Search results for: R. Garba
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: R. Garba

7 Morphological and Syntactic Meaning: An Interactive Crossword Puzzle Approach

Authors: Ibrahim Garba

Abstract:

This research involved the use of word distributions and morphological knowledge by speakers of Arabic learning English connected different allomorphs in order to realize how the morphology and syntax of English gives meaning through using interactive crossword puzzles (ICP). Fifteen chapters covered with a class of nine learners over an academic year of an intensive English program were reviewed using the ICP. Learners were questioned about how the use of this gaming element enhanced and motivated their learning of English. The findings were positive indicating a successful implementation of ICP both at creational and user levels. This indicated a positive role technology had when learning and teaching English through adopting an interactive gaming element for learning English.

Keywords: Distribution, gaming, interactive-crossword-puzzle, morphology.

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6 Poor Medical Waste Management (MWM) Practices and Its Risks to Human Health and the Environment: A Literature Review

Authors: Babanyara Y. Y., Ibrahim D. B., Garba T., Bogoro A. G., Abubakar, M. Y.

Abstract:

Medical care is vital for our life, health and well-being. But the waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission. The hazardous and toxic parts of waste from healthcare establishments comprising infectious, medical and radioactive material as well as sharps constitute a grave risks to mankind and the environment, if these are not properly treated / disposed or are allowed to be mixed with other municipal waste. In Nigeria, practical information on this aspect is inadequate and research on the public health implications of poor management of medical wastes is few and limited in scope. Findings drawn from Literature particularly in the third world countries highlights financial problems, lack of awareness of risks involved in MWM, lack of appropriate legislation and lack of specialized MWM staff. The paper recommends how MWM practices can be improved in medical facilities.

Keywords: Environmental pollution, infectious, management, medical waste, public health.

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5 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Mark N. Nwohu, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad A. Ashraf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba

Abstract:

Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: Available transfer capability, efficiency performance, real power, transmission system.

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4 Energy Policy in Nigeria: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: N. Garba, A. Adamu, A. I. Augie

Abstract:

Energy is the major force that drives any country`s socio-economic development. Without electricity, the country could be at risk of losing many potential investors. As such, good policy implementation could play a significant role in harnessing all the available energy resources. Nigeria has the prospects of meeting its energy demand and supply if there are good policies and proper implementation of them. The current energy supply needs to improve in order to meet the present and future demand. Sustainable energy development is the way forward. Renewable energy plays a significant role in socio-economic development of any country. Nigeria is a country blessed with abundant natural resources such as, solar radiation for solar power, water for hydropower, wind for wind power, and biomass from both plants and animal’s waste. Both conventional energy (fossil fuel) and unconventional energy (renewable) could be harmonized like in the case of energy mix or biofuels. Biofuels like biodiesel could be produced from biomass and combined with petro-diesel in different ratios. All these can be achieved if good policy is in place. The challenges could be well overcome with good policy, masses awareness, technological knowledge and other incentives that can attract investors in Nigerian energy sector.

Keywords: Nigeria, renewable energy, Renewable Energy and Efficiency Partnership, Rural Electrification Agency, International Renewable Energy Agency, ECOWAS, Energy Commission of Nigeria

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3 Sustainable Energy Policy for Africa (Nigeria) and Europe: A Comparative Study

Authors: N. Garba, C. S. Özveren, D. Blackwood, A. Adamu, A. I. Augie

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was to develop a policy and associated regulatory actions together with legislations that could help in sustainable energy development in Africa and Nigeria in particular. As a result of depletion of fossil fuels in most African countries, renewable energy options such as solar, wind and hydropower biomass are considered to be alternative sources in sustaining the energy security in the continent and particularly Nigeria. Corruption level is another factor that hinders economic growth and development in Nigeria. A review of the past literature on sustainable energy policy from Europe has been carried out. The countries investigated include: The United Kingdom, Germany, Norway and Finland. Their policies have been examined, and this helps suggest new policies on sustainable energy for Nigeria and Africa as a continent. The policies analyzed focused on incentives such as Feed-in-Tariff (FiT). Renewable energy sources potential and renewable have been investigated in Nigeria and that could help in formulating new sustainable energy policy for the country. Some of the proposed policies includes: Renewable Obligation (RO), Cogeneration, FiT, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Renewable Integration, and Heat Entrepreneurship. These are some the new policies that could help sustain the energy security, reduce the level of poverty and corruption in Nigeria as well as Africa in general. If these policies are well designed and properly implemented as observed in this research, Nigeria can achieve sustainable energy and economic growth and development in the near future. Each proposed policy was assigned a timeframe for it to be achieved.

Keywords: Sustainability, renewable energy, energy policies, Africa, Nigeria, Europe, United Kingdom, Germany, Norway, Finland.

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2 Prioritization Assessment of Housing Development Risk Factors: A Fuzzy Hierarchical Process-Based Approach

Authors: Yusuf Garba Baba

Abstract:

The construction industry and housing subsector are fraught with risks that have the potential of negatively impacting on the achievement of project objectives. The success or otherwise of most construction projects depends to large extent on how well these risks have been managed. The recent paradigm shift by the subsector to use of formal risk management approach in contrast to hitherto developed rules of thumb means that risks must not only be identified but also properly assessed and responded to in a systematic manner. The study focused on identifying risks associated with housing development projects and prioritisation assessment of the identified risks in order to provide basis for informed decision. The study used a three-step identification framework: review of literature for similar projects, expert consultation and questionnaire based survey to identify potential risk factors. Delphi survey method was employed in carrying out the relative prioritization assessment of the risks factors using computer-based Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) software. The results show that 19 out of the 50 risks significantly impact on housing development projects. The study concludes that although significant numbers of risk factors have been identified as having relevance and impacting to housing construction projects, economic risk group and, in particular, ‘changes in demand for houses’ is prioritised by most developers as posing a threat to the achievement of their housing development objectives. Unless these risks are carefully managed, their effects will continue to impede success in these projects. The study recommends the adoption and use of the combination of multi-technique identification framework and AHP prioritization assessment methodology as a suitable model for the assessment of risks in housing development projects.

Keywords: Risk identification, risk assessment, analytical hierarchical process, multi-criteria decision.

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1 Effects of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Leaf Extract and Its Fractions on Cadmium and Lead Chloride-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Albino Rats

Authors: R. U. Hamzah, H. L. Muhammad, A. Sayyadi, M. B Busari, R. Garba, M. B. Umar, A. N Abubakar

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are toxic, non-essential transition metals that pose many health risks for both humans and animals. They are environmental toxicants which contribute to testicular damage resulting to infertility problem among male populace worldwide. Chelating agents used for lead and cadmium toxicity are not readily available, toxic, expensive and unable to mop up most of the toxic metals accumulated in various organs. In this study, the effect of crude extract (CE), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and acetone fraction (AF) of Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract was assessed on cadmium-lead chloride induced testicular damaged in male albino Wistar rats. CE of the leaf was obtained by extracting in absolute methanol which was further subjected to solvent partitioning via vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) techniques using ethyl acetate, acetone and 70% methanol. A preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidants guided activities on the CE and fractions were determined using standard methods. EF, AF and CE which exhibited significant in vitro activity were subjected to an in vivo study using Wistar rats. In vivo antioxidant markers, male reproductive hormones, testicular enzymes and DNA damage markers were analyzed on the rats’ testes supernatant. AF had the highest quantities of phenols (319.00 mg/g), flavonoids (8.87 mg/g) and tannins (8.87 mg/g) while methanol and EFs were richer in saponins (135.32 µg/g) and alkaloids (38.34 µg/g) respectively. A dose dependent 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and lipid peroxidation were observed in all the extract with high antioxidants power in CE and AF. Administration of lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) decreases the testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity to 6.82 unit/mg protein, Catalase (CAT) activity to 8.07 of H2O2 consumed/unit/mg protein and Glutathione (GSH) concentration to 31.30 ug/mg protein. There was a concomitant increase in the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) to a value of 23.70 mmol/mg protein. In addition, lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) increases the testicular marker enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase (119.57 u/L), lactate dehydrogenase (357.05 u/L), Acid phosphatase (98.65 u/L)) and DNA damage markers (conjugated dienes (93.39 nmol/mg protein), carbonyl protein (35.39 nmol/mg protein), DNA fragmentation percentage (32.12%)) with lowered testicular hormones (Testosterone (3.1 ng/mL), Follicle stimulating (0.35 IU/mL) and Luteinizing hormones (0.15 IU/mL)) of the animals in negative control group when compared with other treated groups. Treatment with Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract reverts the observed changes with the best activities found in the CE and AFs in a dose dependent manner. Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract ameliorated the lead/cadmium induced testicular damage in male albino rats. The restoration of the aforementioned parameters by some of the extract dosages were comparable to the standard drug with higher activities in the crude and AF. Therefore, Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract can be explored further for the management of lead/cadmium induced toxicity.

Keywords: Cadmium, lead, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, testicular damage.

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