Search results for: wheat flour.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 187

Search results for: wheat flour.

187 Performance of Ripped and Unripped Plantain-Wheat Flour Blend in Biscuit production

Authors: Idoko J. O., Nwajiaku I.

Abstract:

Unripe and ripe plantain were dried and milled into flour and used with wheat flour in biscuit production to determine the best plantain-wheat composite flour for biscuit production. The blends as follows: 100% wheat flour, 100% ripe plantain flour, 100% unripe plantain flour, 50% wheat flour and 50% ripe plantain flour and 50% wheat flour and 50% unripe plantain flour. The Biscuit samples were stored at ambient temperature for 8 weeks after which the equilibrium moisture content and water activity were determined. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also determined. The results of these analyses showed 100% unripe plantain flour as the most stable of the BISCUIT samples judging from its equilibrium moisture content level of 0.32% and water activity of 0.62. The sensory evaluation results showed Biscuit made from 150:50 ripe plantain and wheat flour as most generally accepted at 5% level of significance.

Keywords: Biscuit, equilibrium moisture content, performance, plantain, water activity.

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186 Evaluation of Baking Properties and Sensory Quality of Wheat-Cowpea Flour

Authors: Mohamed A. Ahmed, Lydia J. Campbell

Abstract:

The fortified of soft wheat flour with cowpea flour in bread making was investigated. The Soft wheat flour (SWF) was substituted by cowpea flour at levels of 5, 15 and 20%. The protein content of composite breads ranged from 6.1 – 9.9%. Significant difference was observed in moisture, protein and crude fibre contents of control (wheat bread) and composite bread at 5% addition of cowpea. Water absorption capacities of composite flours increased with increasing levels of cowpea flour in the blend. The specific loaf volume decreased significantly with increased cowpea content of blends. The overall acceptability of the 5% cowpea flour content of composite bread was not significantly different from the control (Soft Wheat-bread) but there is significantly different with increasing the levels of cowpea flour in the blend more than 5%.

Keywords: Cowpea flour, wheat flour, baking properties, sensory quality.

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185 Flour and Bread Quality of Spring Spelt

Authors: E. Siemianowska, K.A. Skibniewska, M. Warechowska, M.F. Jędrzejczak, J. Tyburski

Abstract:

The article contains results of the flour and bread quality assessment from the grains of spring spelt, also called as an ancient wheat. Spelt was cultivated on heavy and medium soils observing principles of organic farming. Based on flour and bread laboratory studies, as well as laboratory baking, the technological usefulness of studied flour has been determined. These results were referred to the standard derived from common wheat cultivated in the same conditions. Grain of spring spelt is a good raw material for manufacturing bread flour, from which to get high-quality bakery products, but this is strictly dependent on the variety of ancient wheat.

Keywords: Bread, dark flour, wholemeal, flour quality, spelt

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184 Development and Characterization of Wheat Bread with Lupin Flour

Authors: Paula M. R. Correia, Marta Gonzaga, Luis M. Batista, Luísa Beirão-Costa, Raquel F. P. Guiné

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-chemical and sensorial properties. The water absorption of wheat flour with 10% of lupin was higher than that of the normal wheat flours, and Wheat Ceres flour presented the lower value, with lower dough development time and high stability time. The breads presented low moisture but a considerable water activity. The density of bread decreased with the introduction of lupin flour. The breads were quite white, and during storage the colour parameters decreased. The lupin flour clearly increased the number of alveolus, but the total area increased significantly just for the Wheat Cerealis bread. The addition of lupin flour increased the hardness and chewiness of breads, but the elasticity did not vary significantly. Lupin bread was sensorially similar to wheat bread produced with WCerealis flour, and the main differences are the crust rugosity, colour and alveolus characteristics.

Keywords: Lupin flour, physical-chemical properties, sensorial analysis, wheat flour.

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183 Effect of Wheat Flour Extraction Rates on Flour Composition, Farinographic Characteristics and Sensory Perception of Sourdough Naans

Authors: Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din, Salim-ur-Rehman, Faqir M. Anjum, Haq Nawaz, Mian A. Murtaza

Abstract:

The effect of wheat flour extraction rates on flour composition, farinographic characteristics and the quality of sourdough naans was investigated. The results indicated that by increasing the extraction rate, the amount of protein, fiber, fat and ash increased, whereas moisture content decreased. Farinographic characteristic like water absorption and dough development time increased with an increase in flour extraction rate but the dough stabilities and tolerance indices were reduced with an increase in flour extraction rates. Titratable acidity for both sourdough and sourdough naans also increased along with flour extraction rate. The study showed that overall quality of sourdough naans were affected by both flour extraction rate and starter culture used. Sensory analysis of sourdough naans revealed that desirable extraction rate for sourdough naan was 76%.

Keywords: Extraction rates, Farinographic characteristics, Flour composition, Sourdough naans, Wheat flour.

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182 Determination of Some Chemical Properties of Uncommon Flours

Authors: Sónia C. Andrade, Solange F. Oliveira, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia

Abstract:

Flours of wheat, chestnut, acorn and lupin were evaluated in relation to phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and oxalate content. At the chemical level the results show some variability between samples by type of flour, and the sample of chestnut flour presented the higher value of oxalate (0.00348 mg/100g) when compared to the other samples in the study. Considering the content of phenolic compounds, the sample that stood out was the acorn flour, having a high value of 0.812 g AGE/100 g. All the samples presented intermediate content of antioxidant activity and the sample that showed a slightly higher value was the wheat flour with a value of 0.746 mM TRE/g sample.

Keywords: Wheat, Acorn, Lupine, Chestnut, Flour, Antioxidant properties, Oxalate.

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181 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

Abstract:

Soymilk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soymilk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soymilk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soymilk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soymilk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92%protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soymilk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soymilk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour.

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180 Chemical Compositions and Physico-Chemical Properties of Malted Sorghum Flour and Characteristics of Gluten Free Bread

Authors: N. Phattanakulkaewmorie, T. Paseephol, A.Moongngarm

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of germination on chemical compositions, physio-chemical properties of malted (germinated) red sorghum flours and evaluated characteristics of gluten free breads from sorghum flour. Results showed that germinated sorghum flour had higher amylase activity, swelling power and solubility at 95°C, but lower in the peak, break down, final and set back viscosities than ungerminated sample (p≤0.05). Five gluten free breads made from sorghum flour blends, with different ratios of ungerminated and germinated sorghum flour, were compared for the physical properties with those made from wheat flour. Crumb hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of sorghum breads were found significantly higher than those of wheat bread. With increasing of ungerminated flour proportion, the bread hardness increased while the cohesiveness declined. Sorghum breads appeared red to human eyes with a*values of 10.41-15.77.Their crust and crumb colors differed significantly from those of wheat bread.

Keywords: Flour, germination, gluten free bread, sorghum.

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179 Quality of Donut Supplemented with Hom Nin Rice Flour

Authors: Supatchalee Sirichokworrakit, Pannin Intasen, Chansuda Angkawut

Abstract:

Hom Nin rice (Oryza Sativa L.) was processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour in donuts. The donuts were prepared with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% Hom Nin rice flour (HNF). The donuts were subjected to proximate, texture, color and sensory evaluations. The results of the study revealed that the ash, moisture, crude fiber contents increased while crude fat and protein contents decreased as the level of HNF increased. The hardness and chewiness of donut increased as the HNF increased but the cohesiveness, springiness, and specific volume decreased. Color of donut (L*, a*, and b* values) decreased with the addition of HNF. Overall acceptability for the 20-40% HNF additions did not differ significantly from the score of the 100% wheat flour.

Keywords: Hom Nin rice, donut, texture evaluation, sensory evaluation.

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178 Evaluation of Storage Stability and Quality Parameters in Biscuit Made from Blends of Wheat, Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Flour

Authors: Aminat. O Adelekan, Olawale T. Gbadebo

Abstract:

Biscuit is one of the most consumed cereal foods in Nigeria and research has shown that locally available tropical crops like cassava, sweet potato can be made into flour and used in the production of biscuits and other pastries. This study investigates some quality parameters in biscuits made from blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour. The values of result of samples increased with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour in some quality parameter like fiber, ash, gluten content, and carbohydrate. The protein content reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour which ranged from 14.80% to 11.80% compared with the control sample which had 15.60%. There was a recorded significant increase (P < 0.05) in some mineral composition such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamin A and C composition as the percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour increased. During storage stability test, samples stored in the fridge and freezer were found to be the best storage location to preserve the sensory attributes and inhibit microbial growth when compared with storage under the sun and on the shelf. Biscuit made with blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour can therefore serve as an alternative to biscuits made from 100% wheat flour, as they are richer in vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, dietary fiber and some essential minerals.

Keywords: Biscuit, carrot, flour blends, storage.

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177 Sensory Characterization of Cookies with Chestnut Flour

Authors: Ljubica Dokić, Ivana Nikolić, Dragana Šoronja–Simović, Biljana Pajin, Nils Juul

Abstract:

In this work sensory characteristics of cookies with different amount of chestnut flour were determined by sensory and instrumental methods. The wheat flour for cookies was substituted with chestnut flour in three different levels (20, 40 and 60%) and the dough moisture was 22%. The control sample was with 100% of wheat flour. Sensory quality of the cookies was described using quantity descriptive method (QDA) by six trained members of descriptive panel. Instrumental evaluation included texture characterization by texture analyzer, the color measurements (CIE L*a*b* system) and determination by videometer.

The samples with 20% of chestnut flour were with highest ponderated score for overall sensory impression (17.6), which is very close to score for control sample (18). Increase in amount of chestnut flour caused decrease in scores for all sensory properties, thus overall sensory score decreased also. Compared to control sample and with increase in amount of chestnut flour, instrumental determination of the samples confirmed the sensory analysis results. The hardness of the cookies increased, as well as the values of red a* and yellow (b*) component coordinate, but the values for lightness (L*) decreased. Also the values, evaluated by videometer at defined wavelength, were the highest for control cookies and decreased with increase in amount of chestnut flour.

Keywords: Cookies, chestnut flour, sensory characteristics.

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176 Application of Extruded Maize Flour in Gluten-free Bread Formulations

Authors: Laila Ozola, Evita Straumite, Ruta Galoburda, Dace Klava

Abstract:

Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley and other closely related cereal grains. The only effective treatment is a strict gluten free diet for life. Latvian producers do not offer gluten-free products. In this research, use of extruded maize flour was tested for substituting rice, maize or buckwheat flour in gluten-free bread formulations at different ratios. Also the influence of extruded maize flour on the quality parameters of gluten-free bread was investigated. The aim of research was to study the influence of extruded maize flour on gluten-free bread quality. Addition of extruded maize flour affect gluten-free bread crumb color, structure of crumb, weight loss and dry off of bread.

Keywords: extruded maize flour, gluten-free bread, quality

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175 Physical Characteristics of Cookies Enriched with Microencapsulated Cherry Pomace Extract

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Biljana Pajin, Danica Zarić

Abstract:

Pomace, a by-product from fruit processing industry is the potential source of valuable bioactive. Cookies are popular, ready to eat and low price foods; therefore, enrichment of these products is of great importance. In this work, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in soy and whey proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10 (SP10 and WP10) and 15% of wheat flour (SP15 and WP15). Cookie geometry (diameter (D), thickness (T) and spread ratio (D/T)), cookie weight, cookie hardness and cookie surface colour were measured. Sensory characteristics are also examined. The results show that encapsulated cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced the cookie mass. Diameter, redness (a* value) and cookie hardness increased. Sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with WP encapsulate produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies.

Keywords: Cherry pomace, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cookies, physical characteristics.

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174 Evaluation of Bakery Products Made from Barley-Gelatinized Corn Flour and Wheat-Defatted Rice Bran Flour Composites

Authors: Ahmed M. S. Hussein, Sahar Y. Al-Okbi

Abstract:

In the present research, whole meal barley flour (WBF) was supplemented with gelatinized corn flour (GCF) in 0 and 30%. Whole meal wheat flour (WWF) was mixed with defatted rice bran (DRB) to produce 0, 20, 25, and 30% replacement levels. Rheological properties of dough were studied. Thermal properties and starch crystallinity of flours were evaluated. Flat bread, balady bread and pie were prepared from the different flour blends. The different bakeries were sensory evaluated. Color of raw materials and crust of bakery products were determined. Nutrients contents of raw flours and food products were assessed. Results showed that addition of GCF to WBF increased the viscosity and falling number of the produced dough. Water absorption, dough development time and dough stability increased with increasing the level of DRB in dough while, weakening and mixing tolerance index decreased. Extensibility and energy decreased, while, resistance to extension increased as DRB level increased. Gelatinized temperature of WWF, WBF, GCF, and DRB were 13.26, 35.09, 28.33, and 39.63, respectively. Starch crystallinity was affected when DRB was added to WWF. The highest protein content was present in balady bread made from 70% WWF and 30% DRB. The highest calcium, phosphorus, and potassium levels were present in products made from 100% WBF. Sensory attributes of the products were slightly affected by adding DRB and GCF. Conclusion: Addition of DRB or GCF to WWF or WBF, respectively affect the physical, chemical, rheological and sensory properties of balady bread, flat bread, and pie while improved their nutritive values.

Keywords: Bakeries, rheological properties, chemical and sensory attributes, flour thermal properties and starch crystallinity.

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173 Effect of Replacement of Unripe Banana Flour for Rice Flour on Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Noodle

Authors: W. Tiboonbun, M. Sungsri-in, A. Moongngarm

Abstract:

This work was conducted to improve the level of resistant starch (RS) in a rice noodle using unripe banana flour and to investigate the effect of substitution of unripe banana flour for rice flour on the physical properties of rice noodle. In order to prepare rice noodles, the unripe banana flour were replaced the rice flour with different degrees of substitutions including 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. The results indicated that substitution of unripe banana flour was significantly affected the viscosity properties of noodle flour, color, cooking loss, RS and total starch content of noodle. It was found that the noodle prepared from 100% unripe banana indicated the greatest changes on the viscosity properties and color profiles. It also showed the highest values of cooking loss (2.53%), tensile strength (129.03%), and RS content (13.15%).

Keywords: Banana flour, Rice noodle, Resistant starch, Unripebanana flour

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172 Effect of Different Lactic Acid Bacteria on Phytic Acid Content and Quality of whole Wheat Toast Bread

Authors: Z. Didar, A. Pourfarzad, M. H. Haddad Khodaparast

Abstract:

Nowadays, consumption of whole flours and flours with high extraction rate is recommended, because of their high amount of fibers, vitamins and minerals. Despite nutritional benefits of whole flour, concentration of some undesirable components such as phytic acid is higher than white flour. In this study, effect of several lactic acid bacteria sourdough on Toast bread is investigated. Sourdough from lactic acid bacteria (Lb. plantarum, Lb. reuteri) with different dough yield (250 and 300) is made and incubated at 30°C for 20 hour, then added to dough in the ratio of 10, 20 and 30% replacement. Breads that supplemented with Lb. plantarum sourdough had lower phytic acid. Higher replacement of sourdough and higher DY cause higher decrease in phytic acid content. Sourdough from Lb. plantarum, DY = 300 and 30% replacement cause the highest decrease in phytic acid content (49.63 mg/100g). As indicated by panelists, Lb. reuteri sourdough can present the greatest effect on overall quality score of the breads. DY reduction cause a decrease in bread quality score. Sensory score of Toast bread is 81.71 in the samples that treated with Lb. reuteri sourdough with DY = 250 and 20% replacement.

Keywords: Phytic Acid, Sourdough, Toast Bread, Whole Wheat Flour, Lactic Acid Bacteria.

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171 Baking Quality of Hulled Wheat Species in Organic Farming

Authors: P. Konvalina, I. Capouchová, Z. Stehno

Abstract:

The organic farmers use wider range of crop varieties than the conventional farming. Bread wheat is the most favorite and the most common food crop. The organic bread wheat is usually of worse technological quality. Therefore, it is supposed to be an attractive alternative to the hulled wheat species (einkorn, emmer wheat and spelt). Twenty-five hulled bread wheat varieties and control bread wheat ones were grown on the certified organic parcel in České Budějovice (the Czech Republic) between 2009 and 2012. Their baking quality was measured and evaluated with standard methods, and in accordance with ICC. The results have shown that the grain of hulled wheat varieties contain a lot of proteins in grains (up to 18 percent); even the organic hulled bread wheat varieties are characterized by such good baking quality. Einkorn and emmer wheat are of worse technological quality of proteins (low values of gluten index and Zeleny test), which is a disadvantage of these two wheat species. On the other hand, spelt wheat is of better technological quality and is similar to the control bread wheat varieties. Mixtures consisting of bread wheat, among others, are considered good alternatives; they may contribute to wider range of use of the hulled wheat species. It is one of the possibilities which may increase the proportion of proteins in bread wheat grains; the nutrition-rich hulled wheat grains may be also used in such way at the same time.

Keywords: Baking quality, organic farming, einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt.

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170 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: Genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality.

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169 Effect on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of Matured Soursop (Anona muricata) Flour

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Akmalluddin Md. Yunus

Abstract:

Soursop (Anona muricata) is one of the underutilized tropical fruits containing nutrients, particularly dietary fibre and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. This objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of matured soursop pulp flour (SPF) to be substituted with high-protein wheat flour in bread. Bread formulation was substituted with different levels of SPF (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were evaluated. Higher substitution level of SPF resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fibre, protein and ash content, while fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (p<0.05). FESEM showed that the bread crumb surface of control and 5% SPF appeared to distribute evenly and coalesced by thin gluten film. However, higher SPF substitution level in bread formulation exhibited a deleterious effect by formation of discontinuous gluten network. For texture profile analysis, 5% SPF bread resulted in the lowest value of hardness. The score of sensory evaluation showed that 5% SPF bread received good acceptability and is comparable with control bread.

Keywords: Bread, Physicochemical properties, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Sensory attributes, Soursop pulp flour.

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168 Evaluation of the Triticale Flour Blend Dough in the Mixing and Fermentation Processes

Authors: Martins Sabovics, Karina Ruse, Evita Straumite, Ruta Galoburda

Abstract:

The research was accomplished on triticale flour blend, which was made from whole grain triticale, rye, hull-less barley flour and rice, maize flour. The aim of this research was to evaluate physico-chemical and sensory properties of triticale flour blend dough in the mixing and fermentation processes. For dough making was used triticale flour blend, yeast, sugar, salt, and water. In the mixing process ware evaluated moisture, acidity, pH, and dough sensory properties (softness, viscosity, and stickiness), but in the fermentation process ware evaluated volume, moisture, acidity, and pH. During present research was established that increasing fermentation temperature and time, increase dough temperature, volume, moisture, and acidity. The mixing time and fermentation time and temperature have significant effect (p<0.05) on triticale flour blend dough physico-chemical and sensory properties.

Keywords: Dough quality, dough fermentation, dough mixing, triticale flour blend.

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167 Optimization of Fiber Rich Gluten-Free Cookie Formulation by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Bahadur Singh Hathan, B. L. Prassana

Abstract:

Most of the commercial gluten free products are nutritionally inferior when compared to gluten containing counterparts as manufacturers most often use the refined flours and starches. So it is possible that people on gluten free diet have low intake of fibre content. The foxtail millet flour and copra meal are gluten free and have high fibre and protein contents. The formulation of fibre rich gluten free cookies was optimized by response surface methodology considering independent process variables as proportion of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) flour in mixed flour, fat content and guar gum. The sugar, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonates and water were added in fixed proportion as 60, 1.0, 0.4 and 20% of mixed flour weight, respectively. Optimum formulation obtained for maximum spread ratio, fibre content, surface L-value, overall acceptability and minimum breaking strength were 80% foxtail millet flour in mixed flour, 42.8 % fat content and 0.05% guar gum.

Keywords: Copra meal flour, Fiber rich gluten-free cookies, Foxtail millet flour, Optimization

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166 Quality Evaluation of Cookies Produced from Blends of Sweet Potato and Fermented Soybean Flour

Authors: Abayomi H. T., Oresanya T. O., Opeifa A. O., Rasheed T. R.

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of cookies produced from sweet potato-fermented soybean flour. Cookies were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis to determine the acceptability of the product. Protein, fat and ash increased as the proportion of soybean flour increased, ranging from 13.8-21.7, 1.22-5.25 and 2.20-2.57 respectively. The crude fibre content was within the range of 3.08-4.83%. The moisture content of the cookies decreased with increase in soybean flour from 3.42- 2.13%. Cookies produced from whole sweet potato flour had the highest moisture content of 3.42% while 30% substitution had the lowest moisture content 2.13%. A nine point hedonic scale was used to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of the cookies. The sensory analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the cookies produced even when compared to the control 100% sweet potato cookies. The overall acceptance of the cookies was ranked to 20% soybean flour substitute.

Keywords: Cookies, Fermented Soybean, Overall Acceptability, Sweet Potatoes.

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165 Nutritional Evaluation of Sorghum Flour (Sorghumbicolor L. Moench) During Processing of Injera

Authors: Noha A. Mohammed, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E. Babiker

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of sorghum flour during processing of injera (unleavened thick bread). The proximate composition of sorghum flour before and after fermentation and that of injera was determined. Compared to the raw flour and fermented one, injera had low protein (11.55%), ash (1.57%) and fat (2.40%) contents but high in fiber content. Moreover, injera was found to have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher energy (389.08 Kcal/100g) compared to raw and fermented sorghum flour. Injera contained lower levels of anti-nutritional factors (polyphenols, phytate and tannins) compared to raw and fermented sorghum. Also it was found to be rich in Ca (4.75mg/100g), Fe (3.95 mg/100g), and Cu (0.7 mg/100g) compared to that of raw and fermented flour. Moreover, both the extractable minerals and protein digestibility were high for injera due to low amount of anti-nutrients. Injera was found to contain an appreciable amount of amino acids except arginine and tyrosine.

Keywords: Cooking, Fermentation, Malt, Protein fractions, Sorghum.

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164 Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

Authors: Supat Chaiyakul, Direk Sukkasem, Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

Abstract:

Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the effects of rice flour concentration and retrogradation treatment on the physical properties of instant Sinlek brown rice. The native rice flour, gelatinized rice flour, and flour gels retrograded under 4 °C for 3 and 7 days were investigated. From the statistical results, significant differences between native and retrograded flour were observed. The concentration of rice flour was the main factor influencing the swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties. With the increase in rice flour content from 10 to 15%, swelling power, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased; but, solubility, pasting temperature, peak time, breakdown, and setback increased. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased as the storage period increased from 3 to 7 days. The retrograded rice flour powders had lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity than the gelatinized and native flour powders. Reduction of starch viscosity by gelatinization and controlling starch retrogradation could allow for increased quantities of rice flour in instant rice beverages. Also, the treatment could increase the energy and nutrient densities of rice beverages without affecting the viscosity of this product.

Keywords: Instant rice, pasting properties, pregelatinization, retrogradation.

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163 Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) Improves Nutrient Contents and Maintains Sensory Properties of Carbohydrate-based Products

Authors: W. I. Wan Rosli, M. S. Aishah

Abstract:

The grey oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC), is a common edible mushroom and is now grown commercially around the world for food. This fungus has been broadly used as food or food ingredients in various food products for a long time. To enhance the nutritional quality and sensory attributes of bakery-based products, PSC powder is used in the present study to partially replace wheat flour in baked product formulations. The nutrient content and sensory properties of rice-porridge and unleavened bread (paratha) incorporated with various levels of PSC powder were studied. These food items were formulated with either 0%, 2%, 4% or 6% of PSC powder. Results show PSC powder recorded β-glucan at 3.57g/100g. In sensory evaluation, consumers gave higher score to both rice-porridge and paratha bread containing 2-4% PSC compared to those that are not added with PSC powder. The paratha containing 4% PSC powder can be formulated with the intention in improving overall acceptability of paratha bread. Meanwhile, for rice-porridge, consumers prefer the formulated product added with 4% PSC powder. In conclusion, the addition of PSC powder to partially wheat flour can be recommended for the purpose of enhancing nutritional composition and maintaining the acceptability of carbohydrate-based products.

Keywords: Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC), nutrient contents, sensory evaluation

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162 Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Flour Residues Hydrolyzed by α-Amylase

Authors: Waranya Pongpaiboon, Warangkana Srichamnong, Supat Chaiyakul

Abstract:

Enzymatic modification of rice flour can produce highly functional derivatives use in food industries. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and resistant starch content of rice flour residues hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Rice flour hydrolyzed by α-amylase (60 and 300 u/g) for 1, 24 and 48 hours were investigated. Increasing enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time resulted in decreased rice flour residue’s lightness (L*) but increased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of rice flour residues. The resistant starch content and peak viscosity increased when hydrolysis time increased. Pasting temperature, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, setback and peak time of the hydrolyzed flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The morphology of native flour was smooth without observable pores and polygonal with sharp angles and edges. However, after hydrolysis, granules with a slightly rough and porous surface were observed and a rough and porous surface was increased with increasing hydrolyzed time. The X-ray diffraction patterns of native flour showed A-type configuration, which hydrolyzed flour showed almost 0% crystallinity indicated that both amorphous and crystalline structures of starch were simultaneously hydrolyzed by α-amylase.

Keywords: α-Amylase, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Pasting properties, Resistant starch

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161 A Tool for Creation Artificial Symbiotic Associations of Wheat

Authors: Zilya R. Vershinina, Andrei K. Baymiev, Aleksei K. Baymiev, Aleksei V. Chemeris

Abstract:

This paper reports optimization of characteristics of bioballistic transformation of spring soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Raduga) and getting of transgenic plants, carrying pea lectin gene. This gene will let to create new associative wheat symbiosis with nodule bacteria of field pea, which has growth encouraging, fungistatic and other useful characteristics.

Keywords: transgenic wheat, pea lectin, rhizobia root colonization, symbiosis

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160 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: A. A. Ladele, N. T. Meludu, O. Ezekiel, T. F. Olaoye, O. M. Okanlawon

Abstract:

Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and microenterprises of sweet potato production. A study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods: oven and sun drying. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, carried out chemical analysis revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: Blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization.

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159 Evaluation of Sensory Attributes of Snack from Maize-Moringa Seed Flour Blends

Authors: O. Aluko, M. R. Brai, A. O. Adelore

Abstract:

Healthy snack (cookie) was produced from corn flour and moringa seed flour blends. The samples were mixed in various proportions and analysed for proximate composition and functional characteristics. The healthy snack (cookies) was evaluated for sensory parameters of Colour, Crispness, Taste, Aroma and Overall Acceptability. The proximate analysis of the flour obtained from different proportion showed that proximate composition increased with increase in substitution level of moringa seed flour especially with protein, fat and crude fibre. The protein contents of samples range from 1.75 to 6.58, fat from 0.60 to 6.80, while fibre from 0.85 to 2.06. There was no significance difference in the functional properties of the blend when compared with 100% corn flour. Sensory evaluation results shows a significant difference in Colour, Taste, Crispness, Aroma and Overall Acceptability of healthy snack (cookies) sample from different blends at 5% significance level.

Keywords: Healthy snack, moringa.

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158 Technological Value of Selected Spring Wheat Cultivars Depending on the Sowing Date

Authors: Marta Wyzińska, Jerzy Grabiński, Alicja Sułek

Abstract:

The grain quality is a decisive factor in its use. In Poland, spring wheat is characterized by more favorable quality parameters in relation to the winter form of this species. In the present study, the effects of three different sowing dates (autumn, delayed autumn, and spring) and cultivar (Tybalt, Cytra, Bombona, Monsun, and Parabola) on the selected technological value parameters of spring wheat over three years were studied. The field trials were carried out in two locations (Bezek, Czesławice) in the Lubelskie Vivodeship, Poland. It was found that the falling number of spring wheat grains from autumn sowing dates was at a similar level to wheat sown in spring. The amount of wet gluten in the grain was variable in years, and its quality was better in wheat sown in spring. Sedimentation index was dependent upon on the cultivar.

Keywords: Sowing term, spring wheat, technological value, quality.

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