Search results for: Elastic compression stockings
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 859

Search results for: Elastic compression stockings

859 Determination of Poisson’s Ratio and Elastic Modulus of Compression Textile Materials

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu

Abstract:

Compression textiles such as compression stockings (CSs) have been extensively applied for the prevention and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The involvement of multiple mechanical factors such as interface pressure, frictional force, and elastic materials make the interactions between lower limb and CSs to be complex. Determination of Poisson’s ratio and elastic moduli of CS materials are critical for constructing finite element (FE) modeling to numerically simulate a complex interactive system of CS and lower limb. In this study, a mixed approach, including an analytic model based on the orthotropic Hooke’s Law and experimental study (uniaxial tension testing and pure shear testing), has been proposed to determine Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and shear modulus of CS fabrics. The results indicated a linear relationship existing between the stress and strain properties of the studied CS samples under controlled stretch ratios (< 100%). The proposed method and the determined key mechanical properties of elastic orthotropic CS fabrics facilitate FE modeling for analyzing in-depth the effects of compression material design on their resultant biomechanical function in compression therapy.

Keywords: Elastic compression stockings, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, mechanical analysis.

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858 Biomechanical Prediction of Veins and Soft Tissues beneath Compression Stockings Using Fluid-Solid Interaction Model

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu

Abstract:

Elastic compression stockings (ECSs) have been widely applied in prophylaxis and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The medical function of ECS is to improve venous return and increase muscular pumping action to facilitate blood circulation, which is largely determined by the complex interaction between the ECS and lower limb tissues. Understanding the mechanical transmission of ECS along the skin surface, deeper tissues, and vascular system is essential to assess the effectiveness of the ECSs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the leg-ECS system integrated with a 3D fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model of the leg-vein system was constructed to analyze the biomechanical properties of veins and soft tissues under different ECS compression. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the human leg was divided into three regions, including soft tissues, bones (tibia and fibula) and veins (peroneal vein, great saphenous vein, and small saphenous vein). The ECSs with pressure ranges from 15 to 26 mmHg (Classes I and II) were adopted in the developed FE-FSI model. The soft tissue was assumed as a Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model with the fixed bones, and the ECSs were regarded as an orthotropic elastic shell. The interfacial pressure and stress transmission were simulated by the FE model, and venous hemodynamics properties were simulated by the FSI model. The experimental validation indicated that the simulated interfacial pressure distributions were in accordance with the pressure measurement results. The developed model can be used to predict interfacial pressure, stress transmission, and venous hemodynamics exerted by ECSs and optimize the structure and materials properties of ECSs design, thus improving the efficiency of compression therapy.

Keywords: Elastic compression stockings, fluid-solid interaction, tissue and vein properties, prediction.

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857 Sub-Impact Phenomenon of Elasto-Plastic Free-Free Beam during a Strike

Authors: H. Rong, X. C. Yin, J. Yang, Y. N. Shen

Abstract:

Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression and recovery processes.

Keywords: beam, sub-impact, elastic-plastic deformation, finite difference method.

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856 Structural Investigation of Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 Glasses Doped with NdF3

Authors: M. S. Gaafar, S. Y. Marzouk

Abstract:

Sodium borosilicate glasses doped with different content of NdF3 mol % have been prepared by rapid quenching method. Ultrasonic velocities (both longitudinal and shear) measurements have been carried out at room temperature and at ultrasonic frequency of 4 MHz. Elastic moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have been obtained as a function of NdF3 modifier content. Results showed that the elastic moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have very slight change with the change of NdF3 mol % content. Based on FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical (Bond compression) model, quantitative analysis has been carried out in order to obtain more information about the structure of these glasses. The study indicated that the structure of these glasses is mainly composed of SiO4 units with four bridging oxygens (Q4), and with three bridging and one nonbridging oxygens (Q3).

Keywords: Borosilicate glasses, ultrasonic velocity, elastic moduli, FTIR spectroscopy, bond compression model.

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855 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: Kaolinite, nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus.

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854 An Analysis of Compression Methods and Implementation of Medical Images in Wireless Network

Authors: C. Rajan, K. Geetha, S. Geetha

Abstract:

The motivation of image compression technique is to reduce the irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to store or pass data in an efficient way from one place to another place. There are several types of compression methods available. Without the help of compression technique, the file size is knowingly larger, usually several megabytes, but by doing the compression technique, it is possible to reduce file size up to 10% as of the original without noticeable loss in quality. Image compression can be lossless or lossy. The compression technique can be applied to images, audio, video and text data. This research work mainly concentrates on methods of encoding, DCT, compression methods, security, etc. Different methodologies and network simulations have been analyzed here. Various methods of compression methodologies and its performance metrics has been investigated and presented in a table manner.

Keywords: Image compression techniques, encoding, DCT, lossy compression, lossless compression, JPEG.

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853 Constitutive Modeling of Different Types of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Khashayar Jafari, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

The cost of experiments on different types of concrete has raised the demand for prediction of their behavior with numerical analysis. In this research, an advanced numerical model has been presented to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of polymer concrete (PC), high-strength concrete (HSC), high performance concrete (HPC) along with different steel fiber contents under uniaxial compression. The accuracy of the numerical response was satisfactory as compared to other conventional simple models such as Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager. In order to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of specimens including softening behavior, disturbed state concept (DSC) was implemented by nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA) and hierarchical single surface (HISS) failure criterion, which is a failure surface without any singularity.

Keywords: Disturbed state concept, hierarchical single surface, failure criterion, high performance concrete, high-strength concrete, nonlinear finite element analysis, polymer concrete, steel fibers, uniaxial compression test.

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852 Supercompression for Full-HD and 4k-3D (8k)Digital TV Systems

Authors: Mario Mastriani

Abstract:

In this work, we developed the concept of supercompression, i.e., compression above the compression standard used. In this context, both compression rates are multiplied. In fact, supercompression is based on super-resolution. That is to say, supercompression is a data compression technique that superpose spatial image compression on top of bit-per-pixel compression to achieve very high compression ratios. If the compression ratio is very high, then we use a convolutive mask inside decoder that restores the edges, eliminating the blur. Finally, both, the encoder and the complete decoder are implemented on General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) cards. Specifically, the mentio-ned mask is coded inside texture memory of a GPGPU.

Keywords: General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units, Image Compression, Interpolation, Super-resolution.

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851 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: Polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain.

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850 A Novel Compression Algorithm for Electrocardiogram Signals based on Wavelet Transform and SPIHT

Authors: Sana Ktata, Kaïs Ouni, Noureddine Ellouze

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression algorithm is needed that will reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, stored and analyzed, but without losing the clinical information content. A wavelet ECG data codec based on the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) compression algorithm is proposed in this paper. The SPIHT algorithm has achieved notable success in still image coding. We modified the algorithm for the one-dimensional (1-D) case and applied it to compression of ECG data. By this compression method, small percent root mean square difference (PRD) and high compression ratio with low implementation complexity are achieved. Experiments on selected records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database revealed that the proposed codec is significantly more efficient in compression and in computation than previously proposed ECG compression schemes. Compression ratios of up to 48:1 for ECG signals lead to acceptable results for visual inspection.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, ECG compression, SPIHT.

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849 Influence of Pressure from Compression Textile Bands: Their Using in the Treatment of Venous Human Leg Ulcers

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui

Abstract:

The aim of study was to evaluate pressure distribution characteristics of the elastic textile bandages using two instrumental techniques: a prototype Instrument and a load Transference. The prototype instrument which simulates shape of real leg has pressure sensors which measure bandage pressure. Using this instrument, the results show that elastic textile bandages presents different pressure distribution characteristics and none produces a uniform distribution around lower limb.

The load transference test procedure is used to determine whether a relationship exists between elastic textile bandage structure and pressure distribution characteristics. The test procedure assesses degree of load, directly transferred through a textile when loads series are applied to bandaging surface. A range of weave fabrics was produced using needle weaving machine and a sewing technique. A textile bandage was developed with optimal characteristics far superior pressure distribution than other bandages. From results, we find that theoretical pressure is not consistent exactly with practical pressure. It is important in this study to make a practical application for specialized nurses in order to verify the results and draw useful conclusions for predicting the use of this type of elastic band.

Keywords: Textile, cotton, pressure, venous ulcers, elastic.

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848 Wavelet Compression of ECG Signals Using SPIHT Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Pooyan, Ali Taheri, Morteza Moazami-Goudarzi, Iman Saboori

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel approach for wavelet compression of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals based on the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) coding algorithm. SPIHT algorithm has achieved prominent success in image compression. Here we use a modified version of SPIHT for one dimensional signals. We applied wavelet transform with SPIHT coding algorithm on different records of MIT-BIH database. The results show the high efficiency of this method in ECG compression.

Keywords: ECG compression, wavelet, SPIHT.

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847 Compression of Semistructured Documents

Authors: Leo Galambos, Jan Lansky, Katsiaryna Chernik

Abstract:

EGOTHOR is a search engine that indexes the Web and allows us to search the Web documents. Its hit list contains URL and title of the hits, and also some snippet which tries to shortly show a match. The snippet can be almost always assembled by an algorithm that has a full knowledge of the original document (mostly HTML page). It implies that the search engine is required to store the full text of the documents as a part of the index. Such a requirement leads us to pick up an appropriate compression algorithm which would reduce the space demand. One of the solutions could be to use common compression methods, for instance gzip or bzip2, but it might be preferable if we develop a new method which would take advantage of the document structure, or rather, the textual character of the documents. There already exist a special compression text algorithms and methods for a compression of XML documents. The aim of this paper is an integration of the two approaches to achieve an optimal level of the compression ratio

Keywords: Compression, search engine, HTML, XML.

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846 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Image compression, MPI, Parallel computing, Wavelets.

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845 Parallel Image Compression and Analysis with Wavelets

Authors: M. Kutila, J. Viitanen

Abstract:

This paper presents image compression with wavelet based method. The wavelet transformation divides image to low- and high pass filtered parts. The traditional JPEG compression technique requires lower computation power with feasible losses, when only compression is needed. However, there is obvious need for wavelet based methods in certain circumstances. The methods are intended to the applications in which the image analyzing is done parallel with compression. Furthermore, high frequency bands can be used to detect changes or edges. Wavelets enable hierarchical analysis for low pass filtered sub-images. The first analysis can be done for a small image, and only if any interesting is found, the whole image is processed or reconstructed.

Keywords: image compression, jpeg, wavelet, vlc

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844 Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser- Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies free vibration of functionally graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Functionally Graded Beam, Free Vibration, Elastic Foundation, Engesser-Timoshenko Beam Theory.

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843 Colour Image Compression Method Based On Fractal Block Coding Technique

Authors: Dibyendu Ghoshal, Shimal Das

Abstract:

Image compression based on fractal coding is a lossy compression method and normally used for gray level images range and domain blocks in rectangular shape. Fractal based digital image compression technique provide a large compression ratio and in this paper, it is proposed using YUV colour space and the fractal theory which is based on iterated transformation. Fractal geometry is mainly applied in the current study towards colour image compression coding. These colour images possesses correlations among the colour components and hence high compression ratio can be achieved by exploiting all these redundancies. The proposed method utilises the self-similarity in the colour image as well as the cross-correlations between them. Experimental results show that the greater compression ratio can be achieved with large domain blocks but more trade off in image quality is good to acceptable at less than 1 bit per pixel.

Keywords: Fractal coding, Iterated Function System (IFS), Image compression, YUV colour space.

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842 Comparison of Compression Ability Using DCT and Fractal Technique on Different Imaging Modalities

Authors: Sumathi Poobal, G. Ravindran

Abstract:

Image compression is one of the most important applications Digital Image Processing. Advanced medical imaging requires storage of large quantities of digitized clinical data. Due to the constrained bandwidth and storage capacity, however, a medical image must be compressed before transmission and storage. There are two types of compression methods, lossless and lossy. In Lossless compression method the original image is retrieved without any distortion. In lossy compression method, the reconstructed images contain some distortion. Direct Cosine Transform (DCT) and Fractal Image Compression (FIC) are types of lossy compression methods. This work shows that lossy compression methods can be chosen for medical image compression without significant degradation of the image quality. In this work DCT and Fractal Compression using Partitioned Iterated Function Systems (PIFS) are applied on different modalities of images like CT Scan, Ultrasound, Angiogram, X-ray and mammogram. Approximately 20 images are considered in each modality and the average values of compression ratio and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are computed and studied. The quality of the reconstructed image is arrived by the PSNR values. Based on the results it can be concluded that the DCT has higher PSNR values and FIC has higher compression ratio. Hence in medical image compression, DCT can be used wherever picture quality is preferred and FIC is used wherever compression of images for storage and transmission is the priority, without loosing picture quality diagnostically.

Keywords: DCT, FIC, PIFS, PSNR.

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841 Electrocardiogram Signal Compression Using Multiwavelet Transform

Authors: Morteza Moazami-Goudarzi, Mohammad. H. Moradi

Abstract:

In this paper we are to find the optimum multiwavelet for compression of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. At present, it is not well known which multiwavelet is the best choice for optimum compression of ECG. In this work, we examine different multiwavelets on 24 sets of ECG data with entirely different characteristics, selected from MITBIH database. For assessing the functionality of the different multiwavelets in compressing ECG signals, in addition to known factors such as Compression Ratio (CR), Percent Root Difference (PRD), Distortion (D), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in compression literature, we also employed the Cross Correlation (CC) criterion for studying the morphological relations between the reconstructed and the original ECG signal and Signal to reconstruction Noise Ratio (SNR). The simulation results show that the cardbal2 by the means of identity (Id) prefiltering method to be the best effective transformation.

Keywords: ECG compression, Multiwavelet, Prefiltering.

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840 Influence of Ambient Condition on Performance of Wet Compression Process

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Gas turbine systems with wet compression have a potential for future power generation, since they can offer a high efficiency and a high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this study influence of ambient condition on the performance of the wet compression process is investigated with a non-equilibrium analytical modeling based on droplet evaporation. Transient behaviors of droplet diameter and temperature of mixed air are investigated for various ambient temperatures. Special attention is paid for the effects of ambient temperature, pressure ratio, and water injection ratios on the important wet compression variables including compressor outlet temperature and compression work. Parametric studies show that downing of the ambient temperature leads to lower compressor outlet temperature and consequently lower consumption of compression work even in wet compression processes.

Keywords: water injection, droplet evaporation, wet compression, gas turbine, ambient condition

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839 Stress Distribution in Axisymmetric Indentation of an Elastic Layer-Substrate Body

Authors: Kotaro Miura, Makoto Sakamoto, Yuji Tanabe

Abstract:

We focus on internal stress and displacement of an elastic axisymmetric contact problem for indentation of a layer-substrate body. An elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded to an elastic semi-infinite substrate. The elastic layer is smoothly indented with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter. The analytical and exact solutions were obtained by solving an infinite system of simultaneous equations using the method to express a normal contact stress at the upper surface of the elastic layer as an appropriate series. This paper presented the numerical results of internal stress and displacement distributions for hard-coating system with constant values of Poisson’s ratio and the thickness of elastic layer.

Keywords: Indentation, contact problem, stress distribution, coating materials, layer-substrate body.

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838 Dynamic Stability of Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies dynamic stability of homogeneous beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to periodic axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing dynamic equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, foundation coefficient and piezoelectric thickness on the unstable regions are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Dynamic stability, Homogeneous graded beam-Piezoelectric layer, Harmonic balance method.

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837 Stability of Homogeneous Smart Beams based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Karami Khorramabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies stability of homogeneous beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to axial load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on first order shear deformation beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter and foundation coefficient on the stability of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Stability, Homogeneous beam- Piezoelectric layer

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836 Modeling of Plasticity of Clays Submitted to Compression Test

Authors: Otávio J.U. Flores, Fernando A. Andrade, Dachamir Hotza, Hazim A. Al-Qureshi

Abstract:

In the forming of ceramic materials the plasticity concept is commonly used. This term is related to a particular mechanical behavior when clay is mixed with water. A plastic ceramic material shows a permanent strain without rupture when a compressive load produces a shear stress that exceeds the material-s yield strength. For a plastic ceramic body it observes a measurable elastic behavior before the yield strength and when the applied load is removed. In this work, a mathematical model was developed from applied concepts of the plasticity theory by using the stress/strain diagram under compression.

Keywords: Plasticity, clay, modeling, coefficient of friction.

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835 Dynamic Decompression for Text Files

Authors: Ananth Kamath, Ankit Kant, Aravind Srivatsa, Harisha J.A

Abstract:

Compression algorithms reduce the redundancy in data representation to decrease the storage required for that data. Lossless compression researchers have developed highly sophisticated approaches, such as Huffman encoding, arithmetic encoding, the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) family, Dynamic Markov Compression (DMC), Prediction by Partial Matching (PPM), and Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) based algorithms. Decompression is also required to retrieve the original data by lossless means. A compression scheme for text files coupled with the principle of dynamic decompression, which decompresses only the section of the compressed text file required by the user instead of decompressing the entire text file. Dynamic decompressed files offer better disk space utilization due to higher compression ratios compared to most of the currently available text file formats.

Keywords: Compression, Dynamic Decompression, Text file format, Portable Document Format, Compression Ratio.

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834 An Anisotropic Model of Damage and Unilateral Effect for Brittle Materials

Authors: José Julio de C. Pituba

Abstract:

This work deals with the initial applications and formulation of an anisotropic plastic-damage constitutive model proposed for non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures submitted to a loading with change of the sign. The original constitutive model is based on the fundamental hypothesis of energy equivalence between real and continuous medium following the concepts of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The concrete is assumed as an initial elastic isotropic medium presenting anisotropy, permanent strains and bimodularity (distinct elastic responses whether traction or compression stress states prevail) induced by damage evolution. In order to take into account the bimodularity, two damage tensors governing the rigidity in tension or compression regimes are introduced. Then, some conditions are introduced in the original version of the model in order to simulate the damage unilateral effect. The three-dimensional version of the proposed model is analyzed in order to validate its formulation when compared to micromechanical theory. The one-dimensional version of the model is applied in the analyses of a reinforced concrete beam submitted to a loading with change of the sign. Despite the parametric identification problems, the initial applications show the good performance of the model.

Keywords: Damage model, plastic strain, unilateral effect.

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833 Hybrid Method Using Wavelets and Predictive Method for Compression of Speech Signal

Authors: Karima Siham Aoubid, Mohamed Boulemden

Abstract:

The development of the signal compression algorithms is having compressive progress. These algorithms are continuously improved by new tools and aim to reduce, an average, the number of bits necessary to the signal representation by means of minimizing the reconstruction error. The following article proposes the compression of Arabic speech signal by a hybrid method combining the wavelet transform and the linear prediction. The adopted approach rests, on one hand, on the original signal decomposition by ways of analysis filters, which is followed by the compression stage, and on the other hand, on the application of the order 5, as well as, the compression signal coefficients. The aim of this approach is the estimation of the predicted error, which will be coded and transmitted. The decoding operation is then used to reconstitute the original signal. Thus, the adequate choice of the bench of filters is useful to the transform in necessary to increase the compression rate and induce an impercevable distortion from an auditive point of view.

Keywords: Compression, linear prediction analysis, multiresolution analysis, speech signal.

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832 Mechanical Buckling of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies mechanical buckling of functionally graded beams subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and foundation coefficient on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Mechanical Buckling, Functionally graded beam- Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory

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831 Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode

Abstract:

Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table shows computational complexity of these three algorithms. Here we have introduced a new performance parameter Average Fractional Change in Speech Sample (AFCSS). Our FCG algorithm gives far better performance considering mean absolute error, AFCSS and complexity as compared to others.

Keywords: Vector Quantization, Data Compression, Encoding, , Speech coding.

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830 EZW Coding System with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Saudagar Abdul Khader Jilani, Syed Abdul Sattar

Abstract:

Image compression plays a vital role in today-s communication. The limitation in allocated bandwidth leads to slower communication. To exchange the rate of transmission in the limited bandwidth the Image data must be compressed before transmission. Basically there are two types of compressions, 1) LOSSY compression and 2) LOSSLESS compression. Lossy compression though gives more compression compared to lossless compression; the accuracy in retrievation is less in case of lossy compression as compared to lossless compression. JPEG, JPEG2000 image compression system follows huffman coding for image compression. JPEG 2000 coding system use wavelet transform, which decompose the image into different levels, where the coefficient in each sub band are uncorrelated from coefficient of other sub bands. Embedded Zero tree wavelet (EZW) coding exploits the multi-resolution properties of the wavelet transform to give a computationally simple algorithm with better performance compared to existing wavelet transforms. For further improvement of compression applications other coding methods were recently been suggested. An ANN base approach is one such method. Artificial Neural Network has been applied to many problems in image processing and has demonstrated their superiority over classical methods when dealing with noisy or incomplete data for image compression applications. The performance analysis of different images is proposed with an analysis of EZW coding system with Error Backpropagation algorithm. The implementation and analysis shows approximately 30% more accuracy in retrieved image compare to the existing EZW coding system.

Keywords: Accuracy, Compression, EZW, JPEG2000, Performance.

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