On a Conjecture Regarding the Adam Optimizer
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On a Conjecture Regarding the Adam Optimizer

Authors: Mohamed Akrout, Douglas Tweed


The great success of deep learning relies on efficient optimizers, which are the algorithms that decide how to adjust network weights and biases based on gradient information. One of the most effective and widely used optimizers in recent years has been the method of adaptive moments, or Adam, but the mathematical reasons behind its effectiveness are still unclear. Attempts to analyse its behaviour have remained incomplete, in part because they hinge on a conjecture which has never been proven, regarding ratios of powers of the first and second moments of the gradient. Here we show that this conjecture is in fact false, but that a modified version of it is true, and can take its place in analyses of Adam.

Keywords: Adam optimizer, Bock’s conjecture, stochastic optimization, average regret.

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