Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2997

Search results for: interviews

2997 An Investigation of Quality Practices in Libyan Industrial Companies

Authors: Mostafa A. Shokshok, Omran Ali Abu Krais


This paper describes the collection and analysis of data obtained from face-to-face interviews conducted in selected Libyan industrial companies. The objectives of the interviews are to enhance understanding, and generate explanations of current issues in culture and quality management systems in Libyan companies. The method used in analyzing the questions, as well as the main finding of each question are explained. The interviews probed areas identify national and organizational culture, quality management systems, current methods, effects, barriers and other factors affecting the success of quality management implementation. Eleven questions are prepared and been discussed with the interviewees.

Keywords: interviews, quality, culture, Libyan industrial companies

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
2996 Grammatical Forms and Functions in Selected Political Interviews of Nigerian Presidential Aspirants in 2015 General Election

Authors: Temitope Abiodun Balogun


Political interviews are one of the ways by which political office-seekers in Nigeria sell themselves to the electorates. Extant studies have examined the discourse of political interviews from conversational, philosophical, rhetorical, stylistic and pragmatic perspectives with insufficient attention paid to grammatical forms and communicative intentions of the interviews granted by the two presidential aspirants in the 2015 Nigerian general election. This study fills this scholarly gap to unmask their grammatical forms and communicative styles, intention and credibility. The paper adopts Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar, specifically interpersonal function coupled with Searle’s Model of Speech Acts Theory as a theoretical framework. A total of six interviews granted by the two presidential aspirants in media serve as the source of data. It is discovered that, in most cases, politicians’ communicative intention is to “pull-down” their political opponents. While declarative and interrogatives are simple, direct and straightforward, the intention is to condemn, lambast and castigate their opponents. This communicative style does not allow the general populace to decipher the political manifestoes of the political aspirants and the party they represent. The paper recommends that before Nigeria can boast of any sustainable growth and development, there is the need for her political office-seekers to adopt effective communication strategies and styles to unveil their intention and manifestoes so that electorates can evaluate their performance after their tenure of office.

Keywords: general election, grammatical forms and function, political interviews, presidential aspirants

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2995 Thanking as a Compliment Response at Higher Education Institution: A Comparative Study of Omani and Australian Speakers

Authors: Arfat Bait Jamil


This study investigates how the compliment response of thanking is performed by Omani and Australian, lecturers and students, in higher educational settings. Semi-structured interviews and observation records were used to collect data. Thanking responses were aggregated from interviews with Omani lecturers and students in Oman, and from Australian lecturers and students in Australia, wherein they were asked to imagine themselves being complimented on five different compliment topics. After the interviews, they used observation record to note down real-life examples of compliment exchanges, along with their opinions. The findings show that thanking is not a simple compliment response. Depending on the context in which the compliment is delivered, thanking does not always suggest positive thoughts or feelings and compliment approval.

Keywords: Australia, compliment responses, Oman, thanking

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2994 A Critical Reflection of Ableist Methodologies: Approaching Interviews and Go-Along Interviews

Authors: Hana Porkertová, Pavel Doboš


Based on a research project studying the experience of visually disabled people with urban space in the Czech Republic, the conference contribution discusses the limits of social-science methodologies used in sociology and human geography. It draws on actor-network theory, assuming that science does not describe reality but produces it. Methodology connects theory, research questions, ways to answer them (methods), and results. A research design utilizing ableist methodologies can produce ableist realities. Therefore, it was necessary to adjust the methods so that they could mediate blind experience to the scientific community without reproducing ableism. The researchers faced multiple challenges, ranging from questionable validity to how to research experience that differs from that of the researchers who are able-bodied. Finding a suitable theory that could be used as an analytical tool that would demonstrate space and blind experience as multiple, dynamic, and mutually constructed was the first step that could offer a range of potentially productive methods and research questions, as well as bring critically reflected results. Poststructural theory, mainly Deleuze-Guattarian philosophy, was chosen, and two methods were used: interviews and go-along interviews that had to be adjusted to be able to explore blind experience. In spite of a thorough preparation of these methods, new difficulties kept emerging, which exposed the ableist character of scientific knowledge. From the beginning of data collecting, there was an agreement to work in teams with slightly different roles of each of the researchers, which was significant especially during go-along interviews. In some cases, the anticipations of the researchers and participants differed, which led to unexpected and potentially dangerous situations. These were not caused only by the differences between scientific and lay communities but also between able-bodied and disabled people. Researchers were sometimes assigned to the assistants’ roles, and this new position – doing research together – required further negotiations, which also opened various ethical questions.

Keywords: ableist methodology, blind experience, go-along interviews, research ethics, scientific knowledge

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2993 Monthly Labor Forces Surveys Portray Smooth Labor Markets and Bias Fixed Effects Estimation: Evidence from Israel’s Transition from Quarterly to Monthly Surveys

Authors: Haggay Etkes


This study provides evidence for the impact of monthly interviews conducted for the Israeli Labor Force Surveys (LFSs) on estimated flows between labor force (LF) statuses and on coefficients in fixed-effects estimations. The study uses the natural experiment of parallel interviews for the quarterly and the monthly LFSs in Israel in 2011 for demonstrating that the Labor Force Participation (LFP) rate of Jewish persons who participated in the monthly LFS increased between interviews, while in the quarterly LFS it decreased. Interestingly, the estimated impact on the LFP rate of self-reporting individuals is 2.6–3.5 percentage points while the impact on the LFP rate of individuals whose data was reported by another member of their household (a proxy), is lower and statistically insignificant. The relative increase of the LFP rate in the monthly survey is a result of a lower rate of exit from the LF and a somewhat higher rate of entry into the LF relative to these flows in the quarterly survey. These differing flows have a bearing on labor search models as the monthly survey portrays a labor market with less friction and a “steady state” LFP rate that is 5.9 percentage points higher than the quarterly survey. The study also demonstrates that monthly interviews affect a specific group (45–64 year-olds); thus the sign of coefficient of age as an explanatory variable in fixed-effects regressions on LFP is negative in the monthly survey and positive in the quarterly survey.

Keywords: measurement error, surveys, search, LFSs

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2992 Canadian French as an Additional Language Teacher Candidates' Proficiency and Confidence Pre- and Post-Francophone Home-Stay: Practicum Experience as Revealed through Questionnaire and Interviews

Authors: Callie Mady


This study investigated the Canadian French as an additional language teacher candidates’ confidence and language maintenance strategies by means of questionnaires and interviews pre- and post- a Francophone home-stay practicum experience. Teacher French language proficiency is one of the components of teacher knowledge that can influence students’ French as an additional language acquisition. Although advantageous, seeking opportunities to use French in a French milieu comes with challenges. Teachers, for example, have been found to be hesitant to speak French with native speakers for fear of judgment. Another identified challenge to spending time in a French milieu is finances; while teachers have recognized the value of such an experience, cost is prohibitive. In recognition of the potential barriers and the need to maintain/improve the French proficiency of 'French as an additional language' teachers, this study provided a two-week home stay in a Francophone environment for teacher candidates of French as an additional language with financial subsidies for their participation. Through the post-experience interviews, the French as an additional language teacher candidates revealed an improvement in French proficiency. Similarly, the teacher candidates cited an increase in confidence in the interviews and through the questionnaire. They linked this increase in proficiency and confidence to their experiences with their host families and other Francophone members of the community. This study highlights the provision of immersion experiences as means to support teachers’ language confidence and proficiency.

Keywords: French as an additional language education, teacher language confidence, teacher language maintenance, teacher language proficiency

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2991 Experienced Chronic Sorrow in Mothers of Children with Cancer: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Nikfarid Lida, Maryam Rassouli, Leili Borimnejad, Hamid Alavi Majd


Purpose: Chronic sorrow is experienced by mothers of children with cancer. It is a multidimensional concept and is experienced by mothers in different ways depends on their various contexts. Little is known about the concept of chronic sorrow in mothers of children with cancer living in Iran. This study aimed to clarify the concept and explain lived experiences of chronic sorrow in Iranian mothers of children with cancer. Methods: In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, 8 mothers of children with cancer participated in semi structured in-depth interviews about their experiences of chronic sorrow. Interviews continued until data saturation was reached. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, analyzed, and interpreted using 7 steps of the Dickelman et al’s phenomenological approach. Results: Three main themes emerged from mothers’ experiences of chronic sorrow related to child’s cancer. These main themes were ‘climbing up shaky rocks,’ ‘fear and hope,’ and ‘continuous role changing.’ Each of these themes consisted of several subthemes. Conclusion: There are similarities in experiencing chronic sorrow by mothers of children with chronic diseases in different societies. However some experiences are unique in Iranian mothers of children with cancer.

Keywords: cancer, children, mothers, Iran, phenomenology

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2990 Marketing Strategy of Agricultural Products in Remote Districts: A Case Study of Mudan Township, Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Hsiang Ho, Hsiao-Tseng Lin


Mudan Township is a remote mountainous area in Taiwan. In recent years, due to the migration of the population, inconvenient transportation, digital divide, and low production, agricultural products marketing have become a major issue. This research aims to develop the marketing strategy suitable for the agricultural products of the rural areas. The main objective of this work is to conduct in-depth interviews with scholars and experts in the marketing field, combined with the marketing 4P combination, to analyze and summarize the possible marketing strategies for agricultural products for remote districts. The interviews consist of seven experts from industry who have practical experience in producing, marketing, and selling agricultural products and three professors that have experience in teaching marketing management. The in-depth interviews are conducted for about an hour using a pre-drafted interview outline. The results of the interviews are summarized by semantic analysis and presented in a marketing 4P combination. The results indicate that in terms of products, high-quality products with original characteristics can be added through the implementation of production history, organic certification, and cultural packaging. In the place part, we found that the use of emerging communities, the emphasis on cross-industry alliances, the improvement of information application capabilities of rural households, production and marketing group, and contractual farming system are the development priorities. In terms of promotion, it should be an emphasis on the management of internet social media and word-of-mouth marketing. Mudan Township may consider promoting agricultural products through special festivals such as farmer's market, wild ginger flower season and hot spring season. This research also proposes relevant recommendations for the government's public sector and related industry reference for the promotion of agricultural products for remote area.

Keywords: marketing strategy, remote districts, agricultural products, in-depth interviews

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2989 Trusting the Big Data Analytics Process from the Perspective of Different Stakeholders

Authors: Sven Gehrke, Johannes Ruhland


Data is the oil of our time, without them progress would come to a hold [1]. On the other hand, the mistrust of data mining is increasing [2]. The paper at hand shows different aspects of the concept of trust and describes the information asymmetry of the typical stakeholders of a data mining project using the CRISP-DM phase model. Based on the identified influencing factors in relation to trust, problematic aspects of the current approach are verified using various interviews with the stakeholders. The results of the interviews confirm the theoretically identified weak points of the phase model with regard to trust and show potential research areas.

Keywords: trust, data mining, CRISP DM, stakeholder management

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2988 Investigating Chinese Students' Perceptions of and Responses to Teacher Feedback: Multiple Case Studies in a UK University

Authors: Fangfei Li


Studies on teacher feedback have produced a wide range of findings in aspects of characteristics of good feedback, factors influencing the quality of feedback and teachers’ perspectives on teacher feedback. However, perspectives from students on how they perceive and respond to teacher feedback are still under scrutiny. Especially for Chinese overseas students who come from a feedback-sparse educational context in China, they might have different experiences when engaging with teacher feedback in the UK Higher Education. Therefore, the research aims to investigate and shed some new light on how Chinese students engage with teacher feedback in the UK higher education and how teacher feedback could enhance their learning. Research questions of this study are 1) What are Chinese overseas students’ perceptions of teacher feedback in courses of the UK higher education? 2) How do they respond to the teacher feedback they obtained? 3) What factors might influence their’ engagement with teacher feedback? Qualitative case studies of five Chinese postgraduate students in a UK university have been conducted by employing various types of interviews, such as background interviews, scenario-based interviews, stimulated recall interviews and retrospective interviews to address the research inquiries. Data collection lasted seven months, covering two phases – the pre-sessional language programme and the first semester of the Master’s degree programme. Research findings until now indicate that some factors, such as tutors’ handwriting, implicit instruction and value comments, influence students understanding and internalizing tutor feedback. Except for difficulties in understanding tutor feedback, students’ responses to tutor feedback are also influenced by quantity and quality of tutor-student communication, time constraints and trust to tutor feedback, etc. Findings also reveal that tutor feedback is able to improve students’ learning in aspects of promoting reflection on professional knowledge, promoting students’ communication with peers and tutors, increasing problem awareness and writing with the reader in mind. This paper will mainly introduce the research topic, the methodological procedure and research findings gained until now.

Keywords: Chinese students, students’ perceptions, teacher feedback, the UK higher education

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2987 A Review of Travel Data Collection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Awais Shafique, Eiji Hato


Household trip data is of crucial importance for managing present transportation infrastructure as well as to plan and design future facilities. It also provides basis for new policies implemented under Transportation Demand Management. The methods used for household trip data collection have changed with passage of time, starting with the conventional face-to-face interviews or paper-and-pencil interviews and reaching to the recent approach of employing smartphones. This study summarizes the step-wise evolution in the travel data collection methods. It provides a comprehensive review of the topic, for readers interested to know the changing trends in the data collection field.

Keywords: computer, smartphone, telephone, travel survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2986 The Effects of Integrating Knowledge Management and e-Learning: Productive Work and Learning Coverage

Authors: Ashraf Ibrahim Awad


It is important to formulate suitable learning environments ca-pable to be customized according to value perceptions of the university. In this paper, light is shed on the concepts of integration between knowledge management (KM), and e-learning (EL) in the higher education sector of the economy in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A discussion on and how KM and EL can be integrated and leveraged for effective education and training is presented. The results are derived from the literature and interviews with 16 of the academics in eight universities in the Emirate. The conclusion is that KM and EL have much to offer each other, but this is not yet reflected at the implementation level, and their boundaries are not always clear. Interviews have shown that both concepts perceived to be closely related and, responsibilities for these initiatives are practiced by different departments or units.

Keywords: knowledge management, e-learning, learning integration, universities, UAE

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2985 Implementation of Building Information Modeling in Turkish Government Sector Projects

Authors: Mohammad Lemar Zalmai, Mustafa Nabi Kocakaya, Cemil Akcay, Ekrem Manisali


In recent years, the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach has been developed expeditiously. As people see the benefits of this approach, it has begun to be used widely in construction projects and some countries made it mandatory to get more benefits from it. To promote the implementation of BIM in construction projects, it will be helpful to get some relevant information from surveys and interviews. The purpose of this study is to research the current adoption and implementation of BIM in public projects in Turkey. This study specified the challenges of BIM implementation in Turkey and proposed some solutions to overcome them. In this context, the challenges for BIM implementation and the factors that affect the BIM usage are determined based on previous academic researches and expert opinions by conducting interviews and questionnaire surveys. Several methods are used to process information in order to obtain weights of different factors to make BIM widespread in Turkey. This study concluded interviews' and questionnaire surveys' outcomes and proposed some suggestions to promote the implementation of BIM in Turkey. We believe research findings will be a good reference for boosting BIM implementation in Turkey.

Keywords: building information modelling, BIM implementations, Turkish construction industry, Turkish government sector projects

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2984 Importance of Human Capital Development and Management in Industries

Authors: Birce Boga Bakirli


In this paper, we investigate ideas on human capital development and management in industries. We structured a model to be able to gather the data from the interviews conducted with worker, specialists and owners of companies. Different aspects of the situation are found in these interviews, and we used the information to model the benefit of the business owners and workers perspectives. These are modelled as a bi-level programming problem. Several instances of the generic cases are solved. The results show the importance of education within and out of the company for workers, and it returns for the company.

Keywords: bi-level programming, corporate strategy, cost tradeoffs, human capital, mixed integer programming, Stackelberg game, supplier relations, strategic planning

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2983 A Phenomenological Analysis of LBTQI+ Women’s Identification and Disidentification Processes through Walking Interviews in Montreal

Authors: Tara Chanady


Through 21 walking interviews with women from various backgrounds and positionalities, this study examines issues of identity politics in Montreal’s sociocultural space. The research looks at the social, political and economical implications of claiming or refusing identifications amongst women of sexual diversity (e.g. defining as lesbian, queer, bi, pan, fluid or not wanting to identity). The results are analysed from a phenomenological perspective, paying attention to the participants personal interpretations and perspectives, as well as contextualising the interviews in time and space. Using intersectional insights, this study pays attention to varying social positions, including immigration status (newly immigrated, rural to city immigration, Montreal-born, seeking asylum), age (20 to 80), gender (cis, trans and intersex women), relationship style (monogamous and polyamorous) and class. Preliminary findings include a generational shift in issues (e.g. community politics within lesbian communities in the 1980s), varying perspectives on the need of exclusive and safe spaces, shifts in issues of racism and transphobia and identifying points of tensions within conceptualisations of queer and lesbian positionalities.

Keywords: identifications, lesbian, queer, sexual orientation

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2982 Al-Azhar’s Ideological Capacity to Counter Extremism

Authors: Dina Tawfic, Robert Hassan


The current chapter addresses Al-Azhar's strategy to counter extremism in tandem with reflecting on the ideology of the Islamic establishment itself. The topic is motivated by the fact that some of the Western governments have been relying on Al-Azhar to counter the ideology of Islamist radicalism and violent extremism, in particular during the rise of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (known as ISIS/ ISIL/ Daesh) in 2014/2015. In his visit to Egypt in June 2016, Brett McGurk, the then U.S. envoy for the global coalition to counter ISIS, commended Al-Azhar’s “intellectual and reforming role” in refuting the ideology of extremism. On the other hand, Egyptian liberal intellectuals, such as Farag Fouda (1945- 1992) and Nasr Hamed Abu Zeid (1943-2010), had always questioned the ideological capability of Al-Azhar to counter extremism, citing the rigidity and resistance of the Islamic establishment to carry out genuine reformation. This chapter aims to discuss the following research questions: what is the strategy of Al-Azhar to counter extremism? Does Al-Azhar have a solid strategy to combat online propaganda produced by violent extremist groups? Is it applicable to identify Al-Azhar ideological identity? and is it capable of countering extremism? To answer these questions, I conducted intensive interviews with seven senior scholars and officials at Al-Azhar and the Endowments ministry from September to December 2020. Using a qualitative approach as a backdrop, this project uses semi-structured interviews to collect data. Participants were briefed on the purpose of the study and consented to be interviewed and to record their interviews. Some of the participants chose to conceal their names. All the interviews were conducted in Arabic via Zoom. The researcher then transcribed and translated the interviews into English. A purposive sample is used to select the seven interviewees, based on their prominence and experience in the field of counter-extremism and Al-Azhar affairs. The researcher uses a snowball sample to select the sample, in which a personal contact recommends other officials within the establishment.

Keywords: Al-Azhar, Egypt, Counter-Extremism, Political Islam, Ideology

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2981 Identifying the Goals of a Multicultural Curriculum for the Primary Education Course

Authors: Fatemeh Havas Beigi


The purpose of this study is to identify the objectives of a multicultural curriculum for the primary education period from the perspective of ethnic teachers and education experts and cultural professionals. The research paradigm is interpretive, the research approach is qualitative, the research strategy is content analysis, the sampling method is purposeful and it is a snowball, and the sample of informants in the research for Iranian ethnic teachers and experts until the theoretical saturation was estimated to be 67 people. The data collection tools used were based on semi-structured interviews and individual interviews and focal interviews were used to collect information. The data format was also in audio format and the first period coding and the second coding were used to analyze the data. Based on data analysis 11 Objective: Paying attention to ethnic equality, expanding educational opportunities and justice, peaceful coexistence, anti-ethnic and racial discrimination education, paying attention to human value and dignity, accepting religious diversity, getting to know ethnicities and cultures, promoting teaching-learning, fostering self-confidence, building national unity, and developing cultural commonalities for a multicultural curriculum were identified.

Keywords: objective, multicultural curriculum, connect, elementary education period

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2980 The Impact of COVID-19 Measures on Children with Disabilities and Their Families in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Faris Algahtani


The COVID 19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the lives of peoplearound the world, including children. There is little knowledge about how pandemic measures have affected children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The aim and objectives of this qualitative study was to learn about the outcomes and impacts of the pandemic on children ages 0-8 in KSA. The study was based on 40 in-depth interviews that were conducted with experts in health, social protection, education, and early learning, children with special needs, and economics, including decision makers as well as specialists in service provision. The interviews were recorded and translated from Arabic to English into summary notes. The narrative was coded and analyzed following a thematic analysis.

Keywords: disabilities, COVID-19, families, children

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2979 An Investigation into the Role of School Social Workers and Psychologists with Children Experiencing Special Educational Needs in Libya

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour


This study explores the function of schools’ psychosocial services within Libyan mainstream schools in relation to children’s special educational needs (SEN). This is with the aim to examine the role of school social workers and psychologists in the assessment procedure of children with special educational needs. A semi-structured interview was used in this study, with 21 professionals working in the schools’ psychosocial services, of whom thirteen were school social workers (SSWs) and eight were school psychologists (SPs). The results of the interviews with SSWs and SPs provided insights into how SEN children are identified, assessed, and dealt with by school professionals. It appears from the results that what constitutes a problem has not changed significantly, and the link between learning difficulties and behavioral difficulties is also evident from this study. Children with behavior difficulties are more likely to be referred to school psychosocial services than children with learning difficulties. Yet, it is not clear from the interviews with SSWs and SPs whether children are excluded merely because of their behavior problems. Instead, they would surely be expelled from the school if they failed academically. Furthermore, the interviews with SSWs and SPs yield a rather unusual source accountable for children’s SEN; school-related difficulties were a major factor in which almost all participants attributed children’s learning and behavior problems to teachers’ deficiencies, followed by school lack of resources.

Keywords: psychologist, school, social workers, special education

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2978 A Co-Constructed Picture of Chinese Teachers' Conceptions of Learning at Play

Authors: Shu-Chen Wu


This qualitative study investigated Chinese teachers’ perspectives on learning at play. Six kindergarten teachers were interviewed to obtain their understanding of learning at play. Exemplary play episodes from their classrooms were selected with the assistance of the participating teachers. Four three-minute videos containing the largest amount of learning elements based on the teachers’ views were selected for analysis. Applying video-stimulated interviews, the selected video clips were shown to eight teachers in two focus groups to elicit their perspectives on learning at play. The findings revealed that Chinese teachers have a very structured representation of learning at play, which should contribute to the development of professional practices and curricular policies.

Keywords: learning at play, teachers’ perspectives, co-constructed views, video-stimulated interviews

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2977 Inequalities in Higher Education and Students’ Perceptions of Factors Influencing Academic Performance

Authors: Violetta Parutis


This qualitative study aims to answer the following research questions: i) What are the factors that students perceive as relevant to a) promoting and b) preventing good grades? ii) How does socio-economic status (SES) feature in those beliefs? We conducted in-depth interviews with 19 first- and second-year undergraduates of varying SES at a research-intensive university in the UK. The interviews yielded eight factors that students perceived as promoting and six perceived as preventing good grades. The findings suggested one significant difference between the beliefs of low and high SES students in that low SES students perceive themselves to be at a greater disadvantage to their peers while high SES students do not have such beliefs. This could have knock-on effects on their performance.

Keywords: social class, education, academic performance, students’ beliefs

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2976 Transgender Community in Pakistan through the Lens of Television Dramas

Authors: Ashbeelah Shafaqat Ali


Pakistan is a country where the transgender community has not been accepted as a third gender yet, but in recent years Pakistani drama industry has taken an initiative to include Transgender characters in the past few years. This research based on qualitative method i.e. content analysis and in-depth interviews investigates the depiction of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas. This study examined two dramas i.e.' Khuda Mera Bhi Hai' and 'Alif Allah Aur Insaan' to analyze the representation of transgender community whereas, in-depth Interviews from 15 transgender people lived in Lahore to observe their opinion regarding their representation in Pakistani television dramas. Snow-ball sampling technique was used for conducting interviews from the transgender community. The results concluded that transgender community did not get equal coverage in Pakistani television dramas but inclusion as characters were observed. This study is helpful in providing a base for observing role of Pakistani television dramas in the development of transgender identity. The major finding revealed is that the inclusion of representation of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas has indicated a successful development towards positive representation. Although, it was suggested by the interviewers that before producing a television drama, appropriate research must be conducted to depict the real life story, problems and struggles of the transgender community. Furthermore, it was analyzed that only fair and equal representation of transgender community by Pakistani drama industry can be beneficial in promoting the third gender rights in the society.

Keywords: Pakistani dramas, portrayal, stereotypes, transgender

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2975 Parents’ Opinions on Compulsory Pre-school Attendance in the Czech Republic

Authors: Beata Hornickova, Sona Lorencova


The study deals with the presentation of the results of qualitatively oriented research, which was carried out in the scope of determining the attitudes of parents to preschool education in the Czech Republic. The research is conceived as an entry into the field of the researched issue and aimed to support the effectiveness of the items of the questionnaire, which was subsequently created based on the parents’ statements from interviews. The research method was interview with 15 parents of preschool children. The main aim of the interviews was to find out their views on the compulsory attendance of their children in kindergarten. Compulsory pre-school attendance has been introduced in the Czech Republic since 2017/18 with the aim of reducing delays in the entry of children into primary school and eliminating subsequent school failures. The findings offered a look at the differing views on compulsory kindergarten school influenced by the different socio-economic status of parents. Parents with a higher socio-economic status attached greater importance to the educational component of compulsory preschool attendance as a preparation for primary school, while parents with a lower socio-economic status emphasized the educational component. An interesting finding is also a statement from interviews of a parent who does not find benefits in compulsory preschool attendance.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education of pre-school children, kindergarten, parents’ opinions on pre-school education

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2974 Evaluation to Assess the Impact of Newcastle Infant Partnership Approach

Authors: Samantha Burns, Melissa Brown, Judith Rankin


Background: As a specialised intervention, NEWPIP provides a service which supports both parents and their babies from conception to two years, who are experiencing issues which may affect the quality of their relationship and development of the infant. This evaluation of the NEWPIP approach was undertaken in response to the need for rich, in-depth data to understand the lived experiences of the parents who experienced the service to improve the service. NEWPIP is currently one of 34 specialised parent–infant relationship teams across England. This evaluation contributes to increasing understanding of the impact and effectiveness of this specialised service to inform future practice. Aim: The aim of this evaluation was to explore the perspectives and experiences of parents or caregivers (service users), to assess the impact of the NEWPIP service on the parents themselves and the relationship with their baby. Methods: The exploratory nature of the aim and focus on service users’ experience and perspectives provided scope for a qualitative approach for this evaluation. This consisted of 10 semi-structured interviews with parents who had received the service within the last two years. Recruitment involved both purposive and convenience sampling. The interviews took place between February 2021 – March 2021, lasting between 30-90 minutes and were guided by open-ended questions from a topic guide. The interviews adopted a narrative approach to enable the parents to share their lived experiences. The researchers transcribed the interviews and analysed the data thematically by using a coding method which is grounded in the data. Results: The analysis and findings from the data gathered illuminated an approach which supports parents to build a better bond with their baby and provides a safe space for parents to heal through their relationships. While the parents shared their experiences, the interviews were intended to receive feedback, so questions were asked about what could be improved and what recommendations could be offered to Children North East. Guided by the voice of the parents, this evaluation provides recommendations to support the future of the NEWPIP approach. Conclusions: The NEWPIP approach appears to successfully provide early and flexible support for new parents, increasing a parent’s confidence in their ability to not only cope but thrive as a new parent.

Keywords: maternal health, mental health, parent infant relationship, therapy

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2973 Developing a Multi-Modal Choking Intervention

Authors: R. Maher, D. Marchant, F. Fazel


The initial aim of the study was to capitalize on the depth of athletes’ and coaches’ knowledge pertaining to the phenomenon of choking in basketball, free-throw shooting in particular, from an ‘insiders’ perspective. The findings of this study have developed a deeper understanding of how basketball players and coaches deal with choking and potentially contribute new knowledge relevant to designing useful interventions for alleviating choking. A key element was thus, knowledge, transfer, and exchange (KTE). KTE is the process of acquiring, developing, sharing and applying knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were conducted employing a composed sample of eight elite basketball players and four elite coaches who have been experiencing the choking episode previously. All interviews have been digitally recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Then the interviews have been content analyzed. Participants of the present study have provided useful information regarding the underlying mechanisms and antecedents of choking and also suggested applicable antidotes to conquer the phenomenon of choking. According to the results of the present study, self-confidence, mental and physical preparation, and coping styles should be considered as influential factors in athletes’ performance under pressure. Moreover, using all noteworthy information and preventative strategies suggested by participants of the present study, an effective multi-modal intervention has been introduced that should be taken into account by sports psychologists, coaches and athletes.

Keywords: anxiety, basketball, choking, free-throw shooting, psychological intervention

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2972 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen


This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-learning, science education, teacher' and students' perceptions, primary schools

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2971 Everyday-Life Vocabulary: A Missing Component in Iranian EFL Context

Authors: Yasser Aminifard, Hamdollah Askari


This study aimed at investigating any difference between Iranian senior high school students' performance on Academic Words (AWs) and Everyday-Life Words (ELWs). To this end, in the first phase, a number of 120 male senior high school students were randomly selected from among twelve high schools in Gachsaran to serve as the participants of the study. In the second phase, using purposive sampling, six high school teachers holding an MA in TEFL and with over twenty years of teaching experience were interviewed. Two multiple-choice tests, each comprising 40 items, were given to the participants in order to determine their performance on AWs and ELWs and follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore teachers' opinions about participants' performance on the two tests. To analyze the data, a paired-samples t-test was carried out to compare the results of both tests and the interviews were also transcribed to pinpoint important themes. The results of the t-test indicated that the participants performed significantly better on AWs than on ELWs. Additionally, results of the interviews boiled down to the fact that the English textbooks designed for Iranian high school students are fundamentally flawed on the grounds that there is a mismatch between students' real language learning needs and what is presented to them as "teaching-to-the-test" materials via these books. Finally, the implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Keywords: everyday-life words, academic words, textbooks, washback

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2970 The Water-Way Route Management for Cultural Tourism Promotion at Angsila District: Challenge and Opportunity

Authors: Teera Intararuang


The purpose of this research is to study on the challenge and opportunity for waterway route management for promoting cultural tourism in Angsila District, Chonburi Province. To accomplish the goals and objectives, qualitative research will be applied. The research instruments used are observation, basic interviews, in-depth interviews, and interview key local performance. The study also uses both primary data and secondary data. From research result, it is revealed that all respondents had appreciated and strongly agree to promote their waterway route tourism as an intend for further increase for their income. However, it has some challenges to success this project due to natural obstacles such as water level, seasons and high temperature. Moreover, they lack financial support from government sectors also.

Keywords: Angsila community, waterway tourism route, cultural tourism, way of life

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2969 Collaborative and Experimental Cultures in Virtual Reality Journalism: From the Perspective of Content Creators

Authors: Radwa Mabrook


Virtual Reality (VR) content creation is a complex and an expensive process, which requires multi-disciplinary teams of content creators. Grant schemes from technology companies help media organisations to explore the VR potential in journalism and factual storytelling. Media organisations try to do as much as they can in-house, but they may outsource due to time constraints and skill availability. Journalists, game developers, sound designers and creative artists work together and bring in new cultures of work. This study explores the collaborative experimental nature of VR content creation, through tracing every actor involved in the process and examining their perceptions of the VR work. The study builds on Actor Network Theory (ANT), which decomposes phenomena into their basic elements and traces the interrelations among them. Therefore, the researcher conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with VR content creators between November 2017 and April 2018. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques allowed the researcher to recruit fact-based VR content creators from production studios and media organisations, as well as freelancers. Interviews lasted up to three hours, and they were a mix of Skype calls and in-person interviews. Participants consented for their interviews to be recorded, and for their names to be revealed in the study. The researcher coded interviews’ transcripts in Nvivo software, looking for key themes that correspond with the research questions. The study revealed that VR content creators must be adaptive to change, open to learn and comfortable with mistakes. The VR content creation process is very iterative because VR has no established work flow or visual grammar. Multi-disciplinary VR team members often speak different languages making it hard to communicate. However, adaptive content creators perceive VR work as a fun experience and an opportunity to learn. The traditional sense of competition and the strive for information exclusivity are now replaced by a strong drive for knowledge sharing. VR content creators are open to share their methods of work and their experiences. They target to build a collaborative network that aims to harness VR technology for journalism and factual storytelling. Indeed, VR is instilling collaborative and experimental cultures in journalism.

Keywords: collaborative culture, content creation, experimental culture, virtual reality

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2968 Diversifying Income Streams in Portuguese Higher Education – a Multiple Case Study

Authors: Ana Nascimento


For several reasons and in different countries worldwide, there is an increasing difficulty of the States to finance higher education. However, most societies consider education as a public good, so it should be a State obligation to provide this service to citizens. In Portugal, over the last decades, state has diminished its contribution to public higher education and the public higher education institutions started to look for alternative incoming sources, namely charging student’s taxes and fees, provision of services to companies, production of applied research, search for sponsors, configuring new forms of fundraising. This financial policy can raise some concerns to the scientific and pedagogical autonomy of these institutions as well as concerns in access and equity in higher education. For these reasons and in the scope of a PhD research in the area of Economy of Education, a survey is taking place in all public higher education institutions in the Great Lisbon area that intends to analyze and discuss the policy measures in each institution in the search for external financing. The research aims to understand what these measures are and what implications they might have in the institution’s autonomy as well as in higher education access by students from less favored backgrounds. The research uses a qualitative approach, namely through semi-structured interviews to presidents, directors and rectors of each institution, totalizing 50 interviews. In this paper are discussed some of the results from the interviews made so far that present the subjects opinion about higher education finance, the right to education, the search for fundraising and the possible consequences to the institution’s autonomy as well as some literature on the state of the art.

Keywords: autonomy, finance, higher education, public goods

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