Effects of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Leaf Extract and Its Fractions on Cadmium and Lead Chloride-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Albino Rats
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Effects of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Leaf Extract and Its Fractions on Cadmium and Lead Chloride-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Albino Rats

Authors: R. U. Hamzah, H. L. Muhammad, A. Sayyadi, M. B Busari, R. Garba, M. B. Umar, A. N Abubakar

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are toxic, non-essential transition metals that pose many health risks for both humans and animals. They are environmental toxicants which contribute to testicular damage resulting to infertility problem among male populace worldwide. Chelating agents used for lead and cadmium toxicity are not readily available, toxic, expensive and unable to mop up most of the toxic metals accumulated in various organs. In this study, the effect of crude extract (CE), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and acetone fraction (AF) of Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract was assessed on cadmium-lead chloride induced testicular damaged in male albino Wistar rats. CE of the leaf was obtained by extracting in absolute methanol which was further subjected to solvent partitioning via vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) techniques using ethyl acetate, acetone and 70% methanol. A preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidants guided activities on the CE and fractions were determined using standard methods. EF, AF and CE which exhibited significant in vitro activity were subjected to an in vivo study using Wistar rats. In vivo antioxidant markers, male reproductive hormones, testicular enzymes and DNA damage markers were analyzed on the rats’ testes supernatant. AF had the highest quantities of phenols (319.00 mg/g), flavonoids (8.87 mg/g) and tannins (8.87 mg/g) while methanol and EFs were richer in saponins (135.32 µg/g) and alkaloids (38.34 µg/g) respectively. A dose dependent 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and lipid peroxidation were observed in all the extract with high antioxidants power in CE and AF. Administration of lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) decreases the testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity to 6.82 unit/mg protein, Catalase (CAT) activity to 8.07 of H2O2 consumed/unit/mg protein and Glutathione (GSH) concentration to 31.30 ug/mg protein. There was a concomitant increase in the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) to a value of 23.70 mmol/mg protein. In addition, lead-cadmium chloride solution significantly (p > 0.05) increases the testicular marker enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase (119.57 u/L), lactate dehydrogenase (357.05 u/L), Acid phosphatase (98.65 u/L)) and DNA damage markers (conjugated dienes (93.39 nmol/mg protein), carbonyl protein (35.39 nmol/mg protein), DNA fragmentation percentage (32.12%)) with lowered testicular hormones (Testosterone (3.1 ng/mL), Follicle stimulating (0.35 IU/mL) and Luteinizing hormones (0.15 IU/mL)) of the animals in negative control group when compared with other treated groups. Treatment with Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract reverts the observed changes with the best activities found in the CE and AFs in a dose dependent manner. Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract ameliorated the lead/cadmium induced testicular damage in male albino rats. The restoration of the aforementioned parameters by some of the extract dosages were comparable to the standard drug with higher activities in the crude and AF. Therefore, Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaf extract can be explored further for the management of lead/cadmium induced toxicity.

Keywords: Cadmium, lead, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, testicular damage.

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