Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 415

Search results for: predictors

415 The Role of the Media in Inculcating Predictors Hitherto Ignored to Mitigate Vaccine Hesitancy

Authors: Huijun Wu

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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused massive negative shocks across countries. Various research institutes have worked assiduously to develop vaccines to help fight the pandemic, but misinformation from the media has spurred public outcry in several countries not to take jabs. This study leverages massive data [i.e., responses from more than 140,000 people sampled from 144 countries] extracted from the Gallup World Poll’s Wellcome Global Monitor, to analyze and assess how the media contributes to inadequate dissemination of basic scientific knowledge on the vaccines and spread of distrust in central governments as predictors of vaccine hesitancy. The results show that all three predictors are statistically significant at a 5% level and that appropriate design and dissemination of basic scientific knowledge on the vaccines and spread of justified reasons to trust governments would help mitigate vaccine hesitancy. The implication of the results is that the media needs to consider such predictors hitherto ignored.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, vaccine hesitancy, media and communication, basic scientific knowledge, distrust in central governments

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414 Predictors and Prevention of Sports’ Injuries among Male Professional Footballers in Nigeria

Authors: Timothy A. Oloyede

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The study assessed the influence of playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches, skill level and competition level on the occurrence and severity of football injuries. The prospective outline of the study was as follows: after a baseline examination and measurements were performed ascertaining possible predictors of injury, all players were followed up weekly for one year to register subsequent injuries and complaints. Four hundred and thirty-five out of 455 subjects completed the weekly follow-ups over one year. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches skill level and competition level were predictors of injuries among the professional footballer. Playing on natural grass, acclimatization, reduction of physical overload, among others, were strategies postulated for preventing injuries.

Keywords: sports’ injuries, predictors of sports’ injuries, intrinsic risk factors, extrinsic risk factors, injury mechanism, professional footballer

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413 Patterns, Triggers, and Predictors of Relapses among Children with Steroid Sensitive Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje, Ibraheem Ishola

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Background: Childhood steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SSINS) is plagued with relapses that contribute to its morbidity and the cost of treatment. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of relapses among children with SSINS at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital from January 2016 to July 2020. Triggers related to relapse incidents were noted. Chi-square test was deployed for predictors (factors at the first clinical presentations that associate with subsequent relapses) of relapses. Predictors with p-values of less than 0.05 were considered significant and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and odd ratio (OR) were described. Results: Sixty SSINS comprising 52 males (86.7%), aged 23 months to 18 years, with a mean age of 7.04±4.16 years were studied. Thirty-eight (63.3%) subjects had 126 relapses including infrequent relapses in 30 (78.9%) and frequent relapses in 8 (21.1%). The commonest triggers were acute upper respiratory tract infections (68, 53.9%) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 25 (19.8%) relapses. In 4 (3.2%) relapses, no trigger was identified. The time-to-first relapse ranged 14 days to 365 days with a median time of 60 days. The significant predictors were hypertension (OR=3.4, 95% CI; 1.04-11.09, p=0.038), UTIs (OR=9.9, 95% CI; 1.16-80.71, p= 0.014), malaria fever (OR=8.0, 95% CI; 2.45-26.38, p˂0.001), micro-haematuria (OR=4.9, 95% CI; 11.58-15.16, p=0.004), elevated serum creatinine (OR=12.3, 95%CI; 1.48-101.20, p=0.005) and hypercholesterolaemia (OR=4.1, 95%CI; 1.35-12.63, p=0.011). Conclusion: While the pathogenesis of relapses remains unknown, it is prudent to consider relapse-specific preventive strategies against triggers and predictors of relapses in our setting.

Keywords: Patterns, triggers, predictors, steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, relapses, Nigeria

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412 Modified Naive Bayes-Based Prediction Modeling for Crop Yield Prediction

Authors: Kefaya Qaddoum

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Most of greenhouse growers desire a determined amount of yields in order to accurately meet market requirements. The purpose of this paper is to model a simple but often satisfactory supervised classification method. The original naive Bayes have a serious weakness, which is producing redundant predictors. In this paper, utilized regularization technique was used to obtain a computationally efficient classifier based on naive Bayes. The suggested construction, utilized L1-penalty, is capable of clearing redundant predictors, where a modification of the LARS algorithm is devised to solve this problem, making this method applicable to a wide range of data. In the experimental section, a study conducted to examine the effect of redundant and irrelevant predictors, and test the method on WSG data set for tomato yields, where there are many more predictors than data, and the urge need to predict weekly yield is the goal of this approach. Finally, the modified approach is compared with several naive Bayes variants and other classification algorithms (SVM and kNN), and is shown to be fairly good.

Keywords: tomato yield prediction, naive Bayes, redundancy, WSG

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411 Characterization and Predictors of Paranoid Ideation in Youths

Authors: Marina Sousa, Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Joana Cabral, Vera Pereira, Suzana Nunes Caldeira, Ermelindo Peixoto

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Paranoid ideation is a common thought process that constitutes a defense against perceived social threats. The current study aimed at the characterization of paranoid ideation in youths and to explore the possible predictors involved in the development of paranoid ideations. Paranoid ideation, shame, submission, early childhood memories and current depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology was assessed in a sample of 1516 Portuguese youths. Higher frequencies of paranoid ideation were observed, particularly in females and youths from lower socio-economic status. The main predictors identified relates to submissive behaviors and adverse childhood experiences, and especially to shame feelings. The current study emphasizes that the these predictors are similar to findings in adults and clinical populations, and future implications to research and clinical practice aiming at paranoid ideations are discussed, as well as the pertinence of the study of mediating factors that allow a wider understanding of this thought process in younger populations and the prevention of psychopathology in adulthood.

Keywords: adolescence, early memories, paranoid ideation, parenting styles, shame, submissiveness

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410 Clinical Risk Score for Mortality and Predictors of Severe Disease in Adult Patients with Dengue

Authors: Siddharth Jain, Abhenil Mittal, Surendra Kumar Sharma

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Background: With its recent emergence and re-emergence, dengue has become a major international public health concern, imposing significant financial burden especially in developing countries. Despite aggressive control measures in place, India experienced one of its largest outbreaks in 2015 with Delhi being most severely affected. There is a lack of reliable predictors of disease severity and mortality in dengue. The present study was carried out to identify these predictors during the 2015 outbreak. Methods: This prospective observational study conducted at an apex tertiary care center in Delhi, India included confirmed adult dengue patients admitted between August-November 2015. Patient demographics, clinical details, and laboratory findings were recorded in a predesigned proforma. Appropriate statistical tests were used to summarize and compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics and derive predictors of mortality and severe disease, while developing a clinical risk score for mortality. Serotype analysis was also done for 75 representative samples to identify the dominant serotypes. Results: Data of 369 patients were analyzed (mean age 30.9 years; 67% males). Of these, 198 (54%) patients had dengue fever, 125 (34%) had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF Grade 1,2)and 46 (12%) developed dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Twenty two (6%) patients died. Late presentation to the hospital (≥5 days after onset) and dyspnoea at rest were identified as independent predictors of severe disease. Age ≥ 24 years, dyspnoea at rest and altered sensorium were identified as independent predictors of mortality. A clinical risk score was developed (12*age + 14*sensorium + 10*dyspnoea) which, if ≥ 22, predicted mortality with a high sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (79.2%). The predominant serotypes in Delhi (2015) were DENV-2 and DENV-4. Conclusion: Age ≥ 24 years, dyspnoea at rest and altered sensorium were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Platelet counts did not determine the outcome in dengue patients. Timely referral/access to health care is important. Development and use of validated predictors of disease severity and simple clinical risk scores, which can be applied in all healthcare settings, can help minimize mortality and morbidity, especially in resource limited settings.

Keywords: dengue, mortality, predictors, severity

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409 Predictors of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Egyptian Obese Adolescents

Authors: Moushira Zaki, Wafaa Ezzat, Yasser Elhosary, Omnia Saleh

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in conjunction with obesity. The accuracy of risk factors for detecting NAFLD in obese adolescents has not undergone a formal evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of NAFLD among Egyptian female obese adolescents. The study included 162 obese female adolescents. All were subjected to anthropometry, biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasongraphic assessment. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according to the IDF criteria. Significant association between presence of MS and NAFLD was observed. Obese adolescents with NAFLD had significantly higher levels of ALT, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, blood pressure and HOMA-IR, whereas decreased HDL-C levels as compared with obese cases without NAFLD. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows that ALT is a sensitive predictor for NAFLD, confirming that ALT can be used as a marker of NAFLD.

Keywords: obesity, NAFLD, predictors, adolescents, Egyptians, risk factors, prevalence

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408 The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Associated Factors among Nurses in Jordan

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Hassan Alrabbaie

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Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent a significant challenge for registered nurses. To our best knowledge, there is no published study that investigated the prevalence of MSDs among nurses and their associated factors comprehensively in Jordan. This study aimed to find the prevalence of MSDs, their possible predictors among registered nurses in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Outcome measures included Nordic Musculoskeletal Questioner (NMQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), IPAQ, and sociodemographic data. Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was reported using descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of MSDs. Results: 597 nurses from different hospitals in Jordan participated in this study. Reported MSDs prevalence was the highest at neck (61.1%), followed by upper back (47.2%), shoulder (46.7%), wrist and hands (27.3%), and elbow (13.9%). Significant predictors of MSDs among Jordanian nurses included: being a female, poor sleep quality, high physical activity levels, poor ergonomics, increased workload, and mental stress. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among Jordanian nurses and identified their significant predictors. Future studies are needed to investigate the progressive nature of MSDs and their effective treatment strategies.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nursing, ergonomic, occupational stress

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407 Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A Short Term Study

Authors: Hyang Lim, Sungwon Choi

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Many previous studies in area of adolescents' depression have used a longitudinal design. The previous studies have found that the developmental trajectory of them is only one. But it needs to be examined whether the trajectory is applied to all adolescents. Some factors in their home and/or school have an effect on adolescents' depression and more likely to be specific groups. The present study was a longitudinal study aimed to identify the trajectories and to explore the predictors of adolescents' depression. The study used Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) data. In this study, 2,351 second and third-year of middle school and first of high school students' data was analyzed by using semi-parametric group modeling (SGM). There were 5 trajectory groups for adolescents; low depressed stables, low depressed risers, moderately depressed decreases, moderately depressed stables, severe depressed decreases. The predictors of adolescents' depression were parental abuse, parental neglect, annual family income, parental academic background, friendship at school, and teacher-student relationship at school. All predictors had the significant difference across trajectory group profile for adolescents. The findings of the present study recommend to promote the socioeconomic status and to train social skill for the interpersonal relationship at the home and school. And the results suggest that the proper prevention programs for each group in the middle adolescents that target selected factors may be helpful in reducing the level of depression.

Keywords: adolescent, depression, KCYPS, school life, semi-parametric group-based modeling

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406 More Precise: Patient-Reported Outcomes after Stroke

Authors: Amber Elyse Corrigan, Alexander Smith, Anna Pennington, Ben Carter, Jonathan Hewitt

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Background and Purpose: Morbidity secondary to stroke is highly heterogeneous, but it is important to both patients and clinicians in post-stroke management and adjustment to life after stroke. The consideration of post-stroke morbidity clinically and from the patient perspective has been poorly measured. The patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) in morbidity assessment help improve this knowledge gap. The primary aim of this study was to consider the association between PRO outcomes and stroke predictors. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study assessed 549 stroke patients at 19 hospital sites across England and Wales during 2019. Following a stroke event, demographic, clinical, and PRO measures were collected. Prevalence of morbidity within PRO measures was calculated with associated 95% confidence intervals. Predictors of domain outcome were calculated using a multilevel generalized linear model. Associated P -values and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results: Data were collected from 549 participants, 317 men (57.7%) and 232 women (42.3%) with ages ranging from 25 to 97 (mean 72.7). PRO morbidity was high post-stroke; 93.2% of the cohort report post-stroke PRO morbidity. Previous stroke, diabetes, and gender are associated with worse patient-reported outcomes across both the physical and cognitive domains. Conclusions: This large-scale multicenter cohort study illustrates the high proportion of morbidity in PRO measures. Further, we demonstrate key predictors of adverse outcomes (Diabetes, previous stroke, and gender) congruence with clinical predictors. The PRO has been demonstrated to be an informative and useful stroke when considering patient-reported outcomes and has wider implications for considerations of PROs in clinical management. Future longitudinal follow-up with PROs is needed to consider association of long-term morbidity.

Keywords: morbidity, patient-reported outcome, PRO, stroke

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405 The Big Five Personality Traits and Environmental Factors as Predictors of the Antisocial Behaviours among Juveniles

Authors: Karol Konaszewski

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Background: The article is an analysis of the results of the studies conducted among juveniles (boys and girls) in the case of whom the family court applied the educational means of placing them in the youth educational centers. The aim of the study was to find out the correlations between antisocial behaviors, personality traits and the environmental determinants (support factors and risk factors) among juveniles (boys and girls). Methods: The total of 481 juveniles staying in youth educational centers participated in the study. Applied research tools: The Antisocial Behaviors Scale by L. Pytka, NEO-FFI by P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae was used to diagnose personality traits included in a popular five-factor model (it has been adapted into Polish by B. Zawadzki, J. Strelau, P. Szczepaniak, and M. Śliwińska) and a questionnaire concerning support factors and risk factors was constructed to measure environmental determinants. The data was analysed in a regression model. Findings: The analysis model showed that the significant predictors of antisocial behaviors were neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and negative relations at school. In girls group, the significant predictors of antisocial behaviors were neuroticism, conscientiousness, family support and negative relations at school, while in boys group the significant predictors of antisocial behaviors were neuroticism, extraversion and negative relations at family. Discussion: The results of this study have important implications. They allow for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to antisocial behaviors among juveniles. Future interventions could be based on the creation of personality traits, strengthening of support factors and correction of risk factors.

Keywords: antisocial behaviours, juveniles, personality, youth

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404 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: Anshul Jain, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit

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To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: drag, lift, vanes, open channel

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403 Predictors of Pelvic Vascular Injuries in Patients with Pelvic Fractures from Major Blunt Trauma

Authors: Osama Zayed

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Aim of the work: The aim of this study is to assess the predictors of pelvic vascular injuries in patients with pelvic fractures from major blunt trauma. Methods: This study was conducted as a tool-assessment study. Forty six patients with pelvic fractures from major blunt trauma will be recruited to the study arriving to department of emergency, Suez Canal University Hospital. Data were collected from questionnaire including; personal data of the studied patients and full medical history, clinical examinations, outcome measures (The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enumeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM), laboratory and imaging studies. Patients underwent surgical interventions or further investigations based on the conventional standards for interventions. All patients were followed up during conservative, operative and post-operative periods in the hospital for interpretation the predictive scores of vascular injuries. Results: Significant predictors of vascular injuries according to computed tomography (CT) scan include age, male gender, lower Glasgow coma (GCS) scores, occurrence of hypotension, mortality rate, higher physical POSSUM scores, presence of ultrasound collection, type of management, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) POSSUM scores, presence of abdominal injuries, and poor outcome. Conclusions: There was higher frequency of males than females in the studied patients. There were high probability of morbidity and low probability of mortality among patients. Our study demonstrates that POSSUM score can be used as a predictor of vascular injury in pelvis fracture patients.

Keywords: predictors, pelvic vascular injuries, pelvic fractures, major blunt trauma, POSSUM

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402 Bayesian Variable Selection in Quantile Regression with Application to the Health and Retirement Study

Authors: Priya Kedia, Kiranmoy Das

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There is a rich literature on variable selection in regression setting. However, most of these methods assume normality for the response variable under consideration for implementing the methodology and establishing the statistical properties of the estimates. In many real applications, the distribution for the response variable may be non-Gaussian, and one might be interested in finding the best subset of covariates at some predetermined quantile level. We develop dynamic Bayesian approach for variable selection in quantile regression framework. We use a zero-inflated mixture prior for the regression coefficients, and consider the asymmetric Laplace distribution for the response variable for modeling different quantiles of its distribution. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for our computation. Our proposed approach is assessed through extensive simulation studies, and real application of the proposed approach is also illustrated. We consider the data from health and retirement study conducted by the University of Michigan, and select the important predictors when the outcome of interest is out-of-pocket medical cost, which is considered as an important measure for financial risk. Our analysis finds important predictors at different quantiles of the outcome, and thus enhance our understanding on the effects of different predictors on the out-of-pocket medical cost.

Keywords: variable selection, quantile regression, Gibbs sampler, asymmetric Laplace distribution

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401 Prediction of Malawi Rainfall from Global Sea Surface Temperature Using a Simple Multiple Regression Model

Authors: Chisomo Patrick Kumbuyo, Katsuyuki Shimizu, Hiroshi Yasuda, Yoshinobu Kitamura

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This study deals with a way of predicting Malawi rainfall from global sea surface temperature (SST) using a simple multiple regression model. Monthly rainfall data from nine stations in Malawi grouped into two zones on the basis of inter-station rainfall correlations were used in the study. Zone 1 consisted of Karonga and Nkhatabay stations, located in northern Malawi; and Zone 2 consisted of Bolero, located in northern Malawi; Kasungu, Dedza, Salima, located in central Malawi; Mangochi, Makoka and Ngabu stations located in southern Malawi. Links between Malawi rainfall and SST based on statistical correlations were evaluated and significant results selected as predictors for the regression models. The predictors for Zone 1 model were identified from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans while those for Zone 2 were identified from the Pacific Ocean. The correlation between the fit of predicted and observed rainfall values of the models were satisfactory with r=0.81 and 0.54 for Zone 1 and 2 respectively (significant at less than 99.99%). The results of the models are in agreement with other findings that suggest that SST anomalies in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans have an influence on the rainfall patterns of Southern Africa.

Keywords: Malawi rainfall, forecast model, predictors, SST

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400 Predictors of Rumination and Co-Rumination: The Role of Attachment Dimensions, Self-Compassion and Self-Esteem

Authors: Asli Bugay Sökmez, Elif Manuoglu, Muhammet Coskun, Nebi̇ Sümer

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Decades of research have searched out the relationships between self-esteem, self-compassion, attachment, and rumination. Yet, unique mediated and moderated predictor power of these correlates of rumination has not been discovered yet. Moreover, no study examined whether these critical correlates of rumination specifically predict sub-dimensions of rumination that are reflection and brooding. Despite the broad range of study regarding predictors of rumination, a huge gap exists for the possible predictors of co-rumination. To address these issues, the present study mainly investigates the predictor roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and attachment on dimensions of rumination (brooding and reflection) and co-rumination, especially the mediating and moderating roles of these predictor variables. 510 undergraduate and graduate students from different departments of a major state university in Turkey participated in the current study. The mean age of the participants was 21.8 (SD = 2.29) and 57.3% of them were female. Overall analyses revealed that self-compassion and attachment anxiety was negatively correlated with both co-rumination and brooding. Surprisingly, while attachment anxiety significantly and positively predicted reflection, attachment avoidance predicted reflection negatively. Moreover, anxiety, avoidance and self-compassion all were found to be significant predictor variables of co-rumination. Finally, as expected, a moderating effect of self-compassion revealed in predicting reflection and showed as a mediator in predicting brooding and co-rumination. All findings were discussed in light of the related literature.

Keywords: rumination, co-rumination, attachment, self-compassion, self-esteem

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399 Count Regression Modelling on Number of Migrants in Households

Authors: Tsedeke Lambore Gemecho, Ayele Taye Goshu

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The main objective of this study is to identify the determinants of the number of international migrants in a household and to compare regression models for count response. This study is done by collecting data from total of 2288 household heads of 16 randomly sampled districts in Hadiya and Kembata-Tembaro zones of Southern Ethiopia. The Poisson mixed models, as special cases of the generalized linear mixed model, is explored to determine effects of the predictors: age of household head, farm land size, and household size. Two ethnicities Hadiya and Kembata are included in the final model as dummy variables. Stepwise variable selection has indentified four predictors: age of head, farm land size, family size and dummy variable ethnic2 (0=other, 1=Kembata). These predictors are significant at 5% significance level with count response number of migrant. The Poisson mixed model consisting of the four predictors with random effects districts. Area specific random effects are significant with the variance of about 0.5105 and standard deviation of 0.7145. The results show that the number of migrant increases with heads age, family size, and farm land size. In conclusion, there is a significantly high number of international migration per household in the area. Age of household head, family size, and farm land size are determinants that increase the number of international migrant in households. Community-based intervention is needed so as to monitor and regulate the international migration for the benefits of the society.

Keywords: Poisson regression, GLM, number of migrant, Hadiya and Kembata Tembaro zones

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398 Predictors of Post-marketing Regulatory Actions Concerning Hepatotoxicity

Authors: Salwa M. Almomen, Mona A. Almaghrabi, Saja M. Alhabardi, Adel A. Alrwisan

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Background: Hepatotoxicity is a major reason for medication withdrawal from the markets. Unfortunately, serious adverse hepatic effects can occur after marketing with limited indicators during clinical development. Therefore, finding possible predictors for hepatotoxicity might guide the monitoring program of various stakeholders. Methods: We examined the clinical review documents for drugs approved in the US from 2011 to 2016 to evaluate their hepatic safety profile. Predictors: we assessed whether these medications meet Hy’s Law with hepatotoxicity grade ≥ 3, labeled hepatic adverse effects at approval, or accelerated approval status. Outcome: post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity, including product withdrawal or updates to warning, precaution, or adverse effects sections. Statistical analysis: drugs were included in the analysis from the time of approval until the end of 2019 or the first post-marketing regulatory action related to hepatotoxicity, whichever occurred first. The hazard ratio (HR) was estimated using Cox-regression analysis. Results: We included 192 medications in the study. We classified 48 drugs as having grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicities, 43 had accelerated approval status, and 74 had labeled information about hepatotoxicity prior to marketing. The adjusted HRs for post-marketing regulatory action for products with grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicity was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-2.23), 0.92 (95%CI, 0.29-2.93) for a drug approved via accelerated approval program, and was 0.91 (95%CI, 0.33-2.56) for drugs with labeled hepatotoxicity information at approval time. Conclusion: This study does not provide conclusive evidence on the association between post-marketing regulatory action and grade ≥ 3 hepatotoxicity, accelerated approval status, or availability of labeled information at approval due to sampling size and channeling bias.

Keywords: accelerated approvals, hepatic adverse effects, drug-induced liver injury, hepatotoxicity predictors, post-marketing withdrawal

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397 Determinants of E-Government Services Adoption from the African Students’ Perspective

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah, Jianing Mi, Cheng Feng

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The patronage of e-government services (demand side of e-government) is vital to the successful implementation of e-government initiatives. The purpose of this study is to explore the predictors determining the willingness of African students in China to adopt and use e-government services. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) will be used as the theoretical foundation for this research. Research instrument will be developed and administered to 500 African students in China. Factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and culture will be investigated to determine its significant impact on the willingness to use e-government services. This study is a research in progress. The outcome of this study will provide valuable recommendations to improve the provision of public services through e-government.

Keywords: e-government, e-government services, predictors, UTAUT

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396 Allied Health Students Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Musculoskeletal and Mental Stress Predictors

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Saddam F. Kanaan

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Background: Allied health (AH) students, including rehabilitation sciences students, are subjected to significant levels of physical and mental stressors, which could affect their education. This study aimed to study physical and mental of Health-related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) levels along with their predictors among students of nine AH majors. Methods: Students filled validated anonymous surveys covering demographics and life style, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS- 42). SF-12 Mental (MCS) and Physical (PCS) summary scores were compared between academic majors and gender. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to examine potential predictors of PCS and MCS scores. Results: 838 students (77.4% females) participated in this study. Participants’ PCS mean score was 45.64±7.93 and found statistically different between the nine academic majors (P < 0.001). Additionally, participants’’ MCS mean score was 39.45±10.86 and significantly greater in males (P < 0.001). Significant PCS scores predictors included hip and upper back musculoskeletal pain, anxiety score, diet self-evaluation, and GPA. Finally, MCS scores were statistically associated with neck musculoskeletal pain, stress score, depression score, number of weekly clinical training hours, gender, university year, GPA, sleep quality self-evaluation, and diet self-evaluation. Conclusion: Clinical educators of AH need to account for students’ low levels of HR-QoL and their academic-related, health-related, and lifestyle-related associated factors. More studies are recommended to investigate the progression of HR-QoL throughout university years and to create effective interventions to improve HR-QoL among healthcare students.

Keywords: medical education, quality of life, stress, anxiety, depression

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395 Quiet Ego and Its Predictors: Comparing Turkey and the US

Authors: Ece Akca, Nebi Sumer, Heidi A. Wayment, Meliksah Demir

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This study compares a typical individualistic culture (the USA) and a relatively collectivist culture (Turkey) on the levels and personality predictors of the quiet ego. A total of 248 Turkish and 683 American university students completed the Quiet Ego Scale and the Big Five Personality Inventory. The moderating role of culture on the relationship between quiet ego and personality characteristics was investigated. Openness to experience was the strongest predictor of the quiet ego among both Turkish and the US samples. Whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness significantly predicted quiet ego in the US, lower levels of neuroticism were related to the quiet ego in Turkey. Results revealed that the effect of personality characteristics on quiet ego varied across cultures. Agreeableness in the US and neuroticism in Turkey seemed to be the critical predictor of quite ego. Results were discussed considering cultural values in Turkish and the USA context.

Keywords: agreeableness, big five personality, culture, neuroticism, quiet ego

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394 Joint Modeling of Longitudinal and Time-To-Event Data with Latent Variable

Authors: Xinyuan Y. Song, Kai Kang

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Joint models for analyzing longitudinal and survival data are widely used to investigate the relationship between a failure time process and time-variant predictors. A common assumption in conventional joint models in the survival analysis literature is that all predictors are observable. However, this assumption may not always be supported because unobservable traits, namely, latent variables, which are indirectly observable and should be measured through multiple observed variables, are commonly encountered in the medical, behavioral, and financial research settings. In this study, a joint modeling approach to deal with this feature is proposed. The proposed model comprises three parts. The first part is a dynamic factor analysis model for characterizing latent variables through multiple observed indicators over time. The second part is a random coefficient trajectory model for describing the individual trajectories of latent variables. The third part is a proportional hazard model for examining the effects of time-invariant predictors and the longitudinal trajectories of time-variant latent risk factors on hazards of interest. A Bayesian approach coupled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to perform statistical inference. An application of the proposed joint model to a study on the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging Initiative is presented.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, joint model, longitudinal data, time-to-event data

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393 Factors Influencing Health-related Quality of Life in Thai AMI Survivors

Authors: K. Masingboon, S. Duangpaeng, N. Chaiwong

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Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most common cause of death among Thai with coronary heart disease (CHD). Thai AMI survivors are most likely to have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) due to their lifestyle, functional, and psychological problems. Guided by the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory, this study aimed to explore HRQoL and identify its predictors among Thai AMI survivors. 155 Thai AMI survivors were recruited by stratified random sampling from three hospitals located in eastern region of Thailand. HRQol was measured using the Short Form -12 Health Survey (SF-12). The Center for Epidemiologic studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was utilized to assess the presence of depression, and the Family Support questionnaire was administered to examine family support. Results revealed that 92 percent of Thai AMI survivors reported a generally high level of HRQoL and 80 percent of them reported higher level of HRQoL in physical health and mental health dimension. Depression and family support were significantly predicted HRQoL among Thai AMI survivors and accounted for 28.5 percent of variance (p < .001). Interestingly, depression was the most significant predictors of HRQoL (β = -.65, p < .001) In conclusion, depression is a significant predictor of HRQoL in Thai AMI survivors. Increasing awareness of depression among these survivors is important. Depressive symptoms in should be routinely assessed. In addition, intervention to improve HRQoL among Thai AMI survivors should be addressed through depressive symptom management and family collaboration.

Keywords: health-related quality of life, AMI survivors, predictors, collaboration

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392 Depression in Non Hospitalized Jordanian Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Ibtisam Al-Zaru

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Background: Worldwide, depression among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients is considered a serious problem that may cause many complications and negative consequences; particularly serious being increased mortality and morbidity rate. Studying depression among CAD patients in Jordan has not been investigated thoroughly and thus a need for further studies has been a priority. Aims: To assess depression in non-hospitalized Jordanian patients with CAD; to describe the relationship between socio-demographic data, health related factors, and depression; and to examine the best predictors of depression in non-hospitalized Jordanian patients with CAD. Method: A cross-sectional-descriptive design was used to collect data from 174 non-hospitalized Jordanian patients diagnosed with CAD in outpatients’ cardiac clinics, using a self- administered questionnaires and Cardiac Depression Scale. Results: 53.4% of CAD patients reported mild/moderate, and severe depressive symptoms. Significant relationships between depressive symptoms and some demo-clinical characteristics (i.e. being female gender; having of chronic disease and surgical history; being physically inactive, and perceived their sexual activity, physical and psychological as poor). The preceding factors are also found to be statistically significant predictors for depression among this patients’ group. Conclusion: Jordanian patients with CAD had various levels of severity regarding their depressive symptoms. Therefore, health care providers need to introduce depression assessment and treatment in cardiac rehabilitation to control depression and its impact on the patient. Consequently, such control will reduce co-morbidity, mortality, complications and health costs among CAD patients and enhance the quality of their lives.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, predictors, depression, prevalence

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391 Determining the Causality Variables in Female Genital Mutilation: A Factor Screening Approach

Authors: Ekele Alih, Enejo Jalija

Abstract:

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is made up of three types namely: Clitoridectomy, Excision and Infibulation. In this study, we examine the factors responsible for FGM in order to identify the causality variables in a logistic regression approach. From the result of the survey conducted by the Public Health Division, Nigeria Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos State, the tau statistic, τ was used to screen 9 factors that causes FGM in order to select few of the predictors before multiple regression equation is obtained. The need for this may be that the sample size may not be able to sustain having a regression with all the predictors or to avoid multi-collinearity. A total of 300 respondents, comprising 150 adult males and 150 adult females were selected for the household survey based on the multi-stage sampling procedure. The tau statistic,

Keywords: female genital mutilation, logistic regression, tau statistic, African society

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390 Examining the Predictors of Non-Urgent Emergency Department Visits: A Population Based Study

Authors: Maher El-Masri, Jamie Crawley, Judy Bornais, Abeer Omar

Abstract:

Background: Misuse of Emergency Department (ED) for non-urgent healthcare results in unnecessary crowdedness that can result in long ED waits and delays in treatment, diversion of ambulances to other hospitals, poor health outcomes for patients, and increased risk of death Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to explore the independent predictors of non-urgent ED visits in Erie St. Clair LHIN. Secondary purposes of the study include comparison of the rates of non-urgent ED visits between urban and rural hospitals Design: A secondary analysis of archived population-based data on 597,373 ED visits in southwestern Ontario Results The results suggest that older (OR = .992; 95% CI .992 – .993) and female patients (OR = .940; 95% CI .929 - .950) were less likely to visit ED for non-urgent causes. Non-urgent ED visits during the winter, spring, and fall were 13%, 5.8%, and 7.5%, respectively, lesser than they were during the summer time. The data further suggest that non-urgent visits were 19.6% and 21.3% less likely to occur in evening and overnight shifts compared to the day shift. Non-urgent visits were 2.76 times more likely to present to small community hospitals than large community hospitals. Health care providers were 1.92 times more likely to refer patients with non-urgent health problem to the ED than the decision taken by patients, family member or caretakers. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study highlights a number of important factors that are associated with inappropriate use of ED visits for non-urgent health problems. Knowledge of these factors could be used to address the issue of unnecessary ED crowdedness.

Keywords: emergency department, non-urgent visits, predictors, logistic regression

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389 Scholastic Ability and Achievement as Predictors of College Performance among Selected Second Year College Students at University of Perpetual Help System DALTA, Calamba

Authors: Shielilo R. Amihan, Ederliza De Jesus

Abstract:

The study determined the predictors of college performance of 2nd Yr students of UPHSD-Calamba. This quantitative study conducted a survey using the Scholastic Abilities Test for Adults (SATA), and the retrieval of entrance examinations results and current General Weighted Average (GWA) of the 242 randomly selected respondents. The mean, Pearson r and multiple regression analyses through SPSS revealed that students are capable of verbal, non-verbal and quantitative reasoning, reading vocabulary, comprehension, math calculation, and writing mechanics but have difficulty in math application and writing composition. The study found out the Scholastic Ability and Achievement, except in mathematics, are significantly related to college performance. It concludes that students with high ability and achievement may perform better in college. However, only English subset results in the entrance exam predicts the academic success of students in college while SATA and Math entrance exam results do not. The study recommends providing pre-college Math and Writing courses as requisites in college. It also suggests implementing formative curriculum-based enhancement programs on specific priority areas, profiling programs towards informed individual academic decision-making, revising the Entrance Examinations, monitoring the development of the students, and exploring other predictors of college academic performance such as non-cognitive factors.

Keywords: scholastic ability, scholastic achievement, entrance exam, college performance

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388 Stress and Social Support as Predictors of Quality of Life: A Case among Flood Victims in Malaysia

Authors: Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Che Su Mustaffa, Johana Johari, Nur Haffiza Rahaman

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects and relationship of stress and social support towards the quality of life among flood victims in Malaysia. A total of 764 respondents took part in the survey via random sampling. The depression, anxiety, and stress scales were utilized to measure stress while The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure the quality of life. The findings of this study indicate that there were significant correlations between variables in the study. The findings show a significant negative relation between stress and quality of life, and significant positive correlations between support from family as well as support from friends with the quality of life. Stress and support from family were found to be significant predictors and influences the quality of life among flood victims.

Keywords: stress, social support, quality of life, flood victims

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387 A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: E. Botchway, C. Godfrey, V. Anderson, C. Catroppa

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Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, sleep diatiurbances, childhood, systematic review

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386 Protein Remote Homology Detection and Fold Recognition by Combining Profiles with Kernel Methods

Authors: Bin Liu

Abstract:

Protein remote homology detection and fold recognition are two most important tasks in protein sequence analysis, which is critical for protein structure and function studies. In this study, we combined the profile-based features with various string kernels, and constructed several computational predictors for protein remote homology detection and fold recognition. Experimental results on two widely used benchmark datasets showed that these methods outperformed the competing methods, indicating that these predictors are useful computational tools for protein sequence analysis. By analyzing the discriminative features of the training models, some interesting patterns were discovered, reflecting the characteristics of protein superfamilies and folds, which are important for the researchers who are interested in finding the patterns of protein folds.

Keywords: protein remote homology detection, protein fold recognition, profile-based features, Support Vector Machines (SVMs)

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