Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47
47 Using Wiki for Enhancing the Knowledge Transfer to Newcomers: An Experience Report

Authors: H. O. Barbosa, A. C. R. da Silva, C. M. de Almeida, E. M. dos Santos, F. O. de Sousa, F. B. da S. Souza, F. B. da S. Souza, F. de O. Lima, L. H. Albuquerque, R. F. do Valle Cunha

Abstract:

Software development is intrinsic human-based knowledge-intensive. Due to globalization, software development has become a complex challenge and we usually face barriers related to knowledge management, team building, costly testing processes, especially in distributed settings. In this paper, we present the use of experimental studies to improve our knowledge management process using the Wiki system. According to the results, it was possible to identify learning preferences from our software projects leader team, organize and improve the learning experience of our Wiki, and facilitate collaboration by newcomers to improve Wiki with new contents available in the Wiki.

Keywords: Mobile products, knowledge management process, Wiki system, Global Software Development.

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46 Hazardous Waste Generated in the Peruvian Textile Industry: Haute Couture, Alpaca Fiber and Tannery

Authors: Huiman C. Alberto

Abstract:

The research cites the various hazardous waste generated in the textile industry. The method used is descriptive and comparative, the process consisted of the search and evaluation of information, both nationally and internationally. The results indicate: (1) Waste is generated from the alpaca fiber industry in the various stages of camelid rearing, they stand out for their dangerousness: excreta, residual fiber and yarn scraps. (2) The main hazardous waste generated by the tannery industry are grease, hides, hair, plastic containers with traces of toxic substances, chips and pieces of leather with chrome. (3) Three companies' Solid Waste Management Plans were analyzed, randomly selected, and none of them detail waste treatment processes and warn of the lack of supervision by the authorities. It is concluded that the hazardous waste generated can affect human and environmental health. There is the possibility of taking advantage of certain hazardous waste such as manure and alpaca fiber, after treatment; while non-hazardous waste from the tannery such as yarn, panel weaving, cloth, scraps, and thread, can be used to produce new products, generating a production chain in favor of the entrepreneur himself.

Keywords: Alpaca fiber, excreta, Haute couture, hazardous waste tannery, hazardous waste treatment, textile waste,

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45 Characteristics and Outcomes of COVID-19 Related Stroke: A Cohort Study

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar

Abstract:

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a neurological side effect of COVID-19 disease wit high rate in pandemics. Effect of COVID-19 disease on disorder is unclear. In this cohort, patients with COVID-19 disease were assessed. 60 CVA cases were assessed in a referral hospital in 2020. The major factor was mortality and the cases were those with and without death. The groups were compared for all features about mortality in the patients with COVID-19 and CVA. Totally 23 out of 60 cases (38.3%) were expired. In univariate analysis there was significant association for death by ischemic heart disease (P = 0.015), high-severity stroke (P = 0.012), high C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.001), high ESR (P = 0.009), pleural effusion (P = 0.005), pericardial effusion (P = 0.027), cardiomegaly (P = 0.005), ground glass opacity (P = 0.001), and consolidation (P = 0.001). Among these factors, there was significant association only for CRP (P = 0.001) and consolidation (P = 0.003) in multivariate analysis. Mortality in the cases with COVID-19-related CVA is one-third and it has relationship to elevated CRP and finding the consolidation in the computerized tomography scan of the lungs.

Keywords: COVID-19, stroke, prognosis, C-reactive protein, CRP.

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44 Transfer Knowledge from Multiple Source Problems to a Target Problem in Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Tami Alghamdi, Terence Soule

Abstract:

To study how to transfer knowledge from multiple source problems to the target problem, we modeled the Transfer Learning (TL) process using Genetic Algorithms as the model solver. TL is the process that aims to transfer learned data from one problem to another problem. The TL process aims to help Machine Learning (ML) algorithms find a solution to the problems. The Genetic Algorithms (GA) give researchers access to information that we have about how the old problem is solved. In this paper, we have five different source problems, and we transfer the knowledge to the target problem. We studied different scenarios of the target problem. The results showed that combined knowledge from multiple source problems improves the GA performance. Also, the process of combining knowledge from several problems results in promoting diversity of the transferred population.

Keywords: Transfer Learning, Multiple Sources, Knowledge Transfer, Domain Adaptation, Source, Target.

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43 Blockchain Technology Applications in Patient Tracking Systems Regarding Privacy-Preserving Concerns and COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Farbod Behnaminia, Saeed Samet

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has paralyzed many lives until a vaccine has been available, which caused the so-called "new normal". COVID-19 is an infectious disease. It can cause significant illness or death in anyone. Governments and health officials tried to impose rules and regulations to avoid and slow down transmission. Therefore, software engineers worldwide developed applications to trace and track patients’ movements and notify others, mainly using Bluetooth. In this way, everyone could be informed whether they came in close contact with someone who has COVID-19 and take proper safety precautions. Because most of the applications use technologies that can potentially reveal the user’s identity and location, researchers have debated privacy preservation and how to improve user privacy during such pandemics. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the literature by looking for papers in the relevant field and dividing them into pre- and post-pandemic systems. Additionally, we discussed the many uses of blockchain technology in pandemic control. We found that two major obstacles facing blockchain implementation across many healthcare systems are scalability and privacy. The Polkadot platform is presented, along with a review of its efficacy in tackling current concerns. A more scalable healthcare system is achievable in near future using Polkadot as well as a much more privacy-preserving environment.

Keywords: Blockchain, Electronic Record Management, EHR, Privacy-Preserving, patient tracking, COVID-19, trust and confidence, Polkadot.

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42 Using Machine Learning Techniques for Autism Spectrum Disorder Analysis and Detection in Children

Authors: Norah Alshahrani, Abdulaziz Almaleh

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition related to issues with brain development that affects how a person recognises and communicates with others which results in difficulties with interaction and communication socially and it is constantly growing. Early recognition of ASD allows children to lead safe and healthy lives and helps doctors with accurate diagnoses and management of conditions. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a method that will achieve good results and with high accuracy for the measurement of ASD in children. In this paper, ASD datasets of toddlers and children have been analyzed. We employed the following machine learning techniques to attempt to explore ASD: Random Forest (RF), Decision Tree (DT), Na¨ıve Bayes (NB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Then feature selection was used to provide fewer attributes from ASD datasets while preserving model performance. As a result, we found that the best result has been provided by SVM, achieving 0.98% in the toddler dataset and 0.99% in the children dataset.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD, Machine Learning, ML, Feature Selection, Support Vector Machine, SVM.

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41 A Review on Higher Order Spline Techniques for Solving Burgers Equation Using B-Spline Methods and Variation of B-Spline Techniques

Authors: Maryam Khazaei Pool, Lori Lewis

Abstract:

This is a summary of articles based on higher order B-splines methods and the variation of B-spline methods such as Quadratic B-spline Finite Elements Method, Exponential Cubic B-Spline Method Septic B-spline Technique, Quintic B-spline Galerkin Method, and B-spline Galerkin Method based on the Quadratic B-spline Galerkin method (QBGM) and Cubic B-spline Galerkin method (CBGM). In this paper we study the B-spline methods and variations of B-spline techniques to find a numerical solution to the Burgers’ equation. A set of fundamental definitions including Burgers equation, spline functions, and B-spline functions are provided. For each method, the main technique is discussed as well as the discretization and stability analysis. A summary of the numerical results is provided and the efficiency of each method presented is discussed. A general conclusion is provided where we look at a comparison between the computational results of all the presented schemes. We describe the effectiveness and advantages of these methods.

Keywords: Burgers’ Equation, Septic B-spline, Modified Cubic B-Spline Differential Quadrature Method, Exponential Cubic B-Spline Technique, B-Spline Galerkin Method, and Quintic B-Spline Galerkin Method.

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40 Optimizing the Components of Grid-Independent Microgrids for Rural Electrification Utilizing Solar Panel and Supercapacitor

Authors: Astiaj Khoramshahi, Hossein Ahmadi Danesh Ashtiani, Ahmad Khoshgard, Hamidreza Damghani, Leila Damghani

Abstract:

Rural electrification rates are generally low in Iran and many parts of the world that lack sustainable renewable energy resources. Many homes are based on polluting solutions such as crude oil and diesel generators for lighting, heating, and charging electrical gadgets. Small-scale portable solar battery packs are accessible to the public; however, they have low capacity and are challenging to be distributed in developing countries. To design a battery-based microgrid power systems, the load profile is one of the key parameters. Additionally, the reliability of the system should be taken into account. A conventional microgrid system can be either AC or coupling DC. Both AC and DC microgrids have advantages and disadvantages depending on their application and can be either connected to the main grid or perform independently. This article proposes a tool for optimal sizing of microgrid-independent systems via respective analysis. To show such an analysis, the type of power generation, number of panels, battery capacity, microgrid size, and group of available consumers should be considered. Therefore, the optimization of different design scenarios is based on number of solar panels and super saving sources, ranges of the depth of discharges, to calculate size and estimate the overall cost. Generally, it is observed that there is an inverse relationship between the depth spectrum of discharge and the solar microgrid costs.

Keywords: Storage, super-storage, grid-independent, economic factors, microgrid.

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39 AI-Based Approaches for Task Offloading, ‎Resource ‎Allocation and Service Placement of ‎IoT Applications: State of the Art

Authors: Fatima Z. Cherhabil, Mammar Sedrati, Sonia-Sabrina Bendib‎

Abstract:

In order to support the continued growth, critical latency of ‎IoT ‎applications and ‎various obstacles of traditional data centers, ‎Mobile Edge ‎Computing (MEC) has ‎emerged as a promising solution that extends the cloud data-processing and decision-making to edge devices. ‎By adopting a MEC structure, IoT applications could be executed ‎locally, on ‎an edge server, different fog nodes or distant cloud ‎data centers. However, we are ‎often ‎faced with wanting to optimize conflicting criteria such as ‎minimizing energy ‎consumption of limited local capabilities (in terms of CPU, RAM, storage, bandwidth) of mobile edge ‎devices and trying to ‎keep ‎high performance (reducing ‎response time, increasing throughput and service availability) ‎at the same ‎time‎. Achieving one goal may affect the other making Task Offloading (TO), ‎Resource Allocation (RA) and Service Placement (SP) complex ‎processes. ‎It is a nontrivial multi-objective optimization ‎problem ‎to study the trade-off between conflicting criteria. ‎The paper provides a survey on different TO, SP and RA recent Multi-‎Objective Optimization (MOO) approaches used in edge computing environments, particularly Artificial Intelligent (AI) ones, to satisfy various objectives, constraints and dynamic conditions related to IoT applications‎.

Keywords: Mobile Edge Computing, Multi-Objective Optimization, Artificial Intelligence ‎Approaches, Task Offloading, Resource Allocation, Service Placement‎.

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38 Design of Quality Assessment System for On-Orbit 3D Printing Based on 3D Reconstruction Technology

Authors: Jianning Tang, Xiaofeng Wu

Abstract:

With the increasing demand for space use in multiple sectors (navigation, telecommunication, imagery, etc.), the deployment and maintenance demand of satellites are growing. Considering the high launching cost and the restrictions on weight and size of the payload when using launch vehicle, the technique of on-orbit manufacturing has obtained more attention because of its significant potential to support future space missions. 3D printing is the most promising manufacturing technology that could be applied in space. However, due to the lack of autonomous quality assessment, the operation of conventional 3D printers still relies on human presence to supervise the printing process. This paper is proposed to develop an automatic 3D reconstruction system aiming at detecting failures on the 3D printed objects through application of point cloud technology. Based on the data obtained from the point cloud, the 3D printer could locate the failure and repair the failure. The system will increase automation and provide 3D printing with more feasibilities for space use without human interference.

Keywords: 3D printing, quality assessment, point cloud, on-orbit manufacturing.

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37 FACTS Impact on Grid Stability and Power Markets

Authors: Abdulrahman Alsuhaibani, Martin Macken

Abstract:

FACTS devices have great influence on the grid stability and power markets price. Recently, there is intent to integrate a large scale of renewable energy sources to the power system which in turn pushes the power system to operate closer to the security limits. This paper discusses the power system stability and reliability improvement that could be achieved by using FACTS. There is a comparison between FACTS devices to evaluate their performance for different functions. A case study has also been made about its effect on reducing generation cost and minimizing transmission losses which have good impact on efficient and economic operation of electricity markets.

Keywords: FACTS, grid stability, spot price, Optimal Power Flow.

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36 Deep-Learning Based Approach to Facial Emotion Recognition Through Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Nouha Khediri, Mohammed Ben Ammar, Monji Kherallah

Abstract:

Recently, facial emotion recognition (FER) has become increasingly essential to understand the state of the human mind. However, accurately classifying emotion from the face is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a facial emotion recognition approach named CV-FER benefiting from deep learning, especially CNN and VGG16. First, the data are pre-processed with data cleaning and data rotation. Then, we augment the data and proceed to our FER model, which contains five convolutions layers and five pooling layers. Finally, a softmax classifier is used in the output layer to recognize emotions. Based on the above contents, this paper reviews the works of facial emotion recognition based on deep learning. Experiments show that our model outperforms the other methods using the same FER2013 database and yields a recognition rate of 92%. We also put forward some suggestions for future work.

Keywords: CNN, deep-learning, facial emotion recognition, machine learning.

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35 Temperature-Based Detection of Initial Yielding Point in Loading of Tensile Specimens Made of Structural Steel

Authors: Aqsa Jamil, Hiroshi Tamura, Hiroshi Katsuchi, Jiaqi Wang

Abstract:

Yield point represents the upper limit of forces which can be applied on a specimen without causing any permanent deformation. After yielding, the behavior of specimen suddenly changes including the possibility of cracking or buckling. So, the accumulation of damage or type of fracture changes depending on this condition. As it is difficult to accurately detect yield points of the several stress concentration points in structural steel specimens, an effort has been made in this research work to develop a convenient technique using thermography (temperature-based detection) during tensile tests for the precise detection of yield point initiation. To verify the applicability of thermography camera, tests were conducted under different loading conditions and measuring the deformation by installing various strain gauges and monitoring the surface temperature with the help of thermography camera. The yield point of specimens was estimated by the help of temperature dip which occurs due to the thermoelastic effect during the plastic deformation. The scattering of the data has been checked by performing repeatability analysis. The effect of temperature imperfection and light source has been checked by carrying out the tests at daytime as well as midnight and by calculating the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the noised data from the infrared thermography camera, it can be concluded that the camera is independent of testing time and the presence of a visible light source. Furthermore, a fully coupled thermal-stress analysis has been performed by using Abaqus/Standard exact implementation technique to validate the temperature profiles obtained from the thermography camera and to check the feasibility of numerical simulation for the prediction of results extracted with the help of thermographic technique.

Keywords: Signal to noise ratio, thermoelastic effect, thermography, yield point.

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34 The Role of Social and Technical Lean Implementation in Improving Operational Performance: Insights from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: M. Bernasconi, M. Grothkopp, T. Friedli

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between technical and social lean bundles as well as operational performance in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. We investigate the direct and mediating effects of the lean bundles Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), Total Quality Management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT), and Human Resource Management (HRM) on operational performance. Our analysis relies on 113 manufacturing facilities from the St.Gallen OPEX benchmarking database. The results show that HRM has a positive indirect effect on operational performance mediated by the technical lean bundles.

Keywords: Human resource management, operational performance, pharmaceutical industry, technical lean practices.

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33 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Mixed-Mode Fracture of Cement Paste and Interface under Three-Point Bending Test

Authors: S. Al Dandachli, F. Perales, Y. Monerie, F. Jamin, M. S. El Youssoufi, C. Pelissou

Abstract:

The goal of this research is to study the fracture process and mechanical behavior of concrete under I–II mixed-mode stress, which is essential for ensuring the safety of concrete structures. For this purpose, two-dimensional simulations of three-point bending tests under variable load and geometry on notched cement paste samples of composite samples (cement paste/siliceous aggregate) are modeled by employing Cohesive Zone Models (CZMs). As a result of experimental validation of these tests, the CZM model demonstrates its capacity to predict fracture propagation at the local scale.

Keywords: Concrete, cohesive zone model, microstructure, fracture, three-point flexural test bending.

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32 The Long-Term Effects of Using the Energy Box on Energy Poor Households in the Private Rental Sector in the Netherlands

Authors: B. E. Weber, N. Vrielink, M. G. Rietbergen

Abstract:

This paper explores the long-term effects of the Energy Box trajectory on households in the private rental sector, specifically households experiencing energy poverty. The concept of energy poverty has been getting increasing attention among policymakers over the past few years. In the Netherlands, as far as we know, there are no national policies on alleviating energy poverty, which negatively impacts energy-poor households. The Energy Box can help households experiencing energy poverty by stimulating them to improve the energy efficiency of their home by changing their energy-saving behavior. Important long-term effects are that respondents indicate that they live in a more environmentally friendly way and that they save money on their energy bills. Households feel engaged with the concept of energy-saving and can see the benefits of changing their energy-saving behavior. Respondents perceived the Energy Box as a means to live more environmentally friendly, instead of it solely being a means to save money on energy bills. The findings show that most respondents signed up for the Energy Box are interested in energy-saving as a lifestyle choice instead of a financial choice, which would likely be the case for households experiencing energy poverty.

Keywords: Energy-saving behavior, energy poverty, poverty, private rental sector.

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31 Ensemble Approach for Predicting Student's Academic Performance

Authors: L. A. Muhammad, M. S. Argungu

Abstract:

Educational data mining (EDM) has recorded substantial considerations. Techniques of data mining in one way or the other have been proposed to dig out out-of-sight knowledge in educational data. The result of the study got assists academic institutions in further enhancing their process of learning and methods of passing knowledge to students. Consequently, the performance of students boasts and the educational products are by no doubt enhanced. This study adopted a student performance prediction model premised on techniques of data mining with Students' Essential Features (SEF). SEF are linked to the learner's interactivity with the e-learning management system. The performance of the student's predictive model is assessed by a set of classifiers, viz. Bayes Network, Logistic Regression, and Reduce Error Pruning Tree (REP). Consequently, ensemble methods of Bagging, Boosting, and Random Forest (RF) are applied to improve the performance of these single classifiers. The study reveals that the result shows a robust affinity between learners' behaviors and their academic attainment. Result from the study shows that the REP Tree and its ensemble record the highest accuracy of 83.33% using SEF. Hence, in terms of the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC), boosting method of REP Tree records 0.903, which is the best. This result further demonstrates the dependability of the proposed model.

Keywords: Ensemble, bagging, Random Forest, boosting, data mining, classifiers, machine learning.

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30 Exploring the Relationship between Building Construction Activity and Road-Related Expenditure in Victoria

Authors: Md. Aftabuzzaman, Md. Kamruzzaman

Abstract:

Road-related expenditure and building construction activity are two significant drivers of the Victorian economy. This paper investigates the relationship between building construction activity and road-related expenditure. Data for construction activities were collected from Victorian Building Authority, and road-related expenditure data were explored by the Bureau of Infrastructure and Transport Research Economics. The trend between these two sectors was compared. The analysis found a strong relationship between road-related expenditure and the volume of construction activity, i.e., the more construction activities, the greater the requirement of road-related expenditure, or vice-versa. The road-related expenditure has a two-year lag period, suggesting that the road sector requires two years to respond to the growth in the building sector.

Keywords: Building construction activity, infrastructure, road expenditure, Victorian building authority.

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29 Application of Relative Regional Total Energy in Rotary Drums with Axial Segregation Characteristics

Authors: Qiuhua Miao, Peng Huang, Yifei Ding

Abstract:

Particles with different properties tend to be unevenly distributed along an axial direction of the rotating drum, which is usually ignored. Therefore, it is important to study the relationship between axial segregation characteristics and particle crushing efficiency in longer drums. In this paper, a relative area total energy (RRTE) index is proposed, which aims to evaluate the overall crushing energy distribution characteristics. Based on numerical simulation verification, the proposed RRTE index can reflect the overall grinding effect more comprehensively, clearly representing crushing energy distribution in different drum areas. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to the relation between axial segregation and crushing energy in drums. Compared with the radial section, the collision loss energy of the axial section can better reflect the overall crushing effect in long drums. The axial segregation characteristics directly affect the total energy distribution between medium and abrasive, reducing overall crushing efficiency. Therefore, the axial segregation characteristics should be avoided as much as possible in the crushing of the long rotary drum.

Keywords: Relative regional total energy, crushing energy, axial segregation characteristics, rotary drum.

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28 Determination of Poisson’s Ratio and Elastic Modulus of Compression Textile Materials

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu

Abstract:

Compression textiles such as compression stockings (CSs) have been extensively applied for the prevention and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The involvement of multiple mechanical factors such as interface pressure, frictional force, and elastic materials make the interactions between lower limb and CSs to be complex. Determination of Poisson’s ratio and elastic moduli of CS materials are critical for constructing finite element (FE) modeling to numerically simulate a complex interactive system of CS and lower limb. In this study, a mixed approach, including an analytic model based on the orthotropic Hooke’s Law and experimental study (uniaxial tension testing and pure shear testing), has been proposed to determine Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and shear modulus of CS fabrics. The results indicated a linear relationship existing between the stress and strain properties of the studied CS samples under controlled stretch ratios (< 100%). The proposed method and the determined key mechanical properties of elastic orthotropic CS fabrics facilitate FE modeling for analyzing in-depth the effects of compression material design on their resultant biomechanical function in compression therapy.

Keywords: Elastic compression stockings, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, mechanical analysis.

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27 The Effect of Multiple Environmental Conditions on Acacia Senegal Seedling’s Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Contents: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Abdoelmoniem A. Attaelmanan, Ahmed A. H. Siddig

Abstract:

This study was conducted in light of continual global climate changes that projected increasing aridity, changes in soil fertility, and pollution. Plant growth and development largely depend on the combination of availing water and nutrients in the soil. Changes in the climate and atmospheric chemistry can cause serious effects on these growth factors. Plant carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and hydrogen (H) play a fundamental role in the maintenance of ecosystem structure and function. Hashab (Acacia senegal), which produces gum Arabic, supports dryland ecosystems in tropical zones by its potentiality to restore degraded soils; hence, it is ecologically and economically important for the dry areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The study aims at investigating the effects of water stress (simulated drought) and poor soil type on Acacia senegal C, N, and H contents. Seven-day-old seedlings were assigned to the treatments in split-plot design for four weeks. The main plot is irrigation interval (well-watered and water-stressed), and the subplot is soil types (silt and sandy soils). Seedling's C%, N%, and H% were measured using CHNS-O Analyzer and applying Standard Test Method. Irrigation intervals and soil types had no effects on seedlings and leaves C%, N%, and H%, irrigation interval had affected stem C% and H%, both irrigation intervals and soil types had affected root N% and interaction effect of water and soil was found on leaves and root's N%. Application of well-watered irrigation with soil that is rich in N and other nutrients would result in the greatest seedling C, N, and H content which will enhance growth and biomass accumulation and can play a crucial role in ecosystem productivity and services in the dryland regions.

Keywords: Acacia senegal, Africa, climate change, drylands, nutrients biomass, Sub-Sahara, Sudan.

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26 Diversity for Safety and Security of Autonomous Vehicles against Accidental and Deliberate Faults

Authors: Anil Ranjitbhai Patel, Clement John Shaji, Peter Liggesmeyer

Abstract:

Safety and security of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) is a growing concern, first, due to the increased number of safety-critical functions taken over by automotive embedded systems; second, due to the increased exposure of the software-intensive systems to potential attackers; third, due to dynamic interaction in an uncertain and unknown environment at runtime which results in changed functional and non-functional properties of the system. Frequently occurring environmental uncertainties, random component failures, and compromise security of the AVs might result in hazardous events, sometimes even in an accident, if left undetected. Beyond these technical issues, we argue that the safety and security of AVs against accidental and deliberate faults are poorly understood and rarely implemented. One possible way to overcome this is through a well-known diversity approach. As an effective approach to increase safety and security, diversity has been widely used in the aviation, railway, and aerospace industries. Thus, paper proposes fault-tolerance by diversity model taking into consideration the mitigation of accidental and deliberate faults by application of structure and variant redundancy. The model can be used to design the AVs with various types of diversity in hardware and software-based multi-version system. The paper evaluates the presented approach by employing an example from adaptive cruise control, followed by discussing the case study with initial findings.

Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, diversity, fault-tolerance, adaptive cruise control, safety, security.

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25 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Cafer Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

Abstract:

In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic, and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle used for the analysis was made independent of the number of mesh elements and the k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results were interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km/h and 100 km/h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result, the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km/h and 100 km/h was interpreted.

Keywords: CFD, k-epsilon, aerodynamics, drag coefficient, taillight.

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24 Effect of Testing Device Calibration on Liquid Limit Assessment

Authors: M. O. Bayram, H. B. Gencdal, N. O. Fercan, B. Basbug

Abstract:

Liquid limit, which is used as a measure of soil strength, can be detected by Casagrande and fall-cone testing methods. The two methods majorly diverge from each other in terms of operator dependency. The Casagrande method that is applied according to ASTM D4318-17 standards may give misleading results, especially if the calibration process is not performed well. In this study, to reveal the effect of calibration for drop height and amount of soil paste placement in the Casagrande cup, a series of tests were carried out by multipoint method as it is specified in the ASTM standards. The tests include the combination of 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, and 12 mm drop heights and under-filled, half-filled, and full-filled Casagrande cups by kaolin samples. It was observed that during successive tests, the drop height of the cup deteriorated; hence the device was recalibrated before and after each test to provide the accuracy of the results. Besides, the tests by under-filled and full-filled samples for higher drop heights revealed lower liquid limit values than the lower drop heights revealed. For the half-filled samples, it was clearly seen that the liquid limit values did not change at all as the drop height increased, and this explains the function of standard specifications.

Keywords: Calibration, Casagrande cup method, drop height, kaolin, liquid limit, placing form.

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23 Transportation Mode Choice Analysis for Accessibility of the Mehrabad International Airport by Statistical Models

Authors: N. Mirzaei Varzeghani, M. Saffarzadeh, A. Naderan, A. Taheri

Abstract:

Countries are progressing, and the world's busiest airports see year-on-year increases in travel demand. Passenger acceptability of an airport depends on the airport's appeals, which may include one of these routes between the city and the airport, as well as the facilities to reach them. One of the critical roles of transportation planners is to predict future transportation demand so that an integrated, multi-purpose system can be provided and diverse modes of transportation (rail, air, and land) can be delivered to a destination like an airport. In this study, 356 questionnaires were filled out in person over six days. First, the attraction of business and non-business trips was studied using data and a linear regression model. Lower travel costs, more passengers aged 55 and older using this airport, and other factors are essential for business trips. Non-business travelers, on the other hand, have prioritized using personal vehicles to get to the airport and ensuring convenient access to the airport. Business travelers are also less price-sensitive than non-business travelers regarding airport travel. Furthermore, carrying additional luggage (for example, more than one suitcase per person) undoubtedly decreases the attractiveness of public transit. Afterward, based on the manner and purpose of the trip, the locations with the highest trip generation to the airport were identified. The most famous district in Tehran was District 2, with 23 visits, while the most popular mode of transportation was an online taxi, with 12 trips from that location. Then, significant variables in separation and behavior of travel methods to access the airport were investigated for all systems. In this scenario, the most crucial factor is the time it takes to get to the airport, followed by the method's user-friendliness as a component of passenger preference. It has also been demonstrated that enhancing public transportation trip times reduces private transportation's market share, including taxicabs. Based on the responses of personal and semi-public vehicles, the desire of passengers to approach the airport via public transportation systems was explored to enhance present techniques and develop new strategies for providing the most efficient modes of transportation. Using the binary model, it was clear that business travelers and people who had already driven to the airport were the least likely to change.

Keywords: Multimodal transportation, travel behavior, demand modeling, statistical models.

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22 Composite Programming for Electric Passenger Car Selection in Multiple Criteria Decision Making

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper discusses the use of the composite programming method to identify the optimum electric passenger automobile in multiple criteria decision making. With the composite programming approach, a set of alternatives are compared using an optimality measure that gauges how far apart they are from the optimum solution. In this paper, some key factors (range, battery, engine, maximum speed, acceleration) that customers should consider while purchasing an electric passenger car for daily use are discussed. A numerical illustration is provided to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proximity measure approach

Keywords: electric passenger car selection, multiple criteria decision making, proximity measure method, composite programming, entropic weight method

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21 Students’ Participation in Higher Education Governance in Mainland China

Authors: Rurui (Angelina) Liu

Abstract:

Universities have been one of the most important institutions in society. They shoulder the responsibility to do research and teach further generations. Therefore, the governance of universities has been a heated topic and has been learned for years. Recently, it witnessed great changes, for example, the massification of Higher Education (HE), marketization, and privatization. As a result, more stakeholders are involved in the governance of HE, among which students’ participation in HE becomes more important. However, the research about students’ participation in HE governance in China is not sufficient, and the situation requires improvement. The paper aims to not only fill in the research gap but also put forward practical suggestions to follow the world’s trend of HE governance. The methodology of this paper is literature analysis with comparative studies between China and western countries. The research points out that the current situation of students’ participation in HE governance is unideal due to problems in three fields, values and concepts, mechanisms and systems, as well as student unions. Then, the policy implications are based on these reasons: universities should highlight students’ status, respect their subjectivity and adhere to the service awareness; the government requires to build a sound legal system while universities should establish complete mechanisms and systems; student unions should be encouraged by universities to take part in HE governance affairs with sufficient funds, and autonomy. On the one hand, this paper is a further application of four rationales (consumerism, political-realism, communitarian, democracy, and consequentialism) created by Luescher‐Mamashela for the inevitable trend of students’ participation in HE governance. On the other hand, the suggestions it made benefit the students, universities, and society in practical ways.

Keywords: Students’ participation, higher education governance, Chinese higher education, university power.

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20 Analysis of the Supramolecular Complex of Kinetin with Glycyrrhizic Acid Using the Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method

Authors: B. Y. Matmuratov, S. D. Madrakhimova. R. S. Esanov. A. D. Matchanov

Abstract:

Supramolecular complexes of glycyrrhizic acid with kinetin in various molar ratios were obtained, physico-chemical parameters and spectral properties of the resulting complexes were studied (UV, IR, mass spectrometry.

Keywords: Monoammonium salt of glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, supramolecular complex, isomolar series, IR spectroscopy.

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19 The Nature of Intelligence and Its Forms: An Ontological-Modeling Approach

Authors: Husam El-Asfour, Fateh Adhnouss, Kenneth McIsaac, AbdulMutalib Wahaishi, Raafat Aburukba, Idris El-Feghia

Abstract:

Although intelligence is commonly referred to as the observable behavior in various fields and domains, it must also be shown how it develops by exhibiting multiple forms and without observing the inherent behavior. There have been several official and informal definitions of intelligence in various areas; however, no scientific agreement on a definition has been agreed upon. There must be a single definition, structure, and precise modeling for articulating how intelligence is perceived by people and machines in order to comprehend intelligence. Another key challenge is defining the different environment types based on the integral elements (agents) and their possible interactions. On the basis of conceptualization, this paper proposes a formal model for defining and developing intelligence. Forms of intelligence are derived from an ontological view, and thus intelligence is defined, described, and modeled based on the various types of environments.

Keywords: Intelligence, forms, transformation, conceptualization, ontological view.

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18 The Theory and Practice of the State Model of Corporate Governance

Authors: Asaiel Alohaly

Abstract:

A theoretical framework for corporate governance is needed to bridge the gap between the corporate governance of private companies and State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs). The two dominant models, being shareholder and stakeholder, do not always address the specific requirements and challenges posed by ‘hybrid’ companies; namely, previously national bodies that have been privatised while the government retains significant control or holds a majority of shares. Thus, an exploratory theoretical study is needed to identify how ‘hybrid’ companies should be defined and why the state model should be acknowledged since it is the less conspicuous model in comparison with the shareholder and stakeholder models. This research focuses on the state model of corporate governance to understand the complex ownership, control pattern, goals, and corporate governance of these hybrid companies. The significance of this research lies in the fact that there is a limited available publication on the state model. This research argues for the state model, which proceeds from an understanding of the institutionally embedded characteristics of hybrid companies, where the government as a shareholder, is either a majority of the total shares, or has been granted power based on the rule of law; the company bylaws.

Keywords: Corporate governance, control, shareholders, state model.

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17 Distributed Multi-Agent Based Approach on an Intelligent Transportation Network

Authors: Xiao Yihong, Yu Kexin, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar

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With the accelerating process of urbanization, the problem of urban road congestion is becoming more and more serious. Intelligent transportation system combining distributed and artificial intelligence has become a research hotspot. As the core development direction of the intelligent transportation system, Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System (C-ITS) integrates advanced information technology and communication methods and realizes the integration of human, vehicle, roadside infrastructure and other elements through the multi-agent distributed system. By analyzing the system architecture and technical characteristics of C-ITS, the paper proposes a distributed multi-agent C-ITS. The system consists of Roadside Subsystem, Vehicle Subsystem and Personal Subsystem. At the same time, we explore the scalability of the C-ITS and put forward incorporating local rewards in the centralized training decentralized execution paradigm, hoping to add a scalable value decomposition method. In addition, we also suggest introducing blockchain to improve the safety of the traffic information transmission process. The system is expected to improve vehicle capacity and traffic safety.

Keywords: Distributed system, artificial intelligence, multi-agent, Cooperative Intelligent Transportation System.

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16 Modeling the Hybrid Battery/Super-Storage System for a Solar Standalone Microgrid

Authors: Astiaj Khoramshahi, Hossein Ahmadi Danesh Ashtiani, Ahmad Khoshgard, Hamidreza Damghani, Leila Damghani

Abstract:

Solar energy systems using various storages are required to be evaluated based on energy requirements and applications. Also, modeling and analysis of storage systems are necessary to increase the effectiveness of combinations of these systems. In this paper, analysis based on the MATLAB software has been analyzed to evaluate the response of the hybrid energy system considering various technologies of renewable energy and energy storage. In the present study, three different simulation scenarios are presented. Simulation output results using software for the first scenario show that the battery is effective in smoothing the overall power demand to the consumer studied during a day, but temporary loads on the grid with high frequencies, effectively cannot be canceled due to the limited response speed of battery control. Simulation outputs for the second scenario using the energy storage system show that sudden changes in demand power are paved by super saving. The majority of these sudden changes in power demand are caused by sewing consumers and receiving variable solar power (due to clouds passing through the solar array). Simulation outputs for the third scenario show the effects of the hybrid system for the same consumer and the output of the solar array, leading to the smallest amount of power demand fed into the grid, as well as demand at peak times. According to the "battery only" scenario, the displacement technique of the peak load has been significantly reduced.

Keywords: Storage system, super storage, standalone, microgrid.

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15 Data Compression in Ultrasonic Network Communication via Sparse Signal Processing

Authors: Beata Zima, Octavio A. Márquez Reyes, Masoud Mohammadgholiha, Jochen Moll, Luca De Marchi

Abstract:

This document presents the approach of using compressed sensing in signal encoding and information transferring within a guided wave sensor network, comprised of specially designed frequency steerable acoustic transducers (FSATs). Wave propagation in a damaged plate was simulated using commercial FEM-based software COMSOL. Guided waves were excited by means of FSATs, characterized by the special shape of its electrodes, and modeled using PIC255 piezoelectric material. The special shape of the FSAT, allows for focusing wave energy in a certain direction, accordingly to the frequency components of its actuation signal, which makes a larger monitored area available. The process begins when a FSAT detects and records reflection from damage in the structure, this signal is then encoded and prepared for transmission, using a combined approach, based on Compressed Sensing Matching Pursuit and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). After codification of the signal is in binary, the information is transmitted between the nodes in the network. The message reaches the last node, where it is finally decoded and processed, to be used for damage detection and localization purposes. The main aim of the investigation is to determine the location of detected damage using reconstructed signals. The study demonstrates that the special steerable capabilities of FSATs, not only facilitate the detection of damage but also permit transmitting the damage information to a chosen area in a specific direction of the investigated structure.

Keywords: Data compression, ultrasonic communication, guided waves, FEM analysis.

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14 On a Conjecture Regarding the Adam Optimizer

Authors: Mohamed Akrout, Douglas Tweed

Abstract:

The great success of deep learning relies on efficient optimizers, which are the algorithms that decide how to adjust network weights and biases based on gradient information. One of the most effective and widely used optimizers in recent years has been the method of adaptive moments, or Adam, but the mathematical reasons behind its effectiveness are still unclear. Attempts to analyse its behaviour have remained incomplete, in part because they hinge on a conjecture which has never been proven, regarding ratios of powers of the first and second moments of the gradient. Here we show that this conjecture is in fact false, but that a modified version of it is true, and can take its place in analyses of Adam.

Keywords: Adam optimizer, Bock’s conjecture, stochastic optimization, average regret.

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13 Comparative Study of Al2O3 and HfO2 as Gate Dielectric on AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs

Authors: K. Karami, S. Hassan, S. Taking, A. Ofiare, A. Dhongde, A. Al-Khalidi, E. Wasige

Abstract:

We have made a comparative study on the influence of Al2O3 and HfO2 grown using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technique as dielectric in the AlGaN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structure. Five samples consisting of 20 nm and 10 nm each of A2lO3 and HfO2 respectively and a Schottky gate HEMT, were fabricated and measured. The threshold voltage shifts towards negative by 0.1 V and 1.8 V for 10 nm thick HfO2 and 10 nm thick Al2O3 gate dielectric layers, respectively. The negative shift for the 20 nm HfO2 and 20 nm Al2O3 were 1.2 V and 4.9 V, respectively. Higher gm/IDS (transconductance to drain current) ratio was also obtained in HfO2 than Al2O3. With both materials as dielectric, a significant reduction in the gate leakage current in the order of 104 was obtained compared to the sample without the dielectric material.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, Al2O3, HfO2, MOSHEMTs.

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12 A BERT-Based Model for Financial Social Media Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Josiel Delgadillo, Johnson Kinyua, Charles Mutigwe

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The purpose of sentiment analysis is to determine the sentiment strength (e.g., positive, negative, neutral) from a textual source for good decision-making. Natural Language Processing (NLP) in domains such as financial markets requires knowledge of domain ontology, and pre-trained language models, such as BERT, have made significant breakthroughs in various NLP tasks by training on large-scale un-labeled generic corpora such as Wikipedia. However, sentiment analysis is a strong domain-dependent task. The rapid growth of social media has given users a platform to share their experiences and views about products, services, and processes, including financial markets. StockTwits and Twitter are social networks that allow the public to express their sentiments in real time. Hence, leveraging the success of unsupervised pre-training and a large amount of financial text available on social media platforms could potentially benefit a wide range of financial applications. This work is focused on sentiment analysis using social media text on platforms such as StockTwits and Twitter. To meet this need, SkyBERT, a domain-specific language model pre-trained and fine-tuned on financial corpora, has been developed. The results show that SkyBERT outperforms current state-of-the-art models in financial sentiment analysis. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of SkyBERT.

Keywords: BERT, financial markets, Twitter, sentiment analysis.

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11 Virtual Reality in COVID-19 Stroke Rehabilitation: Preliminary Outcomes

Authors: Kasra Afsahi, Maryam Soheilifar, S. Hossein Hosseini

Abstract:

Background: There is growing evidence that Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) can be a consequence of COVID-19 infection. Understanding novel treatment approaches is important in optimizing patient outcomes. Case: This case explores the use of Virtual Reality (VR) in the treatment of a 23-year-old COVID-positive female presenting with left hemiparesis in August 2020. Imaging showed right globus pallidus, thalamus, and internal capsule ischemic stroke. Conventional rehabilitation was started two weeks later, with VR included. This game-based VR technology developed for stroke patients was based on upper extremity exercises and functions for stroke. Physical examination showed left hemiparesis with muscle strength 3/5 in the upper extremity and 4/5 in the lower extremity. The range of motion of the shoulder was 90-100 degrees. The speech exam showed a mild decrease in fluency. Mild lower lip dynamic asymmetry was seen. Babinski was positive on the left. Gait speed was decreased (75 steps per minute). Intervention: Our game-based VR system was developed based on upper extremity physiotherapy exercises for post-stroke patients to increase the active, voluntary movement of the upper extremity joints and improve the function. The conventional program was initiated with active exercises, shoulder sanding for joint ROMs, walking shoulder, shoulder wheel, and combination movements of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints, alternative flexion-extension, pronation-supination movements, Pegboard and Purdo pegboard exercises. Also, fine movements included smart gloves, biofeedback, finger ladder, and writing. The difficulty of the game increased at each stage of the practice with progress in patient performances. Outcome: After 6 weeks of treatment, gait and speech were normal and upper extremity strength was improved to near normal status. No adverse effects were noted. Conclusion: This case suggests that VR is a useful tool in the treatment of a patient with COVID-19 related CVA. The safety of developed instruments for such cases provides approaches to improve the therapeutic outcomes and prognosis as well as increased satisfaction rate among patients.

Keywords: COVID-19, stroke, virtual reality, rehabilitation.

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10 Insight-Based Evaluation of a Map-based Dashboard

Authors: Anna Fredriksson Häägg, Charlotte Weil, Niklas Rönnberg

Abstract:

Map-based dashboards are used for data exploration every day. The present study used an insight-based methodology for evaluating a map-based dashboard that presents research findings of water management and ecosystem services in the Amazon. In addition to analyzing the insights gained from using the dashboard, the evaluation method was compared to standardized questionnaires and task-based evaluations. The result suggests that the dashboard enabled the participants to gain domain-relevant, complex insights regarding the topic presented. Furthermore, the insight-based analysis highlighted unexpected insights and hypotheses regarding causes and potential adaptation strategies for remediation. Although time- and resource-consuming, the insight-based methodology was shown to have the potential of thoroughly analyzing how end users can utilize map-based dashboards for data exploration and decision making. Finally, the insight-based methodology is argued to evaluate tools in scenarios more similar to real-life usage, compared to task-based evaluation methods.

Keywords: Visual analytics, dashboard, insight-based evaluation, geographic visualization.

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9 An Intensional Conceptualization Model for Ontology-Based Semantic Integration

Authors: Fateh Adhnouss, Husam El-Asfour, Kenneth McIsaac, Abdul Mutalib Wahaishi, Idris El-Feghia

Abstract:

Conceptualization is an essential component of semantic ontology-based approaches. There have been several approaches that rely on extensional structure and extensional reduction structure in order to construct conceptualization. In this paper, several limitations are highlighted relating to their applicability to the construction of conceptualizations in dynamic and open environments. These limitations arise from a number of strong assumptions that do not apply to such environments. An intensional structure is strongly argued to be a natural and adequate modeling approach. This paper presents a conceptualization structure based on property, relations, and propositions theory (PRP) to the model ontology that is suitable for open environments. The model extends the First-Order Logic (FOL) notation and defines the formal representation that enables interoperability between software systems and supports semantic integration for software systems in open, dynamic environments.

Keywords: Conceptualization, ontology, extensional structure, intensional structure.

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8 Fully Automated Methods for the Detection and Segmentation of Mitochondria in Microscopy Images

Authors: Blessing Ojeme, Frederick Quinn, Russell Karls, Shannon Quinn

Abstract:

The detection and segmentation of mitochondria from fluorescence microscopy is crucial for understanding the complex structure of the nervous system. However, the constant fission and fusion of mitochondria and image distortion in the background make the task of detection and segmentation challenging. Although there exists a number of open-source software tools and artificial intelligence (AI) methods designed for analyzing mitochondrial images, the availability of only a few combined expertise in the medical field and AI required to utilize these tools poses a challenge to its full adoption and use in clinical settings. Motivated by the advantages of automated methods in terms of good performance, minimum detection time, ease of implementation, and cross-platform compactibility, this study proposes a fully automated framework for the detection and segmentation of mitochondria using both image shape information and descriptive statistics. Using the low-cost, open-source Python and OpenCV library, the algorithms are implemented in three stages: pre-processing; image binarization; and coarse-to-fine segmentation. The proposed model is validated using the fluorescence mitochondrial dataset. Ground truth labels generated using Labkit were also used to evaluate the performance of our detection and segmentation model using precision, recall and rand index. The study produces good detection and segmentation results and reports the challenges encountered during the image analysis of mitochondrial morphology from the fluorescence mitochondrial dataset. A discussion on the methods and future perspectives of fully automated frameworks concludes the paper.

Keywords: 2D, Binarization, CLAHE, detection, fluorescence microscopy, mitochondria, segmentation.

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7 Effects of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Leaf Extract and Its Fractions on Cadmium and Lead Chloride-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Albino Rats

Authors: R. U. Hamzah, H. L. Muhammad, A. Sayyadi, M. B Busari, R. Garba, M. B. Umar, A. N Abubakar

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are toxic, non-essential transition metals that pose many health risks for both humans and animals. They are environmental toxicants which contribute to testicular damage resulting to infertility problem among male populace worldwide. Chelating agents used for lead and cadmium toxicity are not readily available, toxic, expensive and unable to mop up most of the toxic metals accumulated in various organs. In this study, the effect of crude extract (CE), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and acetone fraction (AF) of Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract was assessed on cadmium-lead chloride induced testicular damaged in male albino Wistar rats. CE of the leaf was obtained by extracting in absolute methanol which was further subjected to solvent partitioning via vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) techniques using ethyl acetate, acetone and 70% methanol. A preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidants guided activities on the CE and fractions were determined using standard methods. EF, AF and CE which exhibited significant in vitro activity were subjected to an in vivo study using Wistar rats. In vivo antioxidant markers, male reproductive hormones, testicular enzymes and DNA damage markers were analyzed on the rats’ testes supernatant. AF had the highest quantities of phenols (319.00 mg/g), flavonoids (8.87 mg/g) and tannins (8.87 mg/g) while methanol and EFs were richer in saponins (135.32 µg/g) and alkaloids (38.34 µg/g) respectively. A dose dependent 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and lipid peroxidation were observed in all the extract with high antioxidants power in CE and AF. Administration of lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) decreases the testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity to 6.82 unit/mg protein, Catalase (CAT) activity to 8.07 of H2O2 consumed/unit/mg protein and Glutathione (GSH) concentration to 31.30 ug/mg protein. There was a concomitant increase in the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) to a value of 23.70 mmol/mg protein. In addition, lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) increases the testicular marker enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase (119.57 u/L), lactate dehydrogenase (357.05 u/L), Acid phosphatase (98.65 u/L)) and DNA damage markers (conjugated dienes (93.39 nmol/mg protein), carbonyl protein (35.39 nmol/mg protein), DNA fragmentation percentage (32.12%)) with lowered testicular hormones (Testosterone (3.1 ng/mL), Follicle stimulating (0.35 IU/mL) and Luteinizing hormones (0.15 IU/mL)) of the animals in negative control group when compared with other treated groups. Treatment with Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract reverts the observed changes with the best activities found in the CE and AFs in a dose dependent manner. Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract ameliorated the lead/cadmium induced testicular damage in male albino rats. The restoration of the aforementioned parameters by some of the extract dosages were comparable to the standard drug with higher activities in the crude and AF. Therefore, Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract can be explored further for the management of lead/cadmium induced toxicity.

Keywords: Cadmium, lead, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, testicular damage.

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6 Basic Science Medical Students’ Perception of a Formative Peer Assessment Model for Reinforcing the Learning of Physical Examination Skills During the COVID-19 Pandemic Online Learning Period

Authors: Neilal A. Isaac, Madison Edwards, Kirthana Sugunathevan, Mohan Kumar

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic challenged the education system and forced medical schools to transition to online learning. With this transition, one of the major concerns for students and educators was to ensure that Physical Examination (PE) skills were still being mastered. Thus, the formative peer assessment model was designed to enhance the learning of PE skills during the COVID-19 pandemic in the online learning landscape. Year 1 and year 2 students enrolled in clinical skills courses at the University of Medicine and Health Sciences, St. Kitts were asked to record themselves demonstrating PE skills with a healthy patient volunteer after every skills class. Each student was assigned to exchange feedback with one peer in the course. At the end of the first two semesters of this learning activity, a cross-sectional survey was conducted for the two cohorts of year-1 and year-2 students. The year-1 cohorts most frequently rated the peer assessment exercise as 4 on a 5-point Likert scale, with a mean score of 3.317 [2.759, 3.875]. The year-2 cohorts most frequently rated the peer assessment exercise as 4 on a 5-point Likert scale, with a mean score of 3.597 [2.978, 4.180]. Students indicated that guidance from faculty, flexible deadlines, and detailed and timely feedback from peers were areas for improvement in this process.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, distant learning, online medical education, peer assessment, physical examination.

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5 Performance Evaluation of Conventional and Wiper Carbide Tools When Turning 6060 Aluminium Alloy: Analysis of Surface Roughness

Authors: Salah Gariani, Taher Dao, Khaled Jegandi

Abstract:

Wiper inserts are widely used nowadays, particularly in turning and milling operations, due to their unique geometric characteristics that generate superb surface finish and improve productivity. Wiper inserts can produce double the feed rate while preserving comparable surface roughness compared to that produced by conventional cutting tools. This paper reports an experimental investigation of surface quality generated in the precision dry turning of 6060 Aluminium alloy using conventional and wiper inserts at different cutting conditions. The Taguchi L9 array, Analysis of Means (AOM) and variance (ANOVA) were employed in the development of the experimental design and to optimise the process parameter identified: average surface roughness (Ra). The experimental results show that the wiper inserts substantially improved the surface quality of the machined samples by a factor of two compared to those for the conventional insert under all cutting conditions. The ANOVA and AOM analysis showed that the type of insert is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness, with a Percentage Contribution Ratio (PCR) value of 67.41%. Feed rate also significantly affected surface roughness but contributed less to its variation. No significant difference was found between values of Ra using wiper inserts under dry and wet cooling modes when turning 6060 Aluminium alloy.

Keywords: 6060 Aluminium alloy, conventional and wiper carbide tools, dry turning, average surface roughness.

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4 Smart Grids in Morocco: An Outline of the Recent Developments, Key Drivers, and Recommendations for Future Implementation

Authors: M. Laamim, A. Benazzouz, A. Rochd, A. Ghennioui, A. El Fadili, M. Benzaazoua

Abstract:

Smart grids have recently sparked a lot of interest in the energy sector as they allow for the modernization and digitization of the existing power infrastructure. Smart grids have several advantages in terms of reducing the environmental impact of generating power from fossil fuels due to their capacity to integrate large amounts of distributed energy resources. On the other hand, smart grid technologies necessitate many field investigations and requirements. This paper focuses on the major difficulties that governments face around the world and compares them to the situation in Morocco. Also presented in this study are the current works and projects being developed to improve the penetration of smart grid technologies into the electrical system. Furthermore, the findings of this study will be useful to promote the smart grid revolution in Morocco, as well as to construct a strong foundation and develop future needs for better penetration of technologies that aid in the integration of smart grid features.

Keywords: Smart grids, microgrids, virtual power plants, digital twin, distributed energy resources, vehicle-to-grid, advanced metering infrastructure.

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3 JaCoText: A Pretrained Model for Java Code-Text Generation

Authors: Jessica Lòpez Espejel, Mahaman Sanoussi Yahaya Alassan, Walid Dahhane, El Hassane Ettifouri

Abstract:

Pretrained transformer-based models have shown high performance in natural language generation task. However, a new wave of interest has surged: automatic programming language generation. This task consists of translating natural language instructions to a programming code. Despite the fact that well-known pretrained models on language generation have achieved good performance in learning programming languages, effort is still needed in automatic code generation. In this paper, we introduce JaCoText, a model based on Transformers neural network. It aims to generate java source code from natural language text. JaCoText leverages advantages of both natural language and code generation models. More specifically, we study some findings from the state of the art and use them to (1) initialize our model from powerful pretrained models, (2) explore additional pretraining on our java dataset, (3) carry out experiments combining the unimodal and bimodal data in the training, and (4) scale the input and output length during the fine-tuning of the model. Conducted experiments on CONCODE dataset show that JaCoText achieves new state-of-the-art results.

Keywords: Java code generation, Natural Language Processing, Sequence-to-sequence Models, Transformers Neural Networks.

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2 Building Information Modeling-Based Approach for Automatic Quantity Take-off and Cost Estimation

Authors: Lo Kar Yin, Law Ka Mei

Abstract:

Architectural, engineering, construction and operations (AECO) industry practitioners have been well adapting to the dynamic construction market from the fundamental training of its disciplines. As further triggered by the pandemic since 2019, great steps are taken in virtual environment and the best collaboration is strived with project teams without boundaries. With adoption of Building Information Modeling-based approach and qualitative analysis, this paper is to review quantity take-off (QTO) and cost estimation process through modeling techniques in liaison with suppliers, fabricators, subcontractors, contractors, designers, consultants and services providers in the construction industry value chain for automatic project cost budgeting, project cost control and cost evaluation on design options of in-situ reinforced-concrete construction and Modular Integrated Construction (MiC) at design stage, variation of works and cash flow/spending analysis at construction stage as far as practicable, with a view to sharing the findings for enhancing mutual trust and co-operation among AECO industry practitioners. It is to foster development through a common prototype of design and build project delivery method in NEC4 Engineering and Construction Contract (ECC) Options A and C.

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, cost estimation, quantity take-off, modeling techniques.

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1 Real-time Network Anomaly Detection Systems Based on Machine-Learning Algorithms

Authors: Zahra Ramezanpanah, Joachim Carvallo, Aurelien Rodriguez

Abstract:

This paper aims to detect anomalies in streaming data using machine learning algorithms. In this regard, we designed two separate pipelines and evaluated the effectiveness of each separately. The first pipeline, based on supervised machine learning methods, consists of two phases. In the first phase, we trained several supervised models using the UNSW-NB15 data set. We measured the efficiency of each using different performance metrics and selected the best model for the second phase. At the beginning of the second phase, we first, using Argus Server, sniffed a local area network. Several types of attacks were simulated and then sent the sniffed data to a running algorithm at short intervals. This algorithm can display the results of each packet of received data in real-time using the trained model. The second pipeline presented in this paper is based on unsupervised algorithms, in which a Temporal Graph Network (TGN) is used to monitor a local network. The TGN is trained to predict the probability of future states of the network based on its past behavior. Our contribution in this section is introducing an indicator to identify anomalies from these predicted probabilities.

Keywords: Cyber-security, Intrusion Detection Systems, Temporal Graph Network, Anomaly Detection.

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