Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: stroke

73 Modelling Sudden Deaths from Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

Authors: Yusoff Y. S., Streftaris, G., Waters, H. R

Abstract:

Death within 30 days is an important factor to be looked into, as there is a significant risk of deaths immediately following or soon after, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. In this paper, we will model the deaths within 30 days following a myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke in the UK. We will see how the probabilities of sudden deaths from MI or stroke have changed over the period 1981-2000. We will model the sudden deaths using a generalized linear model (GLM), fitted using the R statistical package, under a Binomial distribution for the number of sudden deaths. We parameterize our model using the extensive and detailed data from the Framingham Heart Study, adjusted to match UK rates. The results show that there is a reduction for the sudden deaths following a MI over time but no significant improvement for sudden deaths following a stroke.

Keywords: Sudden deaths, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease.

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72 Stroke Extraction and Approximation with Interpolating Lagrange Curves

Authors: Bence Kővári, ZSolt Kertész

Abstract:

This paper proposes a stroke extraction method for use in off-line signature verification. After giving a brief overview of the current ongoing researches an algorithm is introduced for detecting and following strokes in static images of signatures. Problems like the handling of junctions and variations in line width and line intensity are discussed in detail. Results are validated by both using an existing on-line signature database and by employing image registration methods.

Keywords: Stroke extraction, spline fitting, off-line signatureverification, image registration.

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71 A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Jiewei Li, Hongyan Cui, Chunqi Chang, Yong Hu

Abstract:

It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.

Keywords: Robotic rehabilitation arm, brain computer interface (BCI), hemiparesis, stroke, somatosensory stimulation.

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70 Study of Tower Grounding Resistance Effected Back Flashover to 500 kV Transmission Line in Thailand by using ATP/EMTP

Authors: B. Marungsri, S. Boonpoke, A. Rawangpai, A. Oonsivilai, C. Kritayakornupong

Abstract:

This study describes analysis of tower grounding resistance effected the back flashover voltage across insulator string in a transmission system. This paper studies the 500 kV transmission lines from Mae Moh, Lampang to Nong Chok, Bangkok, Thailand, which is double circuit in the same steel tower with two overhead ground wires. The factor of this study includes magnitude of lightning stroke, and front time of lightning stroke. Steel tower uses multistory tower model. The assumption of studies based on the return stroke current ranged 1-200 kA, front time of lightning stroke between 1 μs to 3 μs. The simulations study the effect of varying tower grounding resistance that affect the lightning current. Simulation results are analyzed lightning over voltage that causes back flashover at insulator strings. This study helps to know causes of problems of back flashover the transmission line system, and also be as a guideline solving the problem for 500 kV transmission line systems, as well.

Keywords: Tower grounding resistance, back flashover, multistory tower model, lightning stroke current.

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69 The Effects of Mirror Therapy on Clinical Improvement in Hemiplegic Lower Extremity Rehabilitation in Subjects with Chronic Stroke

Authors: Hassan M. Abo Salem, Xiaolin Huang

Abstract:

Background: The effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) has been investigated in acute hemiplegia. The present study examines whether MT, given during chronic stroke, was more effective in promoting motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking speed than standard rehabilitation alone. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with chronic stroke. Fifteen patients each were assigned to the treatment group and the control group. All patients received a conventional rehabilitation program for a 4-week period. In addition to this rehabilitation program, patients in the treatment group received mirror therapy for 4 weeks, 5 days a week. Main measures: Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, gait speed, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, plantar flexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale. Results: No significant difference was found in the outcome measures among groups before treatment. When compared with standard rehabilitation, mirror therapy improved Ankle ROM, Brunnstrom stages and waking speed (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on MAS (P > 0.05).Conclusion: Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lowerextremity motor recovery and walking speed in chronic stroke patients.

Keywords: Mirror therapy, stroke, MAS, walking speed.

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68 A Novel EMG Feedback Control Method in Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling System for Stroke Patients

Authors: Chien-Chih Chen, Ya-Hsin Hsueh, Zong-Cian He

Abstract:

With getting older in the whole population, the prevalence of stroke and its residual disability is getting higher and higher recently in Taiwan. The functional electrical stimulation cycling system (FESCS) is useful for hemiplegic patients. Because that the muscle of stroke patients is under hybrid activation. The raw electromyography (EMG) represents the residual muscle force of stroke subject whereas the peak-to-peak of stimulus EMG indicates the force enhancement benefiting from ES. It seems that EMG signals could be used for a parameter of feedback control mechanism. So, we design the feedback control protocol of FESCS, it includes physiological signal recorder, FPGA biomedical module, DAC and electrical stimulation circuit. Using the intensity of real-time EMG signal obtained from patients, as a feedback control method for the output voltage of FES-cycling system.

Keywords: Functional Electrical Stimulation cycling system EMG, control protocol.

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67 Coupling Phenomenon between the Lightning and High Voltage Networks

Authors: Dib Djalel, Haddouche Ali, Chellali Benachiba

Abstract:

When a lightning strike falls near an overhead power line, the intense electromagnetic field radiated by the current of the lightning return stroke coupled with power lines and there induced transient overvoltages, which can cause a back-flashover in electrical network. The indirect lightning represents a major danger owing to the fact that it is more frequent than that which results from the direct strikes. In this paper we present an analysis of the electromagnetic coupling between an external electromagnetic field generated by the lightning and an electrical overhead lines, so we give an important and original contribution: We are based on our experimental measurements which we carried in the high voltage laboratories of EPFL in Switzerland during the last trimester of 2005, on the recent works of other authors and with our mathematical improvement a new particular analytical expression of the electromagnetic field generated by the lightning return stroke was developed and presented in this paper. The results obtained by this new electromagnetic field formulation were compared with experimental results and give a reasonable approach.

Keywords: Lightning, overhead lines, electromagneticcoupling, return stroke, models, induced overvoltages.

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66 Video-Based System for Support of Robot-Enhanced Gait Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Matjaž Divjak, Simon Zelič, Aleš Holobar

Abstract:

We present a dedicated video-based monitoring system for quantification of patient’s attention to visual feedback during robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Two different approaches for eye gaze and head pose tracking are tested and compared. Several metrics for assessment of patient’s attention are also presented. Experimental results with healthy volunteers demonstrate that unobtrusive video-based gaze tracking during the robot-assisted gait rehabilitation is possible and is sufficiently robust for quantification of patient’s attention and assessment of compliance with the rehabilitation therapy.

Keywords: Video-based attention monitoring, gaze estimation, stroke rehabilitation, user compliance.

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65 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: Physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy.

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64 Mechanical Design and Theoretical Analysis of a Skip-Cycle Mechanism for an Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ismail Gerzeli, Cemal Baykara, Osman Akin Kutlar

Abstract:

Skip cycle is a working strategy for spark ignition engines, which allows changing the effective stroke of an engine through skipping some of the four stroke cycles. This study proposes a new mechanism to achieve the desired skip-cycle strategy for internal combustion engines. The air and fuel leakage, which occurs through the gas exchange, negatively affects the efficiency of the engine at high speeds and loads. An absolute sealing is assured by direct use of poppet valves, which are kept in fully closed position during the skipped mode. All the components of the mechanism were designed according to the real dimensions of the Anadolu Motor's gasoline engine and modeled in 3D by means of CAD software. As the mechanism operates in two modes, two dynamically equivalent models are established to obtain the force and strength analysis for critical components.

Keywords: Dynamic Model, Mechanical Design, Skip Cycle System (SCS), Valve Disabling Mechanism

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63 A Vortex Plate Theory of Hovering Animal Flight

Authors: Khaled. M. Faqih

Abstract:

A model of vortex wake is suggested to determine the induced power during animal hovering flight. The wake is modeled by a series of equi-spaced rigid rectangular vortex plates, positioned horizontally and moving vertically downwards with identical speeds; each plate is generated during powering of the functionally wing stroke. The vortex representation of the wake considered in the current theory allows a considerable loss of momentum to occur. The current approach accords well with the nature of the wingbeat since it considers the unsteadiness in the wake as an important fluid dynamical characteristic. Induced power in hovering is calculated as the aerodynamic power required to generate the vortex wake system. Specific mean induced power to mean wing tip velocity ratio is determined by solely the normal spacing parameter (f) for a given wing stroke amplitude. The current theory gives much higher specific induced power estimate than anticipated by classical methods.

Keywords: vortex theory, hovering flight, induced power, Prandlt's tip theory.

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62 A Second Look at Gesture-Based Passwords: Usability and Vulnerability to Shoulder-Surfing Attacks

Authors: Lakshmidevi Sreeramareddy, Komalpreet Kaur, Nane Pothier

Abstract:

For security purposes, it is important to detect passwords entered by unauthorized users. With traditional alphanumeric passwords, if the content of a password is acquired and correctly entered by an intruder, it is impossible to differentiate the password entered by the intruder from those entered by the authorized user because the password entries contain precisely the same character set. However, no two entries for the gesture-based passwords, even those entered by the person who created the password, will be identical. There are always variations between entries, such as the shape and length of each stroke, the location of each stroke, and the speed of drawing. It is possible that passwords entered by the unauthorized user contain higher levels of variations when compared with those entered by the authorized user (the creator). The difference in the levels of variations may provide cues to detect unauthorized entries. To test this hypothesis, we designed an empirical study, collected and analyzed the data with the help of machine-learning algorithms. The results of the study are significant.

Keywords: Authentication, gesture-based passwords, machine learning algorithms, shoulder-surfing attacks, usability.

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61 Biomechanics Analysis of Bicross Start

Authors: M. Kalichová, S. Hřebíčková, R. Labounková, P. Hedbávný, G. Bago

Abstract:

The article deals with a biomechanics analysis of the classic bicross start with a backward movement of the bike. This is a case study analyzing this type of start in two bicross riders representing the Czech Republic. Based on the 3D kinematic analysis and with a special emphasis on the ankle movement we have divided the start into five phases – phase n. 1 – reaction time, phase n. 2 – preparation movements time, phase n. 3 – first pedal stroke time, phase n. 4 – dead point pedal passage time, phase n. 5 – second pedal stroke time. Further we have demonstrated the significance of kinematic characteristics in various stages of the bicross start including their values and the extent of change. These primarily include the vector of the instantaneous velocity of the head, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hip and knee joints. The significant angle characteristics have been noted in elbow, shoulder, hip and knee joints. The results of this work indicate the types of movement prevailing in the respective phases and as such are expected to serve as a basis for further analyses of this movement structure performed, however, on a large research sample.

Keywords: Bicross, start, kinematic analysis.

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60 Specialized Reduced Models of Dynamic Flows in 2-Stroke Engines

Authors: S. Cagin, X. Fischer, E. Delacourt, N. Bourabaa, C. Morin, D. Coutellier, B. Carré, S. Loumé

Abstract:

The complexity of scavenging by ports and its impact on engine efficiency create the need to understand and to model it as realistically as possible. However, there are few empirical scavenging models and these are highly specialized. In a design optimization process, they appear very restricted and their field of use is limited. This paper presents a comparison of two methods to establish and reduce a model of the scavenging process in 2-stroke diesel engines. To solve the lack of scavenging models, a CFD model has been developed and is used as the referent case. However, its large size requires a reduction. Two techniques have been tested depending on their fields of application: The NTF method and neural networks. They both appear highly appropriate drastically reducing the model’s size (over 90% reduction) with a low relative error rate (under 10%). Furthermore, each method produces a reduced model which can be used in distinct specialized fields of application: the distribution of a quantity (mass fraction for example) in the cylinder at each time step (pseudo-dynamic model) or the qualification of scavenging at the end of the process (pseudo-static model).

Keywords: Diesel engine, Design optimization, Model reduction, Neural network, NTF algorithm, Scavenging.

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59 Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: Madhujit Deb, G. R. K. Sastry, R. S. Panua, Rahul Banerjee, P. K. Bose

Abstract:

The present work attempts to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel, where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPGCNG injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of hydrogen was 10^0 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.

Keywords: Diesel engine, Hydrogen, BTHE, BSEC, Soot, NOx.

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58 Iterative Estimator-Based Nonlinear Backstepping Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton

Authors: Brahmi Brahim, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Maarouf Saad, Cristóbal Ochoa Luna

Abstract:

A repetitive training movement is an efficient method to improve the ability and movement performance of stroke survivors and help them to recover their lost motor function and acquire new skills. The ETS-MARSE is seven degrees of freedom (DOF) exoskeleton robot developed to be worn on the lateral side of the right upper-extremity to assist and rehabilitate the patients with upper-extremity dysfunction resulting from stroke. Practically, rehabilitation activities are repetitive tasks, which make the assistive/robotic systems to suffer from repetitive/periodic uncertainties and external perturbations induced by the high-order dynamic model (seven DOF) and interaction with human muscle which impact on the tracking performance and even on the stability of the exoskeleton. To ensure the robustness and the stability of the robot, a new nonlinear backstepping control was implemented with designed tests performed by healthy subjects. In order to limit and to reject the periodic/repetitive disturbances, an iterative estimator was integrated into the control of the system. The estimator does not need the precise dynamic model of the exoskeleton. Experimental results confirm the robustness and accuracy of the controller performance to deal with the external perturbation, and the effectiveness of the iterative estimator to reject the repetitive/periodic disturbances.

Keywords: Backstepping control, iterative control, rehabilitation, ETS-MARSE.

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57 An Evaluation Method for Two-Dimensional Position Errors and Assembly Errors of a Rotational Table on a 4 Axis Machine Tool

Authors: Jooho Hwang, Chang-Kyu Song, Chun-Hong Park

Abstract:

This paper describes a method to measure and compensate a 4 axes ultra-precision machine tool that generates micro patterns on the large surfaces. The grooving machine is usually used for making a micro mold for many electrical parts such as a light guide plate for LCD and fuel cells. The ultra precision machine tool has three linear axes and one rotational table. Shaping is usually used to generate micro patterns. In the case of 50 μm pitch and 25 μm height pyramid pattern machining with a 90° wedge angle bite, one of linear axis is used for long stroke motion for high cutting speed and other linear axis are used for feeding. The triangular patterns can be generated with many times of long stroke of one axis. Then 90° rotation of work piece is needed to make pyramid patterns with superposition of machined two triangular patterns. To make a two dimensional positioning error, straightness of two axes in out of plane, squareness between the each axis are important. Positioning errors, straightness and squarness were measured by laser interferometer system. Those were compensated and confirmed by ISO230-6. One of difficult problem to measure the error motions is squareness or parallelism of axis between the rotational table and linear axis. It was investigated by simultaneous moving of rotary table and XY axes. This compensation method is introduced in this paper.

Keywords: Ultra-precision machine tool, muti-axis errors, squraness, positioning errors.

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56 Systolic Blood Pressure and Its Determinants: Study in a Population Attending Pharmacies in a Portuguese Coastal City

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, M. Brito, C. Lemos, A. Mascarenhas, E. Teixeira Lemos

Abstract:

Hypertension is a common condition causing cardio and cerebrovascular complications. Portugal has one of the highest mortality rates from stroke and a high prevalence of hypertension. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and premature mortality, particularly in the elderly population. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in a Portuguese population living in a coastal city and to identify some of its determinants (namely gender, age, the body mass index and physical activity frequency). A total of 91 adults who attended three pharmacies of a coastal city in the center of Portugal, between May and August of 2013 were evaluated. Attendants who reported to have diabetes or taking antihypertensive drugs in the 2 previous weeks were excluded from the study. Sociodemographic factors, BMI, habits of exercise and BP were assessed. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg. The majority of the studied population was constituted by women (75.8%), with a mean age of 54.2±1.6 years old, married or living in civil union and that had completed secondary school or had higher education (40%). They presented a mean BMI of 26.2±4.76 Kg/m2., and were sedentary. The mean BP was 127.0±17.77mmHg- 74.69 ± 9.53. In this population we found 4.3% of people with hypertension and 16.1% with normal high blood pressure. Men exhibit a tendency to present higher systolic blood pressure values than women. Of all the factors considered, SBP values also tended to be higher with age and higher BMI values. Despite the fact that the mean values of SBP did not present values higher than 140 mmHg we must be concerned because the studied population is undiagnosed for hypertension. Although this is a preliminary study, it might be a prelude to the upcoming research about the underlying factors responsible for the occurrence of SBP.

Keywords: Hypertension, age, exercise, obesity, gender.

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55 Optimization Approach on Flapping Aerodynamic Characteristics of Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Wei-Hsin Sun, Jr-Ming Miao, Chang-Hsien Tai, Chien-Chun Hung

Abstract:

The development of biomimetic micro-aerial-vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings is the future trend in military/domestic field. The successful flight of MAVs is strongly related to the understanding of unsteady aerodynamic performance of low Reynolds number airfoils under dynamic flapping motion. This study explored the effects of flapping frequency, stroke amplitude, and the inclined angle of stroke plane on lift force and thrust force of a bio-inspiration corrugated airfoil with 33 full factorial design of experiment and ANOVA analysis. Unsteady vorticity flows over a corrugated thin airfoil executing flapping motion are computed with time-dependent two-dimensional laminar incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the conformal hybrid mesh. The tested freestream Reynolds number based on the chord length of airfoil as characteristic length is fixed of 103. The dynamic mesh technique is applied to model the flapping motion of a corrugated airfoil. Instant vorticity contours over a complete flapping cycle clearly reveals the flow mechanisms for lift force generation are dynamic stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture. The thrust force is produced as the leading edge vortex shedding from the trailing edge of airfoil to form a reverse von Karman vortex. Results also indicated that the inclined angle is the most significant factor on both the lift force and thrust force. There are strong interactions between tested factors which mean an optimization study on parameters should be conducted in further runs.

Keywords: biomimetic, MAVs, aerodynamic, ANOVA analysis.

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54 The Use of Graphic Design Elements for Design of Newspaper for Women

Authors: Pibool Waijittragum

Abstract:

This paper has its objectives to reveal contents and personality suitable to women’s newspapers. The research methodology employed in this study is the questionnaire which is derived from a literature review related to newspapers, graphic elements method for print media design and 12 sample sizes of different daily newspapers. In order to acquire an in-depth understanding and comprehensible view of desirable for a women’s newspaper design, graphic elements that related to that personality as well as other preferable elements for a women’s newspaper, including seven editorial Many Thai newspapers were offer a women’s documentary and column space. With its feminine looks, most of them appeared with warm tones and friendly mood through their headlines, contents, illustrations and graphics. The study found that most desirable personalities for a women’s newspaper design in Thailand are: Modern, Chic and Natural. Each personality has significant graphic elements as follows: 1. Modern: significant elements of modern personality comprises of the composition with graduation pattern which creates attractiveness by using an anomalous alignment layout grid and outstanding structure to create focal points and dynamic movement. Dark to black color that has narrowed, limited hue coupled with bright color tones. The round shape of the Thai font style was suitable for this concept. Such Thai fonts have harmonious proportion and consistent stroke with the urban-polite look. 2. Chic: significant elements of chic personality comprises of the proper composition with distinctive scale, using rhythmic repetition and a contrast of scale to draw in reader attention. Vivid and bright color tones with extensive hues coupled with similar color tones and round shape of the Thai font style with a light stroke and consistent line. 3. Natural: significant elements of natural personality comprises of the proper composition using rhythmic repetition that creates a focal point through striking images and harmonious perspective. Warm color tones with restricted hues that appear to look natural. Duo tone color was suitable through the gradually increasing gradient. The Thai style with hand writing font was suitable through the inconsistent stroke. There are 10 types of daily content that were revealed to be the most desirable for Thai women readers, these are: Daily News, Economics News, Education News, Entertainment News, International news, Political News, Public Health News, Scientific News, Social News and Sports News. As well, there are 16 topics identified as very desirable for Thai women readers, such as: Art and Culture, Automobile, Classified, Special Scoop, Editorial, Advertisement, Entertainment, Health and Quality of Life, History, Horoscope, Lifestyle and Fashion, Literature, Nature - Environment and Tourism, Night Life, Stars and Jet Set Gossip, Women’s Issue.

Keywords: Graphic design elements, women newspaper, newspaper design.

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53 Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid Scooter

Authors: W. K. Yap, V. Karri

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid electric scooter model developed and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. This hybrid scooter modeled has a parallel hybrid structure. The main propulsion units consist of a two stroke internal combustion engine and a hub motor attached to the front wheel of the scooter. The methodology used to optimize the energy and fuel consumption of the hybrid electric scooter is the multi-mode approach. Various case studies were presented to check the model and were compared to the literatures. Results shown that the model developed was feasible and valuable.

Keywords: Hybrid electric scooters, modeling and simulation, hybrid scooter energy management.

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52 Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles

Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu

Abstract:

The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.

Keywords: Pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic muscles, energy-to-mass ratio, muscle stroke.

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51 Parameters of Main Stage of Discharge between Artificial Charged Aerosol Cloud and Ground in Presence of Model Hydrometeor Arrays

Authors: D. S. Zhuravkova, A. G. Temnikov, O. S. Belova, L. L. Chernensky, T. K. Gerastenok, I. Y. Kalugina, N. Y. Lysov, A.V. Orlov

Abstract:

Investigation of the discharges from the artificial charged water aerosol clouds in presence of the arrays of the model hydrometeors could help to receive the new data about the peculiarities of the return stroke formation between the thundercloud and the ground when the large volumes of the hail particles participate in the lightning discharge initiation and propagation stimulation. Artificial charged water aerosol clouds of the negative or positive polarity with the potential up to one million volts have been used. Hail has been simulated by the group of the conductive model hydrometeors of the different form. Parameters of the impulse current of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial positively and negatively charged water aerosol clouds and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeors array and of its corresponding electromagnetic radiation have been determined. It was established that the parameters of the array of the model hydrometeors influence on the parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial thundercloud cell and the ground. The maximal values of the main stage current impulse parameters and the electromagnetic radiation registered by the plate antennas have been found for the array of the model hydrometeors of the cylinder revolution form for the negatively charged aerosol cloud and for the array of the hydrometeors of the plate rhombus form for the positively charged aerosol cloud, correspondingly. It was found that parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial charged water aerosol cloud and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeor array of the different considered forms depend on the polarity of the artificial charged aerosol cloud. In average, for all forms of the investigated model hydrometeors arrays, the values of the amplitude and the current rise of the main stage impulse current and the amplitude of the corresponding electromagnetic radiation for the artificial charged aerosol cloud of the positive polarity were in 1.1-1.9 times higher than for the charged aerosol cloud of the negative polarity. Thus, the received results could indicate to the possible more important role of the big volumes of the large hail arrays in the thundercloud on the parameters of the return stroke for the positive lightning.

Keywords: Main stage of discharge, hydrometeor form, lightning parameters, negative and positive artificial charged aerosol cloud.

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50 Development of an Efficient CVT using Electromecanical System

Authors: A. A. Shafie, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

Continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a type of automatic transmission that can change the gear ratio to any arbitrary setting within the limits. The most common type of CVT operates on a pulley system that allows an infinite variability between highest and lowest gears with no discrete steps. However, the current CVT system with hydraulic actuation method suffers from the power loss. It needs continuous force for the pulley to clamp the belt and hold the torque resulting in large amount of energy consumption. This study focused on the development of an electromechanical actuated control CVT to eliminate the problem that faced by the existing CVT. It is conducted with several steps; computing and selecting the appropriate sizing for stroke length, lead screw system and etc. From the visual observation it was found that the CVT system of this research is satisfactory.

Keywords: CVT, Hydraulic Actuator, Discrete shifts, Electromechanical system, Lead screws.

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49 Effectiveness Evaluation of a Machine Design Process Based on the Computation of the Specific Output

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this paper, effectiveness of a machine design process is evaluated on the basis of the specific output calculus. Concretely, a screw-worm gear mechanical transmission is designed by using the classical and the 3D-CAD methods. Strength analysis and drawing of the designed parts is substantially aided by employing the SolidWorks software. Quality of the design process is assessed by manufacturing (printing) the parts, and by computing the efficiency, specific load, as well as the specific output (work) of the mechanical transmission. Influence of the stroke, travelling velocity and load on the mechanical output, is emphasized. Optimal design of the mechanical transmission becomes possible by the appropriate usage of the acquired results.

Keywords: Mechanical transmission, design, screw, worm-gear, efficiency, specific output, 3D-printing.

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48 Common Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness Segmentation Survey

Authors: L. Ashok Kumar, C. Nagarajan

Abstract:

The ultrasound imaging is very popular to diagnosis the disease because of its non-invasive nature. The ultrasound imaging slowly produces low quality images due to the presence of spackle noise and wave interferences. There are several algorithms to be proposed for the segmentation of ultrasound carotid artery images but it requires a certain limit of user interaction. The pixel in an image is highly correlated so the spatial information of surrounding pixels may be considered in the process of image segmentation which improves the results further. When data is highly correlated, one pixel may belong to more than one cluster with different degree of membership. There is an important step to computerize the evaluation of arterial disease severity using segmentation of carotid artery lumen in 2D and 3D ultrasonography and in finding vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques susceptible to rupture which can cause stroke.

Keywords: IMT measurement, Image Segmentation, common carotid artery, internal and external carotid arteries, ultrasound imaging.

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47 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: Crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system.

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46 A Study on Energy-efficient Temperature Control

Authors: Mitsuyuki Kawakami, Kimihiro Yamanaka

Abstract:

The top-heavy demographic of low birth-rate and longer lifespan is a growing social problem, and one of its expected effects will be a shortage of young workers and a growing reliance on a workforce of middle-aged and older people. However, the environment of today's industrial workplace is not particularly suited to middle-aged and older workers, one notable problem being temperature control. Higher temperatures can cause health problems such as heat stroke, and the number of cases increases sharply in people over 65. Moreover, in conditions above 33°C, older people can develop circulatory system disorders, and also have a higher chance of suffering a fatal heart attack. We therefore propose a new method for controlling temperature in the indoor workplace. In this study two different verification experiments were conducted, with the proposed temperature control method being tested in cargo containers and conventional houses. The method's effectiveness was apparent in measurements of temperature and electricity consumption

Keywords: CO2 reduction, Energy saving, Temperature control

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45 Performance and Emission Prediction in a Biodiesel Engine Fuelled with Honge Methyl Ester Using RBF Neural Networks

Authors: Shivakumar, G. S. Vijay, P. Srinivas Pai, B. R. Shrinivasa Rao

Abstract:

In the present study, RBF neural networks were used for predicting the performance and emission parameters of a biodiesel engine. Engine experiments were carried out in a 4 stroke diesel engine using blends of diesel and Honge methyl ester as the fuel. Performance parameters like BTE, BSEC, Tex and emissions from the engine were measured. These experimental results were used for ANN modeling. RBF center initialization was done by random selection and by using Clustered techniques. Network was trained by using fixed and varying widths for the RBF units. It was observed that RBF results were having a good agreement with the experimental results. Networks trained by using clustering technique gave better results than using random selection of centers in terms of reduced MRE and increased prediction accuracy. The average MRE for the performance parameters was 3.25% with the prediction accuracy of 98% and for emissions it was 10.4% with a prediction accuracy of 80%.

Keywords: Radial Basis Function networks, emissions, Performance parameters, Fuzzy c means.

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44 Development of a New Piezoelectrically Actuated Micropump for Liquid and Gas

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the design, fabrication and test of a novel piezoelectric actuated, check-valves embedded micropump having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. This device is designed to pump gases and liquids with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micropump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micropump, the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator and the deformation of the check valve, simultaneously. The micropump with check valve 0.4 mm in thickness obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp. The micropump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 42.2 ml/min and back pressure of 14.0 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 28 and 20 Hz. The presented micropump is able to pump gases with a pumping rate of 196 ml/min at operating frequencies of 280 Hz under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp.

Keywords: Actuator, Check-valve, Micropump, Piezoelectric.

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