Search results for: Pterocarpus mildbraedii
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Pterocarpus mildbraedii

3 Effects of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Leaf Extract and Its Fractions on Cadmium and Lead Chloride-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Albino Rats

Authors: R. U. Hamzah, H. L. Muhammad, A. Sayyadi, M. B Busari, R. Garba, M. B. Umar, A. N Abubakar

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are toxic, non-essential transition metals that pose many health risks for both humans and animals. They are environmental toxicants which contribute to testicular damage resulting to infertility problem among male populace worldwide. Chelating agents used for lead and cadmium toxicity are not readily available, toxic, expensive and unable to mop up most of the toxic metals accumulated in various organs. In this study, the effect of crude extract (CE), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and acetone fraction (AF) of Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract was assessed on cadmium-lead chloride induced testicular damaged in male albino Wistar rats. CE of the leaf was obtained by extracting in absolute methanol which was further subjected to solvent partitioning via vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) techniques using ethyl acetate, acetone and 70% methanol. A preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidants guided activities on the CE and fractions were determined using standard methods. EF, AF and CE which exhibited significant in vitro activity were subjected to an in vivo study using Wistar rats. In vivo antioxidant markers, male reproductive hormones, testicular enzymes and DNA damage markers were analyzed on the rats’ testes supernatant. AF had the highest quantities of phenols (319.00 mg/g), flavonoids (8.87 mg/g) and tannins (8.87 mg/g) while methanol and EFs were richer in saponins (135.32 µg/g) and alkaloids (38.34 µg/g) respectively. A dose dependent 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and lipid peroxidation were observed in all the extract with high antioxidants power in CE and AF. Administration of lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) decreases the testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity to 6.82 unit/mg protein, Catalase (CAT) activity to 8.07 of H2O2 consumed/unit/mg protein and Glutathione (GSH) concentration to 31.30 ug/mg protein. There was a concomitant increase in the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) to a value of 23.70 mmol/mg protein. In addition, lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) increases the testicular marker enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase (119.57 u/L), lactate dehydrogenase (357.05 u/L), Acid phosphatase (98.65 u/L)) and DNA damage markers (conjugated dienes (93.39 nmol/mg protein), carbonyl protein (35.39 nmol/mg protein), DNA fragmentation percentage (32.12%)) with lowered testicular hormones (Testosterone (3.1 ng/mL), Follicle stimulating (0.35 IU/mL) and Luteinizing hormones (0.15 IU/mL)) of the animals in negative control group when compared with other treated groups. Treatment with Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract reverts the observed changes with the best activities found in the CE and AFs in a dose dependent manner. Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract ameliorated the lead/cadmium induced testicular damage in male albino rats. The restoration of the aforementioned parameters by some of the extract dosages were comparable to the standard drug with higher activities in the crude and AF. Therefore, Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract can be explored further for the management of lead/cadmium induced toxicity.

Keywords: Cadmium, lead, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, testicular damage.

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2 In vitro and in vivo Assessment of Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: K. Biswas, U. H. Armin, S. M. J. Prodhan, J. A. Prithul, S. Sarker, F. Afrin

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder) is mostly predominant cause of dementia in the elderly. Prolonging the function of acetylcholine by inhibiting both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase is most effective treatment therapy of AD. Traditionally Pterocarpus santalinus L. is widely known for its medicinal use. In this study, in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was investigated and methanolic extract of the plant showed significant activity. To confirm this activity (in vivo), learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. For the test, memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist). Anti-amnesic effect of the extract was investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. The study also includes brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results proved that scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly decreased by administration of the extract solution, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that bark extract of Pterocarpus santalinus can be better option for further studies on AD via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Pterocarpus santalinus, cholinesterase inhibitor, passive avoidance, Alzheimer’s disease.

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1 Allometric Models for Biomass Estimation in Savanna Woodland Area, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Jibrin, Aishetu Abdulkadir

Abstract:

The development of allometric models is crucial to accurate forest biomass/carbon stock assessment. The aim of this study was to develop a set of biomass prediction models that will enable the determination of total tree aboveground biomass for savannah woodland area in Niger State, Nigeria. Based on the data collected through biometric measurements of 1816 trees and destructive sampling of 36 trees, five species specific and one site specific models were developed. The sample size was distributed equally between the five most dominant species in the study site (Vitellaria paradoxa, Irvingia gabonensis, Parkia biglobosa, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Pterocarpus erinaceous). Firstly, the equations were developed for five individual species. Secondly these five species were mixed and were used to develop an allometric equation of mixed species. Overall, there was a strong positive relationship between total tree biomass and the stem diameter. The coefficient of determination (R2 values) ranging from 0.93 to 0.99 P < 0.001 were realised for the models; with considerable low standard error of the estimates (SEE) which confirms that the total tree above ground biomass has a significant relationship with the dbh. F-test values for the biomass prediction models were also significant at p < 0.001 which indicates that the biomass prediction models are valid. This study recommends that for improved biomass estimates in the study site, the site specific biomass models should preferably be used instead of using generic models.

Keywords: Allometriy, biomass, carbon stock, model, regression equation, woodland, inventory.

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