Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 128

Search results for: FACTS

128 OPTIMAL Placement of FACTS Devices by Genetic Algorithm for the Increased Load Ability of a Power System

Authors: A. B.Bhattacharyya, B. S.K.Goswami

Abstract:

This paper presents Genetic Algorithm (GA) based approach for the allocation of FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) devices for the improvement of Power transfer capacity in an interconnected Power System. The GA based approach is applied on IEEE 30 BUS System. The system is reactively loaded starting from base to 200% of base load. FACTS devices are installed in the different locations of the power system and system performance is noticed with and without FACTS devices. First, the locations, where the FACTS devices to be placed is determined by calculating active and reactive power flows in the lines. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to find the amount of magnitudes of the FACTS devices. This approach of GA based placement of FACTS devices is tremendous beneficial both in terms of performance and economy is clearly observed from the result obtained.

Keywords: FACTS Devices, Line Power Flow, OptimalLocation of FACTS Devices, Genetic Algorithm.

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127 Optimal Allocation of FACTS Devices for ATC Enhancement Using Bees Algorithm

Authors: R.Mohamad Idris, A.Khairuddin, M.W.Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel method using Bees Algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal allocation of FACTS devices for maximizing the Available Transfer Capability (ATC) of power transactions between source and sink areas in the deregulated power system. The algorithm simultaneously searches the FACTS location, FACTS parameters and FACTS types. Two types of FACTS are simulated in this study namely Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) and Static Var Compensator (SVC). A Repeated Power Flow with FACTS devices including ATC is used to evaluate the feasible ATC value within real and reactive power generation limits, line thermal limits, voltage limits and FACTS operation limits. An IEEE30 bus system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm as an optimization tool to enhance ATC. A Genetic Algorithm technique is used for validation purposes. The results clearly indicate that the introduction of FACTS devices in a right combination of location and parameters could enhance ATC and Bees Algorithm can be efficiently used for this kind of nonlinear integer optimization.

Keywords: ATC, Bees Algorithm, TCSC, SVC

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126 Differential Evolution Based Optimal Choice and Location of Facts Devices in Restructured Power System

Authors: K. Balamurugan, V. Dharmalingam, R. Muralisachithanandam, R. Sankaran

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal choice and location of FACTS devices in deregulated power systems using Differential Evolution algorithm. The main objective of this paper is to achieve the power system economic generation allocation and dispatch in deregulated electricity market. Using the proposed method, the locations of the FACTS devices, their types and ratings are optimized simultaneously. Different kinds of FACTS devices such as TCSC and SVC are simulated in this study. Furthermore, their investment costs are also considered. Simulation results validate the capability of this new approach in minimizing the overall system cost function, which includes the investment costs of the FACTS devices and the bid offers of the market participants. The proposed algorithm is an effective and practical method for the choice and location of suitable FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market.

Keywords: FACTS Devices, Deregulated Electricity Market, Optimal Location, Differential Evolution, Mat Lab.

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125 Optimal Choice and Location of Multi Type Facts Devices in Deregulated Electricity Market Using Evolutionary Programming Method

Authors: K. Balamurugan, R. Muralisachithanandam, V. Dharmalingam, R. Srikanth

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal choice and allocation of multi FACTS devices in Deregulated power system using Evolutionary Programming method. The objective is to achieve the power system economic generation allocation and dispatch in deregulated electricity market. Using the proposed method, the locations of the FACTS devices, their types and ratings are optimized simultaneously. Different kinds of FACTS devices are simulated in this study such as UPFC, TCSC, TCPST, and SVC. Simulation results validate the capability of this new approach in minimizing the overall system cost function, which includes the investment costs of the FACTS devices and the bid offers of the market participants. The proposed algorithm is an effective and practical method for the choice and allocation of FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market environment. The standard data of IEEE 14 Bus systems has been taken into account and simulated with aid of MAT-lab software and results were obtained.

Keywords: FACTS devices, Optimal allocation, Deregulated electricity market, Evolutionary programming, Mat Lab.

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124 Wavelet Entropy Based Algorithm for Fault Detection and Classification in FACTS Compensated Transmission Line

Authors: Amany M. El-Zonkoly, Hussein Desouki

Abstract:

Distance protection of transmission lines including advanced flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices has been a very challenging task. FACTS devices of interest in this paper are static synchronous series compensators (SSSC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC). In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed to detect and classify the fault and identify the fault position in a transmission line with respect to a FACTS device placed in the midpoint of the transmission line. Discrete wavelet transformation and wavelet entropy calculations are used to analyze during fault current and voltage signals of the compensated transmission line. The proposed algorithm is very simple and accurate in fault detection and classification. A variety of fault cases and simulation results are introduced to show the effectiveness of such algorithm.

Keywords: Entropy calculation, FACTS, SSSC, UPFC, wavelet transform.

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123 Enhanced Genetic Algorithm Approach for Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Including FACTS Devices

Authors: R.Narmatha Banu, D.Devaraj

Abstract:

This paper presents a genetic algorithm based approach for solving security constrained optimal power flow problem (SCOPF) including FACTS devices. The optimal location of FACTS devices are identified using an index called overload index and the optimal values are obtained using an enhanced genetic algorithm. The optimal allocation by the proposed method optimizes the investment, taking into account its effects on security in terms of the alleviation of line overloads. The proposed approach has been tested on IEEE-30 bus system to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the SCOPF problem.

Keywords: Optimal Power Flow, Genetic Algorithm, FlexibleAC transmission system (FACTS) devices, Severity Index (SI), Security Enhancement, Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC).

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122 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) Impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.

Keywords: Available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model.

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121 Robust FACTS Controller Design Employing Modern Heuristic Optimization Techniques

Authors: A.K.Balirsingh, S.C.Swain, S. Panda

Abstract:

Recently, Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm technique have attracted considerable attention among various modern heuristic optimization techniques. Since the two approaches are supposed to find a solution to a given objective function but employ different strategies and computational effort, it is appropriate to compare their performance. This paper presents the application and performance comparison of DE and GA optimization techniques, for flexible ac transmission system (FACTS)-based controller design. The design objective is to enhance the power system stability. The design problem of the FACTS-based controller is formulated as an optimization problem and both the PSO and GA optimization techniques are employed to search for optimal controller parameters. The performance of both optimization techniques has been compared. Further, the optimized controllers are tested on a weekly connected power system subjected to different disturbances, and their performance is compared with the conventional power system stabilizer (CPSS). The eigenvalue analysis and non-linear simulation results are presented and compared to show the effectiveness of both the techniques in designing a FACTS-based controller, to enhance power system stability.

Keywords: Differential Evolution, Flexible AC TransmissionSystems (FACTS), Genetic Algorithm, Low Frequency Oscillations, Single-machine Infinite Bus Power System.

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120 Application of Genetic Algorithm for FACTS-based Controller Design

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, N. P. Padhy, R.N.Patel

Abstract:

In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) opmization technique is applied to design Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)-based damping controllers. Two types of controller structures, namely a proportional-integral (PI) and a lead-lag (LL) are considered. The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem and GA is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor speed of the generator is involved; stability performance of the system is improved. The proposed controllers are tested on a weakly connected power system subjected to different disturbances. The non-linear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller and their ability to provide efficient damping of low frequency oscillations. It is also observed that the proposed SSSC-based controllers improve greatly the voltage profile of the system under severe disturbances. Further, the dynamic performances of both the PI and LL structured FACTS-controller are analyzed at different loading conditions and under various disturbance condition as well as under unbalanced fault conditions..

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, proportional-integral controller, lead-lag controller, power system stability, FACTS.

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119 Assessment Power and Frequency Oscillation Damping Using POD Controller and Proposed FOD Controller

Authors: Yahya Naderi, Tohid Rahimi, Babak Yousefi, Seyed Hossein Hosseini

Abstract:

Today’s modern interconnected power system is highly complex in nature. In this, one of the most important requirements during the operation of the electric power system is the reliability and security. Power and frequency oscillation damping mechanism improve the reliability. Because of power system stabilizer (PSS) low speed response against of major fault such as three phase short circuit, FACTs devise that can control the network condition in very fast time, are becoming popular. But FACTs capability can be seen in a major fault present when nonlinear models of FACTs devise and power system equipment are applied. To realize this aim, the model of multi-machine power system with FACTs controller is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using Sim Power System (SPS) blockiest. Among the FACTs device, Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) due to high speed changes its reactance characteristic inductive to capacitive, is effective power flow controller. Tuning process of controller parameter can be performed using different method. But Genetic Algorithm (GA) ability tends to use it in controller parameter tuning process. In this paper firstly POD controller is used to power oscillation damping. But in this station, frequency oscillation dos not has proper damping situation. So FOD controller that is tuned using GA is using that cause to damp out frequency oscillation properly and power oscillation damping has suitable situation.

Keywords: Power oscillation damping (POD), frequency oscillation damping (FOD), Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), Genetic Algorithm (GA).

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118 Optimal Sizing of SSSC Controllers to Minimize Transmission Loss and a Novel Model of SSSC to Study Transient Response

Authors: A. M. El-Zonkoly

Abstract:

In this paper, based on steady-state models of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices, the sizing of static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) controllers in transmission network is formed as an optimization problem. The objective of this problem is to reduce the transmission losses in the network. The optimization problem is solved using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. The Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm is modified to consider the insertion of the SSSC devices in the network. A numerical example, illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, is introduced. In addition, a novel model of a 3- phase voltage source converter (VSC) that is suitable for series connected FACTS a controller is introduced. The model is verified by simulation using Power System Blockset (PSB) and Simulink software.

Keywords: FACTS, Modeling, PSO, SSSC, Transmission lossreduction.

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117 Power Flow and Modal Analysis of a Power System Including Unified Power Flow Controller

Authors: Djilani Kobibi Youcef Islam, Hadjeri Samir, Djehaf Mohamed Abdeldjalil

Abstract:

The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology is a new advanced solution that increases the reliability and provides more flexibility, controllability, and stability of a power system. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), as the most versatile FACTS device for regulating power flow, is able to control respectively transmission line real power, reactive power, and node voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the UPFC on the load flow, the power losses, and the voltage stability using NEPLAN software modules, Newton-Raphson load flow is used for the power flow analysis and the modal analysis is used for the study of the voltage stability. The simulation was carried out on the IEEE 14-bus test system.

Keywords: FACTS, load flow, modal analysis, UPFC, voltage stability.

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116 Dynamic Control Modeling and Simulation of a UPFC-SMES Compensator in Power Systems

Authors: K. Saravanan, R. Anita

Abstract:

Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) is granting a new group of advanced power electronic devices emerging for enhancement of the power system performance. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a recent version of FACTS devices for power system applications. The back-up energy supply system incorporated with UPFC is providing a complete control of real and reactive power at the same time and hence is competent to improve the performance of an electrical power system. In this article, backup energy supply unit such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is integrated with UPFC. In addition, comparative exploration of UPFC–battery, UPFC–UC and UPFC–SMES performance is evaluated through the vibrant simulation by using MATLAB/Simulink software.

Keywords: Power system, FACTS, UPFC, DC-DC chopper, battery, UC, SMES.

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115 FACTS Based Stabilization for Smart Grid Applications

Authors: Adel M. Sharaf, Foad H. Gandoman

Abstract:

Nowadays, Photovoltaic-PV Farms/ Parks and large PV-Smart Grid Interface Schemes are emerging and commonly utilized in Renewable Energy distributed generation. However, PVhybrid- Dc-Ac Schemes using interface power electronic converters usually has negative impact on power quality and stabilization of modern electrical network under load excursions and network fault conditions in smart grid. Consequently, robust FACTS based interface schemes are required to ensure efficient energy utilization and stabilization of bus voltages as well as limiting switching/fault onrush current condition. FACTS devices are also used in smart grid- Battery Interface and Storage Schemes with PV-Battery Storage hybrid systems as an elegant alternative to renewable energy utilization with backup battery storage for electric utility energy and demand side management to provide needed energy and power capacity under heavy load conditions. The paper presents a robust interface PV-Li-Ion Battery Storage Interface Scheme for Distribution/Utilization Low Voltage Interface using FACTS stabilization enhancement and dynamic maximum PV power tracking controllers. Digital simulation and validation of the proposed scheme is done using MATLAB/Simulink software environment for Low Voltage- Distribution/Utilization system feeding a hybrid Linear-Motorized inrush and nonlinear type loads from a DC-AC Interface VSC-6- pulse Inverter Fed from the PV Park/Farm with a back-up Li-Ion Storage Battery.

Keywords: AC FACTS, Smart grid, Stabilization, PV-Battery Storage, Switched Filter-Compensation (SFC).

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114 Power System with PSS and FACTS Controller: Modelling, Simulation and Simultaneous Tuning Employing Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Sidhartha Panda, Narayana Prasad Padhy

Abstract:

This paper presents a systematic procedure for modelling and simulation of a power system installed with a power system stabilizer (PSS) and a flexible ac transmission system (FACTS)-based controller. For the design purpose, the model of example power system which is a single-machine infinite-bus power system installed with the proposed controllers is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. In the developed model synchronous generator is represented by model 1.1. which includes both the generator main field winding and the damper winding in q-axis so as to evaluate the impact of PSS and FACTS-based controller on power system stability. The model can be can be used for teaching the power system stability phenomena, and also for research works especially to develop generator controllers using advanced technologies. Further, to avoid adverse interactions, PSS and FACTS-based controller are simultaneously designed employing genetic algorithm (GA). The non-linear simulation results are presented for the example power system under various disturbance conditions to validate the effectiveness of the proposed modelling and simultaneous design approach.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, modelling and simulation, MATLAB/SIMULINK, power system stabilizer, thyristor controlledseries compensator, simultaneous design, power system stability.

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113 Improvement of Voltage Profile of Grid Integrated Wind Distributed Generation by SVC

Authors: Fariba Shavakhi Zavareh, Hadi Fotoohabadi, Reza Sedaghati

Abstract:

Due to the continuous increment of the load demand, identification of weaker buses, improvement of voltage profile and power losses in the context of the voltage stability problems has become one of the major concerns for the larger, complex, interconnected power systems. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controller in Wind generators connected electrical network for maintaining voltage stability. Wind energy could be the growing renewable energy due to several advantages. The influence of wind generators on power quality is a significant issue; non uniform power production causes variations in system voltage and frequency. Therefore, wind farm requires high reactive power compensation; the advances in high power semiconducting devices have led to the development of FACTS. The FACTS devices such as for example SVC inject reactive power into the system which helps in maintaining a better voltage profile. The performance is evaluated on an IEEE 14 bus system, two wind generators are connected at low voltage buses to meet the increased load demand and SVC devices are integrated at the buses with wind generators to keep voltage stability. Power flows, nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the power network are obtained by iterative solutions using MIPOWER.

Keywords: Voltage Profile, FACTS Device, SVC, Distributed Generation.

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112 Performance Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Unified Power Flow Controller

Authors: Lütfü Saribulut, Mehmet Tümay, İlyas Eker

Abstract:

FACTS devices are used to control the power flow, to increase the transmission capacity and to optimize the stability of the power system. One of the most widely used FACTS devices is Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The controller used in the control mechanism has a significantly effects on controlling of the power flow and enhancing the system stability of UPFC. According to this, the capability of UPFC is observed by using different control mechanisms based on P, PI, PID and fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) in this study. FLC was developed by taking consideration of Takagi- Sugeno inference system in the decision process and Sugeno-s weighted average method in the defuzzification process. Case studies with different operating conditions are applied to prove the ability of UPFC on controlling the power flow and the effectiveness of controllers on the performance of UPFC. PSCAD/EMTDC program is used to create the FLC and to simulate UPFC model.

Keywords: FACTS, Fuzzy Logic Controller, UPFC.

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111 Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System

Authors: Manisha Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Anoop Arya

Abstract:

The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.

Keywords: Inter line power flow controller, Transmission Pricing, Unified power flow controller, cost allocation.

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110 Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model of UPFC

Authors: S.A. Al-Qallaf, S.A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider

Abstract:

Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device. This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC with their proposed control strategies.

Keywords: FACTS, UPFC, Dynamic Modeling, PWM, Fundamental Frequency.

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109 Active Power Flow Control Using A TCSC Based Backstepping Controller in Multimachine Power System

Authors: Naimi Abdelhamid, Othmane Abdelkhalek

Abstract:

With the current rise in the demand of electrical energy, present-day power systems which are large and complex, will continue to grow in both size and complexity. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers provide new facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of FACTS equipment, which is used for power flow control of active power in electric power system and for increase of capacities of transmission lines. In this paper, a Backstepping Power Flow Controller (BPFC) for TCSC in multimachine power system is developed and tested. The simulation results show that the TCSC proposed controller is capable of controlling the transmitted active power and improving the transient stability when compared with conventional PI Power Flow Controller (PIPFC).

Keywords: FACTS, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Backstepping, BPFC, PIPFC.

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108 Application of HSA and GA in Optimal Placement of FACTS Devices Considering Voltage Stability and Losses

Authors: A. Parizad, A. Khazali, M. Kalantar

Abstract:

Voltage collapse is instability of heavily loaded electric power systems that cause to declining voltages and blackout. Power systems are predicated to become more heavily loaded in the future decade as the demand for electric power rises while economic and environmental concerns limit the construction of new transmission and generation capacity. Heavily loaded power systems are closer to their stability limits and voltage collapse blackouts will occur if suitable monitoring and control measures are not taken. To control transmission lines, it can be used from FACTS devices. In this paper Harmony search algorithm (HSA) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have applied to determine optimal location of FACTS devices in a power system to improve power system stability. Three types of FACTS devices (TCPAT, UPFS, and SVC) have been introduced. Bus under voltage has been solved by controlling reactive power of shunt compensator. Also a combined series-shunt compensators has been also used to control transmission power flow and bus voltage simultaneously. Different scenarios have been considered. First TCPAT, UPFS, and SVC are placed solely in transmission lines and indices have been calculated. Then two types of above controller try to improve parameters randomly. The last scenario tries to make better voltage stability index and losses by implementation of three types controller simultaneously. These scenarios are executed on typical 34-bus test system and yields efficiency in improvement of voltage profile and reduction of power losses; it also may permit an increase in power transfer capacity, maximum loading, and voltage stability margin.

Keywords: FACTS Devices, Voltage Stability Index, optimal location, Heuristic methods, Harmony search, Genetic Algorithm.

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107 Damping Power System Oscillations Improvement by FACTS Devices: A Comparison between SSSC and STATCOM

Authors: J. Barati, A. Saeedian, S. S. Mortazavi

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is a comparative investigate in enhancement of damping power system oscillation via coordinated design of the power system stabilizer (PSS) and static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) and static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The design problem of FACTS-based stabilizers is formulated as a GA based optimization problem. In this paper eigenvalue analysis method is used on small signal stability of single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system installed with SSSC and STATCOM. The generator is equipped with a PSS. The proposed stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions. This aim is to enhance both rotor angle and power system stability. The eigenvalue analysis and non-linear simulation results are presented to show the effects of these FACTS-based stabilizers and reveal that SSSC exhibits the best effectiveness on damping power system oscillation.

Keywords: Power system stability, PSS, SSSC, STATCOM, Coordination, Optimization, Damping Oscillations.

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106 Multi-Line Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) Controller for Transient Stability Analysis of a Multi-Machine Power System Network

Authors: A.V.Naresh Babu, S.Sivanagaraju

Abstract:

A considerable progress has been achieved in transient stability analysis (TSA) with various FACTS controllers. But, all these controllers are associated with single transmission line. This paper is intended to discuss a new approach i.e. a multi-line FACTS controller which is interline power flow controller (IPFC) for TSA of a multi-machine power system network. A mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM) presented and this model is incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm. Then, the reduced admittance matrix of a multi-machine power system network for a three phase fault without and with IPFC is obtained which is required to draw the machine swing curves. A general approach based on L-index has also been discussed to find the best location of IPFC to reduce the proximity to instability of a power system. Numerical results are carried out on two test systems namely, 6-bus and 11-bus systems. A program in MATLAB has been written to plot the variation of generator rotor angle and speed difference curves without and with IPFC for TSA and also a simple approach has been presented to evaluate critical clearing time for test systems. The results obtained without and with IPFC are compared and discussed.

Keywords: Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS), first swing stability, interline power flow controller (IPFC), power injection model (PIM).

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105 Generator of Hypotheses an Approach of Data Mining Based on Monotone Systems Theory

Authors: Rein Kuusik, Grete Lind

Abstract:

Generator of hypotheses is a new method for data mining. It makes possible to classify the source data automatically and produces a particular enumeration of patterns. Pattern is an expression (in a certain language) describing facts in a subset of facts. The goal is to describe the source data via patterns and/or IF...THEN rules. Used evaluation criteria are deterministic (not probabilistic). The search results are trees - form that is easy to comprehend and interpret. Generator of hypotheses uses very effective algorithm based on the theory of monotone systems (MS) named MONSA (MONotone System Algorithm).

Keywords: data mining, monotone systems, pattern, rule.

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104 Optimal SSSC Placement to ATC Enhancing in Power Systems

Authors: Sh. Javadi, A. Alijani, A.H. Mazinan

Abstract:

This paper reviews the optimization available transmission capability (ATC) of power systems using a device of FACTS named SSSC equipped with energy storage devices. So that, emplacement and improvement of parameters of SSSC will be illustrated. Thus, voltage magnitude constraints of network buses, line transient stability constraints and voltage breakdown constraints are considered. To help the calculations, a comprehensive program in DELPHI is provided, which is able to simulate and trace the parameters of SSSC has been installed on a specific line. Furthermore, the provided program is able to compute ATC, TTC and maximum value of their enhancement after using SSSC.

Keywords: available transmission capability (ATC), total transmission capability (TTC), voltage constraints, stability constraints, FACTS, SSSC.

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103 Optimal Location of Multi Type Facts Devices for Multiple Contingencies Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: S. Sutha, N. Kamaraj

Abstract:

In deregulated operating regime power system security is an issue that needs due thoughtfulness from researchers in the horizon of unbundling of generation and transmission. Electric power systems are exposed to various contingencies. Network contingencies often contribute to overloading of branches, violation of voltages and also leading to problems of security/stability. To maintain the security of the systems, it is desirable to estimate the effect of contingencies and pertinent control measurement can be taken on to improve the system security. This paper presents the application of particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal location of multi type FACTS devices in a power system in order to eliminate or alleviate the line over loads. The optimizations are performed on the parameters, namely the location of the devices, their types, their settings and installation cost of FACTS devices for single and multiple contingencies. TCSC, SVC and UPFC are considered and modeled for steady state analysis. The selection of UPFC and TCSC suitable location uses the criteria on the basis of improved system security. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested for IEEE 6 bus and IEEE 30 bus test systems.

Keywords: Contingency Severity Index, Particle Swarm Optimization, Performance Index, Static Security Assessment.

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102 Stabilizing Voltage for Sheens with Motor Loading due to Starting Inductive Motor by using STATCOM

Authors: Mohammad Reza Askari, Mohsen Kazemi, Ali Asghar Baziar

Abstract:

In this treatise we will study the capability of static compensator for reactive power to stabilize sheen voltage with motor loading on power networks system. We also explain the structure and main function of STATCOM and the method to control it using STATCOM transformer current to simultaneously predict after telling about the necessity of FACTS tools to compensate in power networks. Then we study topology and controlling system to stabilize voltage during start of inductive motor. The outcome of stimulat by MATLAB software supports presented controlling idea and system in the treatise.

Keywords: Power network, inductive motor, reactive power, stability of voltage, STATCOM, FACTS

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101 A Multiobjective Damping Function for Coordinated Control of Power System Stabilizer and Power Oscillation Damping

Authors: Jose D. Herrera, Mario A. Rios

Abstract:

This paper deals with the coordinated tuning of the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) controller and Power Oscillation Damping (POD) Controller of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) in a multi-machine power systems. The coordinated tuning is based on the critical eigenvalues of the power system and a model reduction technique where the Hankel Singular Value method is applied. Through the linearized system model and the parameter-constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm, it can compute the parameters of both controllers. Moreover, the parameters are optimized simultaneously obtaining the gains of both controllers. Then, the nonlinear simulation to observe the time response of the controller is performed.

Keywords: Balanced realization, controllability Grammian, electromechanical oscillations, FACTS, Hankel singular values, observability Grammian, POD, PSS.

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100 Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) Optimized SSSC Based Facts Controller to Improve Power System Oscillation Stability

Authors: Gayadhar Panda, P. K. Rautraya

Abstract:

Damping of inter-area electromechanical oscillations is one of the major challenges to the electric power system operators. This paper presents Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) for tuning Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller to improve power system oscillation stability. In the proposed algorithm, the searcher agents are a collection of masses which interact with each other based on the Newtonian gravity and the laws of motion. The effectiveness of the scheme in damping power system oscillations during system faults at different loading conditions is demonstrated through time-domain simulation.

Keywords: FACTS, Damping controller design, Gravitational search algorithm (GSA), Power system oscillations, Single-machine infinite Bus power system, SSSC.

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99 The Impact of Video Games in Children-s Learning of Mathematics

Authors: Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah, Zulqarnain Abu Bakar, Razol Mahari Ali, Ibrahima Faye, Hilmi Hasan

Abstract:

This paper describes a research project on Year 3 primary school students in Malaysia in their use of computer-based video game to enhance learning of multiplication facts (tables) in the Mathematics subject. This study attempts to investigate whether video games could actually contribute to positive effect on children-s learning or otherwise. In conducting this study, the researchers assume a neutral stand in the investigation as an unbiased outcome of the study would render reliable response to the impact of video games in education which would contribute to the literature of technology-based education as well as impact to the pedagogical aspect of formal education. In order to conduct the study, a subject (Mathematics) with a specific topic area in the subject (multiplication facts) is chosen. The study adopts a causal-comparative research to investigate the impact of the inclusion of a computer-based video game designed to teach multiplication facts to primary level students. Sample size is 100 students divided into two i.e., A: conventional group and B conventional group aided by video games. The conventional group (A) would be taught multiplication facts (timetables) and skills conventionally. The other group (B) underwent the same lessons but with supplementary activity: a computer-based video game on multiplication which is called Timez-Attack. Analysis of marks accrued from pre-test will be compared to post- test using comparisons of means, t tests, and ANOVA tests to investigate the impact of computer games as an added learning activity. The findings revealed that video games as a supplementary activity to classroom learning brings significant and positive effect on students- retention and mastery of multiplication tables as compared to students who rely only upon formal classroom instructions.

Keywords: Technology for education, Gaming for education, Computer-based video games, Cognitive learning

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