya Ahmed Al Shidhani, Yahya Al Farsi, Alya Al Husni, Samir Al Adawi

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Background: Knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) represents a major public health burden worldwide, particularly among older adults. However, little has been documented from Arabian Gulf countries, which have left an information gap. Objective: This study describes the socio-demographic, clinical risk factors, and use of herbal medicine among men and women seeking consultation for knee OA at two secondary healthcare facilities in Muscat, Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 213 Omani adults with knee OA attending a referral polyclinic in Muscat, Oman, over 12 months from January to December. Socio-demographic data were collected from the participants who are seeking consultation for knee OA. Results: Among the 213 study participants, 171 were females and 42 males. The females were comparatively older than the males, had lower education and lower-income, and more overweight. The majority of the participants were normal weight or underweight. About one-third of participants reported OA in other joints as well. Most participants recalled that they had knee OA for less than a year. About 12% reported a history of trauma. The majority (63%) concurrently had other chronic illnesses, and 33% reported having at least one complication. About 22% were using herbal medicines. About 77% are using herbal local applications in form of powder and creams. Conclusion: This study, to our knowledge, is the first to explore socio-demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors and use of herbal medicine among sufferers of knee OA in Oman. Knee OA tended to occur among our participants at younger ages than reported elsewhere, while obesity appeared orthogonal to the severity of knee OA. Women were more affected than men. About one quarter of Omani patients are using herbal medicine. More studies are needed to understand the causal factors and development of knee OA in Oman. Targeted health education and rehabilitation programs are needed, particularly among Omani women, to improve their physical quality of life.

Keywords: knee joint, osteoarthritis, herbal medicine, Oman

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51 Correlation Study between Clinical and Radiological Findings in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Nabil A. A. Mohamed, Alaa A. A. Balbaa, Khaled E. Ayad

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Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of arthritis and leads to more activity limitations (e.g., disability in walking and stair climbing) than any other disease, especially in the elderly. Recently, impaired proprioceptive accuracy of the knee has been proposed as a local factor in the onset and progression of radiographic knee OA (ROA). Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological findings in healthy with that of knee OA. Also, to determine if there is a correlation between the clinical and radiological findings in patients with knee OA. Subjects: Fifty one patients diagnosed as unilateral or bilateral knee OA with age ranged between 35-70 years, from both gender without any previous history of knee trauma or surgery, and twenty one normal subjects with age ranged from 35 - 68 years. METHODS: peak torque/body weight (PT/BW) was recorded from knee extensors at isokinetic isometric mode at angle of 45 degree. Also, the Absolute Angular Error was recorded at 45O and 30O to measure joint position sense (JPS). They made anteroposterior (AP) plain X-rays from standing semiflexed knee position and their average score of Timed Up and Go test(TUG) and WOMAC were recorded as a measure of knee pain, stiffness and function. Comparison between the mean values of different variables in the two groups was performed using unpaired student t test. The P value less or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were significant differences between the studied variables between the experimental and control groups except the values of AAE at 30O. Also, there were no significant correlation between the clinical findings (pain, function, muscle strength and proprioception) and the severity of arthritic changes in X-rays. CONCLUSION: From the finding of the current study we can conclude that there were a significant difference between the both groups in all studied parameters (the WOMAC, functional level, quadriceps muscle strength and the joint proprioception). Also this study did not support the dependency on radiological findings in management of knee OA as the radiological features did not necessarily indicate the level of structural damage of patients with knee OA and we should consider the clinical features in our treatment plan.

Keywords: joint position sense, peak torque, proprioception, radiological knee osteoarthritis

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50 Cell Adhesion, Morphology and Cytokine Expression of Synoviocytes Can Be Altered on Different Nano-Topographic Oxidized Silicon Nanosponges

Authors: Hung-Chih Hsu, Pey-Jium Chang, Ching-Hsein Chen, Jer-Liang Andrew Yeh

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disorder in rehabilitation clinic. The main characteristics include joint pain, localized tenderness and enlargement, joint effusion, cartilage destruction, loss of adhesion of perichondrium, synovium hyperplasia. Synoviocytes inflammation might be a cause of local tenderness and effusion. Inflammation cytokines might also play an important role in joint pain, cartilage destruction, decrease adhesion of perichondrium to the bone. Treatments of osteoarthritis include non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAID), glucosamine supplementation, hyaluronic acid, arthroscopic debridement, and total joint replacement. Total joint replacement is commonly used in patients with severe OA who failed respond to pharmacological treatment. However, some patients received surgery had serious adverse events, including instability of the implants due to insufficient adhesion to the adjacent bony tissue or synovial inflammation. We tried to develop ideal nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges by using with various chemicals to produce thickness difference in nanometers in order to study more about the cell-environment interactions in vitro like the alterations of cell adhesion, morphology, extracellular matrix secretions in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Cytokines studies like growth factor, reactive oxygen species, reactive inflammatory materials (Like nitrous oxide and prostaglandin E2), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation enzymes, and synthesis of collagen will also be observed and discussed. Extracellular and intracellular expression transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) will be studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The degradation of ECM will be observed by the bioactivity ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase by ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). When rabbit synoviocytes were cultured on these nano-topographic structures, they demonstrate better cell adhesion rate, decreased expression of MMP-2,9 and PGE2, and increased expression of TGF-β when cultured in nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges than in the planar oxidized silicon ones. These results show cell behavior, cytokine production can be influenced by physical characteristics from different nano-topographic structures. Our study demonstrates the possibility of manipulating cell behavior in these nano-topographic biomaterials.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, synoviocyte, oxidized silicon surfaces, reactive oxygen species

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49 Antioxidant Status in Synovial Fluid from Osteoarthritis Patients: A Pilot Study in Indian Demography

Authors: S. Koppikar, P. Kulkarni, D. Ingale , N. Wagh, S. Deshpande, A. Mahajan, A. Harsulkar

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Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progression Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has been endorsed several times though its exact mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress is known to instigate classical stress factors such as cytokines, chemokines and ROS, which hampers cartilage remodelling process and ultimately results in worsening the disease. Synovial fluid (SF) is a biological communicator between cartilage and synovium that accumulates redox and biochemical signalling mediators. The present work attempts to measure several oxidative stress markers in the synovial fluid obtained from knee OA patients with varying degree of disease severity. Thirty OA and five Meniscal-tear (MT) patients were graded using Kellgren-Lawrence scale and assessed for Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrate-Nitrite (NN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels for comparison. Out of various oxidative markers studied, NO and SOD showed significant difference between moderate and severe OA (p= 0.007 and p= 0.08, respectively), whereas CAT demonstrated significant difference between MT and mild group (p= 0.07). Interestingly, NN revealed statistically positive correlation with OA severity (p= 0.001 and p= 0.003). MDA, a lipid peroxidation by-product was estimated maximum in early OA when compared to MT (p= 0.06). However, FRAP did not show any correlation with OA severity or MT control. NO is an essential bio-regulatory molecule essential for several physiological processes, and inflammatory conditions. However, due to its short life, exact estimation of NO becomes difficult. NO and its measurable stable products are still it is considered as one of the important biomarker of oxidative damage. Levels of NO and nitrite-nitrate in SF of patients with OA indicated its involvement in the disease progression. When SF groups were compared, a significant correlation among moderate, mild and MT groups was established. To summarize, present data illustrated higher levels of NO, SOD, CAT, DPPH and MDA in early OA in comparison with MT, as a control group. NN had emerged as a prognostic bio marker in knee OA patients, which may act as futuristic targets in OA treatment.

Keywords: antioxidant, knee osteoarthritis, oxidative stress, synovial fluid

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48 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Authors: Papon Thamvasupong, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat

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Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.

Keywords: controlled release, drug delivery system, glucosamine, pluronic, thermoreversible hydrogel

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47 Cold Tomato Paste as an Alternative Therapy for Elderly Clients with Exacerbation of Arthritis

Authors: Mary Therese G. Caluna, Mark Justin B. Campanero, Erlin Maris T. Cantiller, Claudine Mae A. Cantillo, Nerissa L. Caño

Abstract:

Objective: The study determined the effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain caused by exacerbation of arthritis in the elderly, specifically on clients 60 years old and above. The study focused on alternative, cost-effective and non-pharmacological techniques in relieving pain experienced by the older people with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Using purposive non-probability sampling, the researchers gathered a total number of 40 subjects that passed the inclusion criteria provided by the researchers. The subjects were divided into two groups, experimental group (20 subjects) and control groups (20 subjects). The Numeric Rating 11-point Scale (NRS-11) was utilized to assess the pain level of the subject prior the application of the treatment and after the application of the treatment. Key findings: There is a significant difference in the pain levels of the experimental group before and after the application of cold tomato paste. This indicates that that the application of cold tomato paste alleviates the pain experienced by elderly clients with exacerbation of arthritis. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain experienced by elderly clients who are in exacerbation of arthritis was proven to be evidence-based. The cold tomato paste application has significant impact in the field of nursing and therefore, can be used in both clinical trials and practices. The effectiveness of cold tomato application promotes innovation in the field of nursing, thus encouraging further researches regarding other uses of tomato and other herbal interventions to relieve the pain caused by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: alternative therapy, arthritis, cold tomato paste, elderly clients, exacerbation

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46 Gender Specific Differences in Clinical Outcomes of Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with Micro-Fragmented Adipose Tissue

Authors: Tiffanie-Marie Borg, Yasmin Zeinolabediny, Nima Heidari, Ali Noorani, Mark Slevin, Angel Cullen, Stefano Olgiati, Alberto Zerbi, Alessandro Danovi, Adrian Wilson

Abstract:

Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a critical cause of disability globally. In recent years, there has been growing interest in non-invasive treatments, such as intra-articular injection of micro-fragmented fat (MFAT), showing great potential in treating OA. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), originating from pericytes of micro-vessels in MFAT, can differentiate into mesenchymal lineage cells such as cartilage, osteocytes, adipocytes, and osteoblasts. Secretion of growth factor and cytokines from MSCs have the capability to inhibit T cell growth, reduced pain and inflammation, and create a micro-environment that through paracrine signaling, can promote joint repair and cartilage regeneration. Here we have shown, for the first time, data supporting the hypothesis that women respond better in terms of improvements in pain and function to MFAT injection compared to men. Historically, women have been underrepresented in studies, and studies with both sexes regularly fail to analyse the results by sex. To mitigate this bias and quantify it, we describe a technique using reproducible statistical analysis and replicable results with Open Access statistical software R to calculate the magnitude of this difference. Genetic, hormonal, environmental, and age factors play a role in our observed difference between the sexes. This observational, intention-to-treat study included the complete sample of 456 patients who agreed to be scored for pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Oxford knee score (OKS)) at baseline regardless of subsequent changes to adherence or status during follow-up. We report that a significantly larger number of women responded to treatment than men: [90% vs. 60% change in VAS scores with 87% vs. 65% change in OKS scores, respectively]. Women overall had a stronger positive response to treatment with reduced pain and improved mobility and function. Pre-injection, our cohort of women were in more pain with worse joint function which is quite common to see in orthopaedics. However, during the 2-year follow-up, they consistently maintained a lower incidence of discomfort with superior joint function. This data clearly identifies a clear need for further studies to identify the cell and molecular biological and other basis for these differences and be able to utilize this information for stratification in order to improve outcome for both women and men.

Keywords: gender differences, micro-fragmented adipose tissue, knee osteoarthritis, stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
45 Comparison of the Proprioception Sense and Standing Balance in Patients with Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty Surgery

Authors: S. Daneshi, G. Shahcheraghi, F. Ghaffarinejad

Abstract:

Back ground: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people around the world during the aging process. Knee joint proprioception sense decrease with OA and Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery may affect them. We investigated two parameters of proprioception sense (the joint position sense and kinesthesia) and standing balance in affected limbs before and after TKA, in patient with Knee OA. Methods and Materials: In this Analytic study, 10 patients who were candidate for TKA during two months in Dena Hospital of Shiraz, selected for further analysis. All of cases were female in range of 55-70 years old. Participants assessed before and two weeks after TKA using three instruments: electrogoniometer and continuous passive motion (CPM) to assess Knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees; and chronometer to assess duration of standing balance on affected leg with open and closed eyes. Results: To examine differences between before and after of TKA scorings Willcoxon Signed Rank and Mann-Whitney was performed which indicated no significant differences between knee joint position sense and kinesthesia in 20 and 45 degrees (P>0.05) and no significant differences between Standing Balance in a patient with knee OA before and after TKA (P>0.05). Conclusion: The study indicates that, OA can affect proprioception sense and standing balance but TKA doesn’t have any effect on these parameters. Intra articular structures such as cruciate ligaments and mines are responsible for proprioception sense in normal knee joint. Since in severe knee OA the number of mechanoreceptors in these intra articular structures decrease and their function reduce more than normal knee joint, so the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) become defected, thus after TKA surgery which this ligament is removed no significant change was found in proprioception sense. As a result of involving proprioception sense, muscles strength and the function of vestibular system in balance, standing balance did not show significant difference before and after TKA.

Keywords: knee joint, proprioception sense, standing balance, rehabilitation sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
44 Benefits of The ALIAmide Palmitoyl-Glucosamine Co-Micronized with Curcumin for Osteoarthritis Pain: A Preclinical Study

Authors: Enrico Gugliandolo, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosalia Crupi

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic pain conditions in dogs and cats. OA pain is currently viewed as a mixed phenomenon involving both inflammatory and neuropathic mechanisms at the peripheral (joint) and central (spinal and supraspinal) levels. Oxidative stress has been implicated in OA pain. Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly prescribed for OA pain, they should be used with caution in pets because of adverse effects in the long term and controversial efficacy on neuropathic pain. An unmet need remains for safe and effective long-term treatments for OA pain. Palmitoyl-glucosamine (PGA) is an analogue of the ALIAamide palmitoylethanolamide, i.e., a body’s own endocannabinoid-like compound playing a sentinel role in nociception. PGA, especially in the micronized formulation, was shown safe and effective in OA pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a co-micronized formulation of PGA with the natural antioxidant curcumin (PGA-cur) on OA pain. Ten Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for each treatment group. The University of Messina Review Board for the care and use of animals authorized the study. On day 0, rats were anesthetized (5.0% isoflurane in 100% O2) and received intra-articular injection of MIA (3 mg in 25 μl saline) in the right knee joint, with the left being injected an equal volume of saline. Starting the third day after MIA injection, treatments were administered orally three times per week for 21 days, at the following doses: PGA 20 mg/kg, curcumin 10 mg/kg, PGA-cur (2:1 ratio) 30 mg/kg. On day 0 and 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-injection, mechanical allodynia was measured using a dynamic plantar Von Frey hair aesthesiometer and expressed as paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and latency (PWL). Motor functional recovery of the rear limb was evaluated on the same time points by walking track analysis using the sciatic functional index. On day 21 post-MIA injection, the concentration of the following inflammatory and nociceptive mediators was measured in serum using commercial ELISA kits: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), nerve growth factor (NGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-1-3-9 (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9). The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. Micronized PGA reduced neuropathic pain, as shown by the significant higher PWT and PWL values compared to vehicle group (p < 0.0001 for all the evaluated time points). The effect of PGA-cur was superior at all time points (p < 0.005). PGA-cur restored motor function already on day 14 (p < 0.005), while micronized PGA was effective a week later (D21). MIA-induced increase in the serum levels of all the investigated mediators was inhibited by PGA-cur (p < 0.01). PGA was also effective, except on IL-1 and MMP-3. Curcumin alone was inactive in all the experiments at any time point. The encouraging results suggest that PGA-cur may represent a valuable option in OA pain management and warrant further confirmation in well-powered clinical trials.

Keywords: ALIAmides, curcumin, osteoarthritis, palmitoyl-glucosamine

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
43 Localisation of Fluorescently Labelled Drug-Free Phospholipid Vesicles to the Cartilage Surface of Rat Synovial Joints

Authors: Sam Yurdakul, Nick Baverstock, Jim Mills

Abstract:

TDT 064 (FLEXISEQ®) is a drug-free gel used to treat osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain and joint stiffness. It contains ultra-deformable phospholipid Sequessome™ vesicles, which can pass through the skin barrier intact. In six randomized OA studies, topical TDT 064 was well tolerated and improved joint pain, physical function and stiffness. In the largest study, these TDT 064-mediated effects were statistically significantly greater than oral placebo and equivalent to celecoxib. To understand the therapeutic effects of TDT 064, we investigated the localisation of the drug-free vesicles within rat synovial joints. TDT 064 containing DiO-labelled Sequessome™ vesicles was applied to the knees of four 6-week-old CD® hairless rats (10 mg/kg/ joint), 2–3 times/day, for 3 days (representing the recommended clinical dose). Eighteen hours later, the animals and one untreated control were sacrificed, and the knee joints isolated, flash frozen and embedded in Acrytol Mounting Media™. Approximately 15 sections (10 µm) from each joint were analysed by fluorescence microscopy. To investigate whether the localisation of DiO fluorescence was associated with intact vesicles, an anti-PEG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to detect Tween, a constituent of Sequessome™ vesicles. Sections were visualized at 484 nm (DiO) and 647 nm (anti-PEG mAb) and analysed using inForm 1.4 (Perkin Elmer, Inc.). Significant fluorescence was observed at 484 nm in sections from TDT 064-treated animals. No non-specific fluorescence was observed in control sections. Fluorescence was detected as discrete vesicles on the cartilage surfaces, inside the cartilaginous matrix and within the synovial space. The number of DiO-labelled vesicles in multiple fields of view was consistent and >100 in sections from four different treated knees. DiO and anti-PEG mAb co-localised within the collagenous tissues in four different joint sections. Under higher magnification (40x), vesicles were seen in the intercellular spaces of the synovial joint tissue, but no fluorescence was seen inside cells. These data suggest that the phospholipid vesicles in TDT 064 localize at the surface of the joint cartilage; these vesicles may therefore be supplementing the phospholipid deficiency reported in OA and acting as a biolubricant within the synovial joint.

Keywords: joint pain, osteoarthritis, phospholipid vesicles, TDT 064

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
42 Self-Healing Hydrogel Triggered by Magnetic Microspheres to Control Glutathione Release for Cartilage Repair

Authors: I-Yun Cheng, Min-Yu Chiang, Shwu-Jen Chang, San-Yuan Chen

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is among the most challenging joint diseases, and as far as we know, there is currently no exact and effective cure for it because it has low self-repair ability due to lack of blood vessels and low cell density in articular cartilage. So far, there have been several methods developed to treat cartilage disorder. The most common method is to treat the high molecular weight of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection, but it will degrade after a period of time, so the patients need to inject HA repeatedly. In recent years, self-healing hydrogel has drawn considerable attention because it can recover its initial mechanical properties after damaged and further increase the lifetime of the hydrogel. Here, we aim to develop a self-healable composite hydrogel combined with magnetic microspheres to trigger glutathione(GSH) release for promoting cartilage repair. We use HA-cyclodextrin (CD) as host polymer and poly(acrylic acid)-ferrocene (pAA-Fc) as guest polymer to form the self-healable HA-pAA hydrogel by host and guest interaction where various graft amount of pAA-Fc (pAA:Fc= 1:2, 1:1.5, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1) was conducted to develop different mechanical strength hydrogel. The rheology analysis showed that the 4:1 of pAA-Fc has higher mechanical strength than other formulations. On the other hand, iron oxide nanoparticle, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were used to synthesize porous magnetic microspheres via double emulsification water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) to increase GSH loading which acted as a reductant to control the hydrogel crosslink density and promote hydrogel self-healing. The results show that the porous magnetic microspheres can be loaded with 70% of GSH and sustained release about 50% of GSH after 24 hours. More importantly, the HA-pAA composite hydrogel can self-heal rapidly within 24 hours when suffering external force destruction by releasing GSH from the magnetic microspheres. Therefore, the developed the HA-pAA composite hydrogel combined with GSH-loaded magnetic microspheres can be in-vivo guided to damaged OA surface for inducing the cartilage repair by controlling the crosslinking of self-healing hydrogel via GSH release.

Keywords: articular cartilage, magnetic microsphere, osteoarthritis, self-healing hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
41 Effectiveness of Dry Needling with and without Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Johnson C. Y. Pang, Amy S. N. Fu, Ryan K. L. Lee, Allan C. L. Fu

Abstract:

Dry needling (DN) is one of the puncturing methods that involves the insertion of needles into the tender spots of the human body without the injection of any substance. DN has long been used to treat the patient with knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), but the effectiveness is still inconsistent. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the intervention methods and effects of DN with and without ultrasound guidance for treating pain and dysfunctions in people with KOA and PFPS. Design: This systematic review adhered to the PRISMA reporting guidelines. The registration number of the study protocol published in the PROSPERO database was CRD42021221419. Six electronic databases were searched manually through CINAHL Complete (1976-2020), Cochrane Library (1996-2020), EMBASE (1947-2020), Medline (1946-2020), PubMed (1966-2020), and Psychinfo (1806-2020) in November 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials were included to examine the effects of DN on knee pain, including KOA and PFPS. The key concepts included were: DN, acupuncture, ultrasound guidance, KOA, and PFPS. Risk of bias assessment and qualitative analysis were conducted by two independent reviewers using the PEDro score. Results: Fourteen articles met the inclusion criteria, and eight of them were high-quality papers in accordance with the PEDro score. There were variations in the techniques of DN. These included the direction, depth of insertion, number of needles, duration of stay, needle manipulation, and the number of treatment sessions. Meta-analysis was conducted on eight articles. DN group showed positive short-term effects (from immediate after DN to less than 3 months) on pain reduction for both KOA and PFPS with the overall standardized mean difference (SMD) of -1.549 (95% CI=-0.588 to -2.511); with great heterogeneity (P=0.002, I²=96.3%). In subgroup analysis, DN demonstrated significant effects in pain reduction on PFPS (p < 0.001) that could not be found in subjects with KOA (P=0.302). At 3-month post-intervention, DN also induced significant pain reduction in both subjects with KOA and PFPS with an overall SMD of -0.916 (95% CI=-0.133 to -1.699, and great heterogeneity (P=0.022, I²=95.63%). Besides, DN induced significant short-term improvement in function with the overall SMD=6.069; 95% CI=8.595 to 3.544; with great heterogeneity (P<0.001, I²=98.56%) when analyzed was conducted on both KOA and PFPS groups. In subgroup analysis, only PFPS showed a positive result with SMD=6.089, P<0.001; while KOA showed statistically insignificant with P=0.198 in short-term effect. Similarly, at 3-month post-intervention, significant improvement in function after DN was found when the analysis was conducted in both groups with the overall SMD=5.840; 95% CI=9.252 to 2.428; with great heterogeneity (P<0.001, I²=99.1%), but only PFPS showed significant improvement in sub-group analysis (P=0.002, I²=99.1%). Conclusions: The application of DN in KOA and PFPS patients varies among practitioners. DN is effective in reducing pain and dysfunction at short-term and 3-month post-intervention in individuals with PFPS. To our best knowledge, no study has reported the effects of DN with ultrasound guidance on KOA and PFPS. The longer-term effects of DN on KOA and PFPS are waiting for further study.

Keywords: dry needling, knee osteoarthritis, patellofemoral pain syndrome, ultrasound guidance

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
40 Ultra-deformable Drug-free Sequessome™ Vesicles (TDT 064) for the Treatment of Joint Pain Following Exercise: A Case Report and Clinical Data

Authors: Joe Collins, Matthias Rother

Abstract:

Background: Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the relief of joint pain during and post-exercise. However, oral NSAIDs increase the risk of systemic side effects, even in healthy individuals, and retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 (Flexiseq®), a topical formulation containing ultra-deformable drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles, has demonstrated equivalent efficacy to oral celecoxib in reducing osteoarthritis-associated joint pain and stiffness. TDT 064 does not cause NSAID-related adverse effects. We describe clinical study data and a case report on the effectiveness of TDT 064 in reducing joint pain after exercise. Methods: Participants with a pain score ≥3 (10-point scale) 12–16 hours post-exercise were randomized to receive TDT 064 plus oral placebo, TDT 064 plus oral ketoprofen, or ketoprofen in ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles plus oral placebo. Results: In the 168 study participants, pain scores were significantly higher with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 than with TDT 064 plus placebo in the 7 days post-exercise (P = 0.0240) and recovery from muscle soreness was significantly longer (P = 0.0262). There was a low incidence of adverse events. These data are supported by clinical experience. A 24-year-old male professional rugby player suffered a traumatic lisfranc fracture in March 2014 and underwent operative reconstruction. He had no relevant medical history and was not receiving concomitant medications. He had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in 2008. The patient reported restricted training due to pain (score 7/10), stiffness (score 9/10) and poor function, as well as pain when changing direction and running on consecutive days. In July 2014 he started using TDT 064 twice daily at the recommended dose. In November 2014 he noted reduced pain on running (score 2-3/10), decreased morning stiffness (score 4/10) and improved joint mobility and was able to return to competitive rugby without restrictions. No side effects of TDT 064 were reported. Conclusions: TDT 064 shows efficacy against exercise- and injury-induced joint pain, as well as that associated with osteoarthritis. It does not retard muscle soreness recovery after exercise compared with an oral NSAID, making it an alternative approach for the treatment of joint pain during and post-exercise.

Keywords: exercise, joint pain, TDT 064, phospholipid vesicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
39 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
38 An Inherent Risk to Damage the Popliteus Tendon by Some Femoral Component Designs: A Pilot Study in Indian Knees

Authors: Rajendra Kanojia

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Femoral components with inbuilt rotation require thicker flexion resection of the lateral femoral condyle and could potential risk to damage the popliteus tendon especially in the smaller Asian knees. We prospectively evaluated 10 patients with bilateral varus osteoarthritis knee to size the cuts and their location in relation to the popliteus tendon. Two different types of implant were used on either side, one side requires resection in 3° external rotation (group A) and other side femoral component with inbuilt external roation (group B). We had popliteus tendon injury in 3 knees all from group B. Risk of damaging the popliteus tendon was found higher in group B.

Keywords: popliteaus tendon injury, TKA, orthopaedic surgery, biomechanics and clinical applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
37 The Application of Rhizophora Wood to Design a Walking Stick for Elderly

Authors: Noppadon Sangwalpetch

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to use Rhizophora wood to design a walking stick for elderly by applying its properties on strength and toughness. The research was conducted by studying the behavior and the type of walking sticks used by 70 elderly aged between 60-80 years in Pragnamdaeng Sub-District, Ampawa District, Samudsongkram Province. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were calculated to find percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1) most elderly use walking sticks due to the Osteoarthritis of the knees. 2) Most elderly need to use walking sticks because the walking sticks help to balance their positioning and prevent from stumble. 3) Most elderly agree that Rhizophora wood is suitable to make a walking stick because of its strength and toughness. In addition, it is a local plant which is available and cheap. 4) The design of the walking stick should be fine and practical with comfortable handle and the tip of the stick must not be slippery.

Keywords: rhizophora wood, the design of a walking stick, elderly, visual arts

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
36 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution

Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař

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Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.

Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLS

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
35 Argon/Oxygen Plasma Surface Modification of Biopolymers for Improvement of Wettability and Wear Resistance

Authors: Binnur Sagbas

Abstract:

Artificial joint replacements such as total knee and total hip prosthesis have been applied to the patients who affected by osteoarthritis. Although different material combinations are used for these joints, biopolymers are most commonly preferred materials especially for acetabular cup and tibial component of hip and knee joints respectively. The main limitation that shortens the service life of these prostheses is wear. Wear is complicated phenomena and it must be considered with friction and lubrication. In this study, micro wave (MW) induced argon+oxygen plasma surface modification were applied on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and vitamin E blended UHMWPE (VE-UHMWPE) biopolymer surfaces to improve surface wettability and wear resistance of the surfaces. Contact angel measurement method was used for determination of wettability. Ball-on-disc wear test was applied under 25% bovine serum lubrication conditions. The results show that surface wettability and wear resistance of both material samples were increased by plasma surface modification.

Keywords: artificial joints, plasma surface modification, UHMWPE, vitamin E, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 207