Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 648

Search results for: virtual reality

648 Virtual Reality Design Platform to Easily Create Virtual Reality Experiences

Authors: J. Casteleiro- Pitrez

Abstract:

The interest in Virtual Reality (VR) keeps increasing among the community of designers. To develop this type of immersive experience, the understanding of new processes and methodologies is as fundamental as its complex implementation which usually implies hiring a specialized team. In this paper, we introduce a case study, a platform that allows designers to easily create complex VR experiences, present its features, and its development process. We conclude that this platform provides a complete solution for the design and development of VR experiences, no-code needed.

Keywords: Designers, virtual reality, virtual reality design platform, virtual reality system, no-coding.

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647 3D Spatial Interaction with the Wii Remote for Head-Mounted Display Virtual Reality

Authors: Yang-Wai Chow

Abstract:

This research investigates the design of a low-cost 3D spatial interaction approach using the Wii Remote for immersive Head-Mounted Display (HMD) virtual reality. Current virtual reality applications that incorporate the Wii Remote are either desktop virtual reality applications or systems that use large screen displays. However, the requirements for an HMD virtual reality system differ from such systems. This is mainly because in HMD virtual reality, the display screen does not remain at a fixed location. The user views the virtual environment through display screens that are in front of the user-s eyes and when the user moves his/her head, these screens move as well. This means that the display has to be updated in realtime based on where the user is currently looking. Normal usage of the Wii Remote requires the controller to be pointed in a certain direction, typically towards the display. This is too restrictive for HMD virtual reality systems that ideally require the user to be able to turn around in the virtual environment. Previous work proposed a design to achieve this, however it suffered from a number of drawbacks. The aim of this study is to look into a suitable method of using the Wii Remote for 3D interaction in a space around the user for HMD virtual reality. This paper presents an overview of issues that had to be considered, the system design as well as experimental results.

Keywords: 3D interaction, head-mounted display, virtual reality, Wii remote

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646 Application of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language for Design of Automated Workplaces

Authors: Jozef Novak-Marcincin

Abstract:

Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) is description language, which belongs to a field Window on World virtual reality system. The file, which is in VRML format, can be interpreted by VRML explorer in three-dimensional scene. VRML was created with aim to represent virtual reality on Internet easier. Development of 3D graphic is connected with Silicon Graphic Corporation. VRML 2.0 is the file format for describing interactive 3D scenes and objects. It can be used in collaboration with www, can be used for 3D complex representations creating of scenes, products or VR applications VRML 2.0 enables represent static and animated objects too. Interesting application of VRML is in area of manufacturing systems presentation.

Keywords: Virtual reality, virtual reality modelling language, design of workplaces, technological workplaces.

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645 Virtual Scene based on VRML and Java

Authors: Hui-jun Ren, Da-kun ZHang

Abstract:

VRML( The virtual reality modeling language) is a standard language used to build up 3D virtualized models. The quick development of internet technology and computer manipulation has promoted the commercialization of reality virtualization. VRML, thereof, is expected to be the most effective framework of building up virtual reality. This article has studied plans to build virtualized scenes based on the technology of virtual reality and Java programe, and introduced how to execute real-time data transactions of VRML file and Java programe by applying Script Node, in doing so we have the VRML interactivity being strengthened.

Keywords: VRML, Java, Virtual scene, Script.

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644 Building Virtual Reality Environments for Distance Education on the Web: A Case Study in Medical Education

Authors: Kosmas Dimitropoulos, Athanasios Manitsaris, Ioannis Mavridis

Abstract:

The paper presents an investigation into the role of virtual reality and web technologies in the field of distance education. Within this frame, special emphasis is given on the building of web-based virtual learning environments so as to successfully fulfill their educational objectives. In particular, basic pedagogical methods are studied, focusing mainly on the efficient preparation, approach and presentation of learning content, and specific designing rules are presented considering the hypermedia, virtual and educational nature of this kind of applications. The paper also aims to highlight the educational benefits arising from the use of virtual reality technology in medicine and study the emerging area of web-based medical simulations. Finally, an innovative virtual reality environment for distance education in medicine is demonstrated. The proposed environment reproduces conditions of the real learning process and enhances learning through a real-time interactive simulator.

Keywords: Distance education, medicine, virtual reality, web.

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643 Factory Virtual Environment Development for Augmented and Virtual Reality

Authors: M. Gregor, J. Polcar, P. Horejsi, M. Simon

Abstract:

Machine visualization is an area of interest with fast and progressive development. We present a method of machine visualization which will be applicable in real industrial conditions according to current needs and demands. Real factory data were obtained in a newly built research plant. Methods described in this paper were validated on a case study. Input data were processed and the virtual environment was created. The environment contains information about dimensions, structure, disposition, and function. Hardware was enhanced by modular machines, prototypes, and accessories. We added functionalities and machines into the virtual environment. The user is able to interact with objects such as testing and cutting machines, he/she can operate and move them. Proposed design consists of an environment with two degrees of freedom of movement. Users are in touch with items in the virtual world which are embedded into the real surroundings. This paper describes development of the virtual environment. We compared and tested various options of factory layout virtualization and visualization. We analyzed possibilities of using a 3D scanner in the layout obtaining process and we also analyzed various virtual reality hardware visualization methods such as: Stereoscopic (CAVE) projection, Head Mounted Display (HMD) and augmented reality (AR) projection provided by see-through glasses.

Keywords: Augmented reality, spatial scanner, virtual environment, virtual reality.

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642 Virtual Assembly in a Semi-Immersive Environment

Authors: Emad S. Abouel Nasr, Abdulaziz M. El-Tamimi, Mustufa H. Abidi, Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari

Abstract:

Virtual Assembly (VA) is one of the key technologies in advanced manufacturing field. It is a promising application of virtual reality in design and manufacturing field. It has drawn much interest from industries and research institutes in the last two decades. This paper describes a process for integrating an interactive Virtual Reality-based assembly simulation of a digital mockup with the CAD/CAM infrastructure. The necessary hardware and software preconditions for the process are explained so that it can easily be adopted by non VR experts. The article outlines how assembly simulation can improve the CAD/CAM procedures and structures; how CAD model preparations have to be carried out and which virtual environment requirements have to be fulfilled. The issue of data transfer is also explained in the paper. The other challenges and requirements like anti-aliasing and collision detection have also been explained. Finally, a VA simulation has been carried out for a ball valve assembly and a car door assembly with the help of Vizard virtual reality toolkit in a semi-immersive environment and their performance analysis has been done on different workstations to evaluate the importance of graphical processing unit (GPU) in the field of VA.

Keywords: Collision Detection, Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), Virtual Reality (VR), Virtual Assembly (VA).

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641 Teaching College Classes with Virtual Reality

Authors: Penn P. Wu

Abstract:

Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technologies have made it possible for students to experience a virtual on-the-scene or virtual in-person observation of an educational event. In an experimental class, the author uses VR, particularly 360° videos, to virtually engage students in an event, through a wide spectrum of educational resources, such s a virtual “bystander.” Students were able to observe the event as if they were physically on site, although they could not intervene with the scene. The author will describe the adopted equipment, specification, and cost of building them as well as the quality of VR. The author will discuss (a) feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of using VR as a supplemental technology to teach college students and criteria and methodologies used by the authors to evaluate them; (b) barriers and issues of technological implementation; and (c) pedagogical practices learned through this experiment. The author also attempts to explore (a) how VR could provide an interactive virtual in-person learning experience; (b) how VR can possibly change traditional college education and online education; (c) how educators and balance six critical factors: cost, time, technology, quality, result, and content.

Keywords: Learning with VR, virtual experience of learning, virtual in-person learning, virtual reality for education.

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640 Virtual Reality Classrooms Strategies for Creating a Social Presence

Authors: Elizabeth M. Hodge, M.H.N. Tabrizi, Mary A. Farwell, Karl L. Wuensch

Abstract:

Delivering course material via a virtual environment is beneficial to today-s students because it offers the interactivity, real-time interaction and social presence that students of all ages have come to accept in our gaming rich community. It is essential that the Net Generation also known as Generation Why, have exposure to learning communities that encompass interactivity to form social and educational connections. As student and professor become interconnected through collaboration and interaction in a virtual learning space, relationships develop and students begin to take on an individual identity. With this in mind the research project was developed to investigate the use of virtual environments on student satisfaction and the effectiveness of course delivery. Furthermore, the project was designed to integrate both interactive (real-time) classes conducted in the Virtual Reality (VR) environment while also creating archived VR sessions for student use in retaining and reviewing course content.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Social Presence, Virtual Environments, Course Delivery Methods.

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639 Development of a Low Cost Haptic Knob

Authors: Tan Ping Hua, Yeong Che Fai, Ricky Yap, Eileen Su Lee Ming

Abstract:

Haptics has been used extensively in many applications especially in human machine interaction and virtual reality systems. Haptic technology allows user to perceive virtual reality as in real world. However, commercially available haptic devices are expensive and may not be suitable for educational purpose. This paper describes the design and development of a low cost haptic knob, with only one degree of freedom, for use in rehabilitation or training hand pronation and supination. End-effectors can be changed to suit different applications or variation in hand sizes and hand orientation.

Keywords: haptic, microcontroller, real time, virtual reality, rehabilitation

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638 Design A Situated Learning Environment Using Mixed Reality Technology - A Case Study

Authors: Rasimah Che Mohd Yusoff, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

Mixed Reality (MR) is one of the newest technologies explored in education. It promises the potential to promote teaching and learning and making learners- experience more “engaging". However, there still lack of research on designing a virtual learning environment using MR technology. In this paper, we describe the Mixed Reality technology, the characteristics of situated learning as instructional design for virtual environment using mixed reality technology. We also explain a case study that implemented those design and also the system overview.

Keywords: authentic activity. authentic context, mixed reality, situated learning

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637 Recording Video in the CAVE

Authors: Mohamed Mediouni

Abstract:

Evaluating the performance of a simulator in the CAVE has to be confirmed by encouraging people to live the experience of virtual reality. In this paper, a detailed procedure of recording video is presented. Limitations of the experimental device are firstly exposed. Then, solutions for improving this idea are finally described.

Keywords: Virtual reality, CAVE, stereoscopic, camera.

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636 A Virtual Reality Laboratory for Distance Education in Chemistry

Authors: J. Georgiou, K. Dimitropoulos, A. Manitsaris

Abstract:

Simulations play a major role in education not only because they provide realistic models with which students can interact to acquire real world experiences, but also because they constitute safe environments in which students can repeat processes without any risk in order to perceive easier concepts and theories. Virtual reality is widely recognized as a significant technological advance that can facilitate learning process through the development of highly realistic 3D simulations supporting immersive and interactive features. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of virtual reality-s use in chemistry instruction as well as to present an integrated web-based learning environment for the simulation of chemical experiments. The proposed application constitutes a cost-effective solution for both schools and universities without appropriate infrastructure and a valuable tool for distance learning and life-long education in chemistry. Its educational objectives are the familiarization of students with the equipment of a real chemical laboratory and the execution of virtual volumetric analysis experiments with the active participation of students.

Keywords: Chemistry, simulations, experiments, virtual reality.

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635 Implementation of Virtual Reality in the Conceptual Design of a Tractor Trailer

Authors: Arunesh Chandra, Pankaj Chandna

Abstract:

Virtual reality (VR) is a rapidly emerging computer interface that attempts to immerse the user completely within an experimental recreation; thereby, greatly enhancing the overall impact and providing a much more intuitive link between the computer and the human participants. The main objective of this study is to design tractor trailer capable of meeting the customers’ requirements and suitable for rough conditions to be used in combination with a farm tractor in India. The final concept is capable of providing arrangements for attaching the trailer to the tractor easily by pickup hitch, stronger and lighter supporting frame, option of spare tyre etc. Furthermore, the resulting product design can be sent via the Internet to customers for comments or marketing purposes. The virtual prototyping (VP) system therefore facilitates advanced product design and helps reduce product development time and cost significantly.

Keywords: Conceptual design, Trailer, Virtual prototyping, Virtual reality.

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634 Application of Augmented Reality for Simulation of Robotized Workcell Activity

Authors: J. Novak-Marcincin, J. Barna, M. Janak

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) shows great promises for its usage as a tool for simulation and verification of design proposal of new technological systems. Main advantage of augmented reality application usage is possibility of creation and simulation of new technological unit before its realization. This may contribute to increasing of safety and ergonomics and decreasing of economical aspects of new proposed unit. Virtual model of proposed workcell could reveal hidden errors which elimination in later stage of new workcell creation should cause great difficulties. Paper describes process of such virtual model creation and possibilities of its simulation and verification by augmented reality tools.

Keywords: Augmented reality, simulation, workcell design.

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633 Educational Values of Virtual Reality: The Case of Spatial Ability

Authors: Elinda Ai-Lim Lee, Kok Wai Wong, Chun Che Fung

Abstract:

The use of Virtual Reality (VR) in schools and higher education is proliferating. Due to its interactive and animated features, it is regarded as a promising technology to increase students- spatial ability. Spatial ability is assumed to have a prominent role in science and engineering domains. However, research concerning individual differences such as spatial ability in the context of VR is still at its infancy. Moreover, empirical studies that focus on the features of VR to improve spatial ability are to date rare. Thus, this paper explores the possible educational values of VR in relation to spatial ability to call for more research concerning spatial ability in the context of VR based on studies in computerbased learning. It is believed that the incorporation of state-of-the-art VR technology for educational purposes should be justified by the enhanced benefits for the target learners.

Keywords: Ability-as-compensator, ability-as-enhancer, spatialability, virtual reality.

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632 Virtual Reality Models used on the Visualization of Construction Activities in Civil Engineering Education

Authors: Alcínia Z. Sampaio, Pedro G. Henriques

Abstract:

Three-dimensional geometric models have been used to present architectural and engineering works, showing their final configuration. When the clarification of a detail or the constitution of a construction step in needed, these models are not appropriate. They do not allow the observation of the construction progress of a building. Models that could present dynamically changes of the building geometry are a good support to the elaboration of projects. Techniques of geometric modeling and virtual reality were used to obtain models that could visually simulate the construction activity. The applications explain the construction work of a cavity wall and a bridge. These models allow the visualization of the physical progression of the work following a planned construction sequence, the observation of details of the form of every component of the works and support the study of the type and method of operation of the equipment applied in the construction. These models presented distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil Engineering. The use of Virtual Reality techniques in the development of educational applications brings new perspectives to the teaching of subjects related to the field of civil construction.

Keywords: Education, Engineering, virtual reality, visualsimulation.

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631 Augmented Reality Interaction System in 3D Environment

Authors: Sunhyoung Lee, Askar Akshabayev, Beisenbek Baisakov, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

It is important to give input information without other device in AR system. One solution is using hand for augmented reality application. Many researchers have proposed different solutions for hand interface in augmented reality. Analyze Histogram and connecting factor is can be example for that. Various Direction searching is one of robust way to recognition hand but it takes too much calculating time. And background should be distinguished with skin color. This paper proposes a hand tracking method to control the 3D object in augmented reality using depth device and skin color. Also in this work discussed relationship between several markers, which is based on relationship between camera and marker. One marker used for displaying virtual object and three markers for detecting hand gesture and manipulating the virtual object.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, depth map, hand recognition, kinect, marker, YCbCr color model.

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630 Kinematics and Control System Design of Manipulators for a Humanoid Robot

Authors: S. Parasuraman

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In this work, a new approach is proposed to control the manipulators for Humanoid robot. The kinematics of the manipulators in terms of joint positions, velocity, acceleration and torque of each joint is computed using the Denavit Hardenberg (D-H) notations. These variables are used to design the manipulator control system, which has been proposed in this work. In view of supporting the development of a controller, a simulation of the manipulator is designed for Humanoid robot. This simulation is developed through the use of the Virtual Reality Toolbox and Simulink in Matlab. The Virtual Reality Toolbox in Matlab provides the interfacing and controls to an environment which is developed based on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Chains of bones were used to represent the robot.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Robot Kinematics, Robot Navigation, MATLAB.

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629 Instructional Design Using the Virtual Ecological Pond for Science Education in Elementary Schools

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Wen-Shin Tsai, Yu-Si Lin, Chen-Kai Shiu

Abstract:

Ecological ponds can be a good teaching tool for science teachers, but they must be built and maintained properly to provide students with a safe and suitable learning environment. Hence, many schools do not have the ability to build an ecological pond. This study used virtual reality technology to develop a webbased virtual ecological pond. Supported by situated learning theory and the instructional design of “Aquatic Life" learning unit, elementary school students can actively explore in the virtual ecological pond to observe aquatic animals and plants and learn about the concept of ecological conservation. A teaching experiment was conducted to investigate the learning effectiveness and practicability of this instructional design, and the results showed that students improved a great deal in learning about aquatic life. They found the virtual ecological pond interesting, easy to operate and helpful to understanding the aquatic ecological system. Therefore, it is useful in elementary science education.

Keywords: Virtual reality, virtual ecological ponds, situated learning, instructional design, science education.

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628 Electronic Tool that Helps in Learning How to Play a Flute

Authors: Galeano R. Katherine, Rincon L. David, Luengas C. Lely

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of an electronic instrument that looks like a flute, which is able to sense the basic musical notes being executed by a specific user. The principal function of the instrument is to teach how to play a flute. This device will generate a significant academic impact, in a field of virtual reality interactive that combine art and technology. With this example is expected to contribute in research and implementation of teaching devices around the world.

Keywords: Flute, Hardware, Learning, Virtual Reality.

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627 The Effects of Immersion on Visual Attention and Detection of Signals Performance for Virtual Reality Training Systems

Authors: Shiau-Feng Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Rou-Wen Wang, Wei-Jung Shiang

Abstract:

The Virtual Reality (VR) is becoming increasingly important for business, education, and entertainment, therefore VR technology have been applied for training purposes in the areas of military, safety training and flying simulators. In particular, the superior and high reliability VR training system is very important in immersion. Manipulation training in immersive virtual environments is difficult partly because users must do without the hap contact with real objects they rely on in the real world to orient themselves and their manipulated. In this paper, we create a convincing questionnaire of immersion and an experiment to assess the influence of immersion on performance in VR training system. The Immersion Questionnaire (IQ) included spatial immersion, Psychological immersion, and Sensory immersion. We show that users with a training system complete visual attention and detection of signals. Twenty subjects were allocated to a factorial design consisting of two different VR systems (Desktop VR and Projector VR). The results indicated that different VR representation methods significantly affected the participants- Immersion dimensions.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Training, Immersion, Visual Attention, Visual Detection

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626 Virtual Reality for Mutual Understanding in Landscape Planning

Authors: Ball J., Capanni N., Watt S.

Abstract:

This paper argues that fostering mutual understanding in landscape planning is as much about the planners educating stakeholder groups as the stakeholders educating the planners. In other words it is an epistemological agreement as to the meaning and nature of place, especially where an effort is made to go beyond the quantitative aspects, which can be achieved by the phenomenological experience of the Virtual Reality (VR) environment. This education needs to be a bi-directional process in which distance can be both temporal as well as spatial separation of participants, that there needs to be a common framework of understanding in which neither 'side' is disadvantaged during the process of information exchange and it follows that a medium such as VR offers an effective way of overcoming some of the shortcomings of traditional media by taking advantage of continuing technological advances in Information, Technology and Communications (ITC). In this paper we make particular reference to this as an extension to Geographical Information Systems (GIS). VR as a two-way communication tool offers considerable potential particularly in the area of Public Participation GIS (PPGIS). Information rich virtual environments that can operate over broadband networks are now possible and thus allow for the representation of large amounts of qualitative and quantitative information 'side-by-side'. Therefore, with broadband access becoming standard for households and enterprises alike, distributed virtual reality environments have great potential to contribute to enabling stakeholder participation and mutual learning within the planning context.

Keywords: 3D, communication, geographical information systems, planning, public participation, virtual reality, visualisation.

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625 Virtual Laboratory for Learning Biology – A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Murniza Muhamad, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

This study aims to conduct a preliminary investigation to determine the topic to be focused in developing Virtual Laboratory For Biology (VLab-Bio). Samples involved in answering the questionnaire are form five students (equivalent to A-Level) and biology teachers. Time and economical resources for the setting up and construction of scientific laboratories can be solved with the adaptation of virtual laboratories as an educational tool. Thus, it is hoped that the proposed virtual laboratory will help students to learn the abstract concepts in biology. Findings show that the difficult topic chosen is Cell Division and the learning objective to be focused in developing the virtual lab is “Describe the application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning".

Keywords: biology education, computer simulation, virtual laboratory, virtual reality

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624 A Step-wise Zoom Technique for Exploring Image-based Virtual Reality Applications

Authors: D. R. Awang Rambli, S. Sulaiman, M.Y. Nayan, A.R. Asoruddin

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Existing image-based virtual reality applications allow users to view image-based 3D virtual environment in a more interactive manner. User could “walkthrough"; looks left, right, up and down and even zoom into objects in these virtual worlds of images. However what the user sees during a “zoom in" is just a close-up view of the same image which was taken from a distant. Thus, this does not give the user an accurate view of the object from the actual distance. In this paper, a simple technique for zooming in an object in a virtual scene is presented. The technique is based on the 'hotspot' concept in existing application. Instead of navigation between two different locations, the hotspots are used to focus into an object in the scene. For each object, several hotspots are created. A different picture is taken for each hotspot. Each consecutive hotspot created will take the user closer to the object. This will provide the user with a correct of view of the object based on his proximity to the object. Implementation issues and the relevance of this technique in potential application areas are highlighted.

Keywords: Hotspots, image-based VR, camera zooms, virtualreality.

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623 Virtual Reality Learning Environment in Embryology Education

Authors: Salsabeel F. M. Alfalah, Jannat F. Falah, Nadia Muhaidat, Amjad Hudaib, Diana Koshebye, Sawsan AlHourani

Abstract:

Educational technology is changing the way how students engage and interact with learning materials. This improved the learning process amongst various subjects. Virtual Reality (VR) applications are considered one of the evolving methods that have contributed to enhancing medical education. This paper utilizes VR to provide a solution to improve the delivery of the subject of Embryology to medical students, and facilitate the teaching process by providing a useful aid to lecturers, whilst proving the effectiveness of this new technology in this particular area. After evaluating the current teaching methods and identifying students ‘needs, a VR system was designed that demonstrates in an interactive fashion the development of the human embryo from fertilization to week ten of intrauterine development. This system aims to overcome some of the problems faced by the students’ in the current educational methods, and to increase the efficacy of the learning process.

Keywords: Virtual reality, student assessment, medical education, 3D, embryology.

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622 Vr-GIS and Ar-GIS In Education: A Case Study

Authors: Ilario Gabriele Gerloni, Vincenza Carchiolo, Alessandro Longheu, Ugo Becciani, Eva Sciacca, Fabio Vitello

Abstract:

ICT tools and platforms endorse more and more educational process. Many models and techniques for people to be educated and trained about specific topics and skills do exist, as classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices and others. The choice to what extent ICT is applied within learning contexts is related to personal access to technologies as well as to the infrastructure surrounding environment. Among recent techniques, the adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) provides significant impulse in fully engaging users senses. In this paper, an application of AR/VR within Geographic Information Systems (GIS) context is presented. It aims to provide immersive environment experiences for educational and training purposes (e.g. for civil protection personnel), useful especially for situations where real scenarios are not easily accessible by humans. First acknowledgments are promising for building an effective tool that helps civil protection personnel training with risk reduction.

Keywords: Education, virtual reality, augmented reality, civil protection.

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621 Non Inmersive Virtual Reality for Improving Teaching Processes

Authors: Galeano R. Katherine, Rincon L. David, Luengas. Lely, Guevara. Juan Carlos

Abstract:

The following paper shows an interactive tool which main purpose is to teach how to play a flute. It consists of three stages the first one is the instruction and teaching process through a software application, the second is the practice part when the user starts to play the flute (hardware specially designed for this application) this flute is capable of capturing how is being played the flute and the final stage is the one in which the data captured are sent to the software and the user is evaluated in order to give him / she a correction or an acceptance

Keywords: acoustoelectric devices, computer applications, learning systems, music, technological innovation, virtual reality

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620 The Implementation of Spatio-Temporal Graph to Represent Situations in the Virtual World

Authors: Gung-Hun Jung, Jong-Hee Park

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In this paper, we develop a Spatio-Temporal graph as of a key component of our knowledge representation Scheme. We design an integrated representation Scheme to depict not only present and past but future in parallel with the spaces in an effective and intuitive manner. The resulting multi-dimensional comprehensive knowledge structure accommodates multi-layered virtual world developing in the time to maximize the diversity of situations in the historical context. This knowledge representation Scheme is to be used as the basis for simulation of situations composing the virtual world and for implementation of virtual agents' knowledge used to judge and evaluate the situations in the virtual world. To provide natural contexts for situated learning or simulation games, the virtual stage set by this Spatio-Temporal graph is to be populated by agents and other objects interrelated and changing which are abstracted in the ontology.

Keywords: Ontology, Virtual Reality, Spatio-Temporal graph.

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619 Assessment Methods for Surgical Skill

Authors: Siti Nor Zawani Ahmmad, Eileen Su Lee Ming, Yeong Che Fai, Fauzan Khairi bin Che Harun

Abstract:

The increasingly sophisticated technologies have now been able to provide assistance for surgeons to improve surgical performance through various training programs. Equally important to learning skills is the assessment method as it determines the learning and technical proficiency of a trainee. A consistent and rigorous assessment system will ensure that trainees acquire the specific level of competency prior to certification. This paper reviews the methods currently in use for assessment of surgical skill and some modern techniques using computer-based measurements and virtual reality systems for more quantitative measurements

Keywords: assessment, surgical skill, checklist, global rating, virtual reality

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