Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 276

Search results for: spring wheat

276 Technological Value of Selected Spring Wheat Cultivars Depending on the Sowing Date

Authors: Marta Wyzińska, Jerzy Grabiński, Alicja Sułek

Abstract:

The grain quality is a decisive factor in its use. In Poland, spring wheat is characterized by more favorable quality parameters in relation to the winter form of this species. In the present study, the effects of three different sowing dates (autumn, delayed autumn, and spring) and cultivar (Tybalt, Cytra, Bombona, Monsun, and Parabola) on the selected technological value parameters of spring wheat over three years were studied. The field trials were carried out in two locations (Bezek, Czesławice) in the Lubelskie Vivodeship, Poland. It was found that the falling number of spring wheat grains from autumn sowing dates was at a similar level to wheat sown in spring. The amount of wet gluten in the grain was variable in years, and its quality was better in wheat sown in spring. Sedimentation index was dependent upon on the cultivar.

Keywords: Sowing term, spring wheat, technological value, quality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 522
275 Flour and Bread Quality of Spring Spelt

Authors: E. Siemianowska, K.A. Skibniewska, M. Warechowska, M.F. Jędrzejczak, J. Tyburski

Abstract:

The article contains results of the flour and bread quality assessment from the grains of spring spelt, also called as an ancient wheat. Spelt was cultivated on heavy and medium soils observing principles of organic farming. Based on flour and bread laboratory studies, as well as laboratory baking, the technological usefulness of studied flour has been determined. These results were referred to the standard derived from common wheat cultivated in the same conditions. Grain of spring spelt is a good raw material for manufacturing bread flour, from which to get high-quality bakery products, but this is strictly dependent on the variety of ancient wheat.

Keywords: Bread, dark flour, wholemeal, flour quality, spelt

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1928
274 A Tool for Creation Artificial Symbiotic Associations of Wheat

Authors: Zilya R. Vershinina, Andrei K. Baymiev, Aleksei K. Baymiev, Aleksei V. Chemeris

Abstract:

This paper reports optimization of characteristics of bioballistic transformation of spring soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Raduga) and getting of transgenic plants, carrying pea lectin gene. This gene will let to create new associative wheat symbiosis with nodule bacteria of field pea, which has growth encouraging, fungistatic and other useful characteristics.

Keywords: transgenic wheat, pea lectin, rhizobia root colonization, symbiosis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1316
273 Investigation on the Feasibility of Composite Coil Spring for Automotive Applications

Authors: D. Abdul Budan, T.S. Manjunatha

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the metal coil spring with the composite coil spring. Three different types of springs were made using glass fiber, carbon fiber and combination of glass fiber and carbon fiber. The objective of the study is to reduce the weight of the spring. According to the experimental results the spring rate of the carbon fiber spring is 34% more than the glass fiber spring and 45% more than the glass fiber/carbon fiber spring. The weight of the carbon fiber spring is 18% less than the glass fiber spring, 15% less than the Glass fiber/carbon fiber spring and 80% less than the steel spring.

Keywords: Carbon fiber, Glass fiber, Helical composite spring, spring rate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4171
272 The Impact of Crop Rotation and N Fertilization on the Leaf Area Index, Leaf Disease and Yield of Winter Wheat

Authors: E. Vári, K. Máriás

Abstract:

The research focused on the effects of previous cropping and fertilizers on the LAI, rhythm of the dry matter, leaf disease intensity and amount of yield. Long term field experiments’ results proved that the previous crop fundamentally determines size, rate and dynamics of the dry matter formation in the spring time vegetation period. The LAI index and crop results of winter wheat can be influenced mainly by raising the fertilizer amount. N fertilization has an outstanding role in the changes in leaf area index (LAI), weight of dry matter and yield of winter wheat. According to our results, the interaction effect of leaf area index, weight of dry matter and fertilization resulted in the maximum yield in biculture and triculture.

Keywords: Crop rotation, Leaf Area Index, leaf disease of winter wheat.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1599
271 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M.L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von- Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, Leaf Spring, 65Si7 spring steel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2149
270 Baking Quality of Hulled Wheat Species in Organic Farming

Authors: P. Konvalina, I. Capouchová, Z. Stehno

Abstract:

The organic farmers use wider range of crop varieties than the conventional farming. Bread wheat is the most favorite and the most common food crop. The organic bread wheat is usually of worse technological quality. Therefore, it is supposed to be an attractive alternative to the hulled wheat species (einkorn, emmer wheat and spelt). Twenty-five hulled bread wheat varieties and control bread wheat ones were grown on the certified organic parcel in České Budějovice (the Czech Republic) between 2009 and 2012. Their baking quality was measured and evaluated with standard methods, and in accordance with ICC. The results have shown that the grain of hulled wheat varieties contain a lot of proteins in grains (up to 18 percent); even the organic hulled bread wheat varieties are characterized by such good baking quality. Einkorn and emmer wheat are of worse technological quality of proteins (low values of gluten index and Zeleny test), which is a disadvantage of these two wheat species. On the other hand, spelt wheat is of better technological quality and is similar to the control bread wheat varieties. Mixtures consisting of bread wheat, among others, are considered good alternatives; they may contribute to wider range of use of the hulled wheat species. It is one of the possibilities which may increase the proportion of proteins in bread wheat grains; the nutrition-rich hulled wheat grains may be also used in such way at the same time.

Keywords: Baking quality, organic farming, einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
269 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: Genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2143
268 A Variable Stiffness Approach to Vibration Control

Authors: S. A. Alotaibi, M. A. Al-Ajmi

Abstract:

This work introduces a new concept for controlling the mechanical vibrations via variable stiffness coil spring. The concept relies on fitting a screw though the spring to change the number of active spring coils. A prototype has been built and tested with promising results toward an innovation in the field of vibration control.

Keywords: Variable stiffness, coil spring, vibration control.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1866
267 Disinfestation of Wheat Using Liquid Nitrogen Aeration

Authors: Haiyan. Li, Jitendra. Paliwal, Digvir S. Jayas, Noel D. G. White

Abstract:

A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of liquid nitrogen aeration on mortalities of adult Cryptolestes furrugineus, rusty grain beetles, in a prototype cardboard grain bin equipped with an aeration system. The grain bin was filled with Hard Red Spring wheat and liquid nitrogen was introduced from the bottom of the bin. The survival of both cold acclimated and unacclimated C. furrugineus was tested. The study reveals that cold acclimated insects had higher survival than unacclimated insects under similar cooling conditions. In most cases, mortalities of as high as 100% were achieved at the bottom 100 cm of the grain bin for unacclimated insects for most of the trials. Insect survival increased as the distance from the bottom of the grain bin increased. There was no adverse effect of liquid nitrogen aeration on wheat germination.

Keywords: Cold acclimated, liquid nitrogen aeration, mortalities, rusty grain beetles.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1303
266 Modelling of Energy Consumption in Wheat Production Using Neural Networks “Case Study in Canterbury Province, New Zealand“

Authors: M. Safa, S. Samarasinghe

Abstract:

An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to model the energy consumption of wheat production. This study was conducted over 35,300 hectares of irrigated and dry land wheat fields in Canterbury in the 2007-2008 harvest year.1 In this study several direct and indirect factors have been used to create an artificial neural networks model to predict energy use in wheat production. The final model can predict energy consumption by using farm condition (size of wheat area and number paddocks), farmers- social properties (education), and energy inputs (N and P use, fungicide consumption, seed consumption, and irrigation frequency), it can also predict energy use in Canterbury wheat farms with error margin of ±7% (± 1600 MJ/ha).

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Canterbury, energy consumption, modelling, New Zealand, wheat.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1208
265 Identifying Karst Pattern to Prevent Bell Spring from Being Submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir

Authors: H. Shafaattalab Dehghani, H. R. Zarei

Abstract:

The large karstic Bell spring with a discharge ranging between 250 and 5300 lit/ sec is one of the most important springs of Kermanshah Province. This spring supplies drinking water of Nodsheh City and its surrounding villages. The spring is located in the reservoir of Daryan Dam and its mouth would be submerged after impounding under a water column of about 110 m height. This paper has aimed to render an account of the karstification pattern around the spring under consideration with the intention of preventing Bell Spring from being submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir. The studies comprise engineering geology and hydrogeology investigations. Some geotechnical activities included in these studies include geophysical studies, drilling, excavation of exploratory gallery and shaft and diving. The results depict that Bell is a single-conduit siphon spring with 4 m diameter and 85 m height that 32 m of the conduit is located below the spring outlet. To survive the spring, it was decided to plug the outlet and convey the water to upper elevations under the natural pressure of the aquifer. After plugging, water was successfully conveyed to elevation 837 meter above sea level (about 120 m from the outlet) under the natural pressure of the aquifer. This signifies the accuracy of the studies done and proper recognition of the karstification pattern of Bell Spring. This is a unique experience in karst problems in Iran.

Keywords: Bell spring, karst, Daryan Dam, submerged.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 989
264 Statistical Estimation of Spring-back Degree Using Texture Database

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Shinsaku Kikuta, Jun-ichi Koyama

Abstract:

Using a texture database, a statistical estimation of spring-back was conducted in this study on the basis of statistical analysis. Both spring-back in bending deformation and experimental data related to the crystal orientation show significant dispersion. Therefore, a probabilistic statistical approach was established for the proper quantification of these values. Correlation was examined among the parameters F(x) of spring-back, F(x) of the buildup fraction to three orientations after 92° bending, and F(x) at an as-received part on the basis of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. Consequent spring-back estimation using a texture database yielded excellent estimates compared with experimental values.

Keywords: Bending, Spring-back, Database, Crystallographic Orientation, Texture, SEM-EBSD, Weibull distribution, Statistical analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1549
263 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Phenolics and Tocopherols Enriched Oil from Wheat Bran

Authors: Kyung-Tae Kwon, Md. Salim Uddin, Go-Woon Jung, Jeong-Eun Sim, Byung-Soo Chun

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was used as a solvent to extract oil from wheat bran. Extractions were carried out in a semi-batch process at temperatures ranging from 40 to 60ºC and pressures ranging from 10 to 30 MPa, with a carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate of 26.81 g/min. The oil obtained from wheat bran at different extraction conditions was quantitatively measured to investigate the solubility of oil in SC-CO2. The solubility of wheat bran oil was found to be enhanced in high temperature and pressure. The composition of fatty acids in wheat bran oil was measured by gas chromatography (GC). Linoleic, palmitic, oleic and γ-linolenic acid were the major fatty acids of wheat bran oil. Tocopherol contents in oil were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest amount of phenolics and tocopherols (α and β) were found at temperature of 60ºC and pressure of 30 MPa.

Keywords: Supercritical carbon dioxide, Tocopherols, Totalphenolic content, Wheat bran oil

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2293
262 The Effectiveness of Tebuconazole and Chitosan in Inhibiting the Growth of Fusarium Species on Winter Wheat Grain under Field Conditions

Authors: Urszula Wachowska, Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch, Katarzyna Kucharska

Abstract:

A three-year field experiment (2010-2012) was conducted to determine the abundance of epiphytic and endophytic filamentous fungi colonizing the grain of winter wheat cv. Bogatka. Wheat spikes were protected with tebuconazole or chitosan at the watery ripe stage. Untreated plants served as control. Tebuconazole exerted an inhibitory effect primarily on F. culmorum and F. graminearum, and its effectiveness was determined by the pressure from pathogens that infected wheat spikes during the growing season. Chitosan did not suppress the growth of Fusarium species and Alternaria alternata.

Keywords: Winter wheat, tebuconazole, chitosan, Fusarium.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2095
261 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.

Keywords: Chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, finite element analysis, useful lifetime prediction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2610
260 Assessment of Resistance of Wheat Genotypes (T. aestivum and T. durum) To Boron Toxicity

Authors: M. Rüştü Karaman, Mehmet Zengin, Ayhan Horuz

Abstract:

Research on the boron (B) toxicity problems had recently considerable relation, especially in the dry regions of the world. Development of resistant varieties to B toxicity is a high priority on these regions, where the soils have high levels of B. Thus, this study aimed to assessment the resistance of wheat genotypes to B toxicity using the agronomic and physiologic parameters. For this aim, a pot experiment, based on a completely randomized design with three replications, was conducted using the soil of calcareous usthochrepts. In the study, twenty different wheat genotypes of T. aestivum and T. Durum were used. Boron fertilizer at the levels of 0 (-B), 30 mg B kg-1 (+B) as H3BO3 was applied to the pots. After harvest, plant dry matter yield was recorded, and total B concentrations in tops of wheat plants were determined. The results have revealed the existence of a large genotypic variation among wheat genotypes to their physiologic and agronomic susceptibility to B toxicity.

Keywords: Boron, B toxicity, B uptake, wheat genotypes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1226
259 Induction of alpha-Amylase in Wheat Grain Cultivars as an Indicator of Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

Authors: Aidar A. Khakimzhanov, Vladimir A. Kuzovlev, Nurgul S. Mamytova, Dinara A. Shansharova, Oleg V. Fursov

Abstract:

The influence of humidity and low temperature on the α- amylase activity and isoenzyme composition of grains of different wheat varieties have been studied. The identified samples of varieties have significant difference in the level of enzyme induction under the impact of high humidity and low temperature. It is proposed to use this methodological approach for testing genotypes and wheat breeding lines for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS).

Keywords: α-Amylase, isoenzymes, wheat, pre-harvest sprouting.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1633
258 Identification and Classification of Gliadin Genes in Iranian Diploid Wheat

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Alireza Pour-Aboughadareh

Abstract:

Wheat is the first and the most important grain of the world and its bakery property is due to glutenin and gliadin qualities. Wheat seed proteins were divided into four groups according to solubility including albumin, globulin, glutenin and prolamin or gliadin. Gliadins are major components of the storage proteins in wheat endosperm. It seems that little information is available about gliadin genes in Iranian wild relatives of wheat. Thus, the aim of this study was the evaluation of the wheat wild relatives collected from different origins of Zagros Mountains in Iran, in terms of coding gliadin genes using specific primers. For this, forty accessions of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu were selected for this study. For each accession, genomic DNA was extracted and PCRs were performed in total volumes of 15 μl. The amplification products were separated on 1.5% agarose gels. In results, for Gli-2A locus three allelic variants were detected by Gli-2As primer pairs. The sizes of PCR products for these alleles were 210, 490 and 700 bp. Only five (13%) and two accessions (5%) produced 700 and 490 bp fragments when their DNA was amplified with the Gli.As.2 primer pairs. However, 93% of the accessions carried allele 210 bp, and only 8% did not any product for this marker. Therefore, these germplasm could be used as rich gene pool to broaden the genetic base of bread wheat.

Keywords: Diploied wheat, gliadin, Triticum boeoticum, Triticum urartu.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1731
257 Chemical and Hydro-Geologic Analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring Water in Nigeria

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Folasade Adeyemo, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

This study focuses on the hydro-geology and chemical constituents analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring waters in South West Nigeria. Ikogosi warm spring is a global tourist attraction because it has both warm and cold spring sources. Water samples from the cold spring, warm spring and the meeting point were collected, analyzed and the result shows close similarity in temperature, hydrogen iron concentration (pH), alkalinity, hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, total dissolved solid and heavy metals. The measured parameters in the water samples are within World Health Organisation standards for fresh water. The study of the geology of the warm spring reveals that the study area is underlain by a group of slightly migmatised to non-migmatised paraschists and meta-igneous rocks. Also, concentration levels of selected heavy metals, (Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Arsenic and Cromium) were determined in the water (ppm) samples. Chromium had the highest concentration value of 1.52ppm (an average of 49.67%) and Cadmium had the lowest concentration with value of 0.15ppm (an average of 4.89%). Comparison of these results showed that, their mean levels are within the standard values obtained in Nigeria. It can be concluded that both warm and spring water are safe for drinking.

Keywords: Cold spring, Ikogosi, melting point, warm spring, water samples.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2026
256 Production of Cellulases by Aspergillus Heteromorphus from Wheat Straw under Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Anita Singh, Namita Singh, Narsi R. Bishnoi

Abstract:

To investigate the production of cellulases from Aspergillus heteromorphus, submerged fermentation was performed using wheat straw as substrate. Optimization of saccharification conditions like pH, temperature and time were studied. Highest reducing sugar was released on 5th day at 5 pH, 30° C temperature. When A. heteromorphous was grown on wheat straw in submerged fermentation after 5 days incubation at 30 ° C, 3.2 IU/ml and 83 IU/ml, filter paper activity and CMCase activity respectively.

Keywords: Aspergillus heteromorphus, Wheat Straw, Submerged Fermentation, Production of Cellulases

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2081
255 Performance of Ripped and Unripped Plantain-Wheat Flour Blend in Biscuit production

Authors: Idoko J. O., Nwajiaku I.

Abstract:

Unripe and ripe plantain were dried and milled into flour and used with wheat flour in biscuit production to determine the best plantain-wheat composite flour for biscuit production. The blends as follows: 100% wheat flour, 100% ripe plantain flour, 100% unripe plantain flour, 50% wheat flour and 50% ripe plantain flour and 50% wheat flour and 50% unripe plantain flour. The Biscuit samples were stored at ambient temperature for 8 weeks after which the equilibrium moisture content and water activity were determined. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also determined. The results of these analyses showed 100% unripe plantain flour as the most stable of the BISCUIT samples judging from its equilibrium moisture content level of 0.32% and water activity of 0.62. The sensory evaluation results showed Biscuit made from 150:50 ripe plantain and wheat flour as most generally accepted at 5% level of significance.

Keywords: Biscuit, equilibrium moisture content, performance, plantain, water activity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3601
254 Evaluation of Baking Properties and Sensory Quality of Wheat-Cowpea Flour

Authors: Mohamed A. Ahmed, Lydia J. Campbell

Abstract:

The fortified of soft wheat flour with cowpea flour in bread making was investigated. The Soft wheat flour (SWF) was substituted by cowpea flour at levels of 5, 15 and 20%. The protein content of composite breads ranged from 6.1 – 9.9%. Significant difference was observed in moisture, protein and crude fibre contents of control (wheat bread) and composite bread at 5% addition of cowpea. Water absorption capacities of composite flours increased with increasing levels of cowpea flour in the blend. The specific loaf volume decreased significantly with increased cowpea content of blends. The overall acceptability of the 5% cowpea flour content of composite bread was not significantly different from the control (Soft Wheat-bread) but there is significantly different with increasing the levels of cowpea flour in the blend more than 5%.

Keywords: Cowpea flour, wheat flour, baking properties, sensory quality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1866
253 Physical and Mental Treatment of Tōji and Local Touristic Strategy in Beppu

Authors: Miho Tsukamoto

Abstract:

Beppu hot spring provides medical treatment as well as comfort visitors and mental easiness for many years. This paper studies hot spring in Beppu and Tōji, medical treatment in hot spring, and investigates how people’s visit to Beppu has changed with Tōji, and how Beppu Tourism Office tries to regain visitors in Beppu. In this paper, firstly, hot spring history in Beppu will be explained especially focusing on Beppu Hattou (eight major hot springs) and Jigoku Meguri (eight major hell hot spring tours). Secondly, Tōji, a long-residential hot spring with the purpose of medical treatment along with the information about chemical efficacy of hot springs will be analyzed. Then, finally, the change of the long-stay type to short-stay Onsen programs with the combination of multiplex tourism resources will be focused along with the decrease of Onsen or hot spring visitors. It is concluded that Tōji is not only physically and mentally cure people but also bring people mental easiness and release them from their stressful life. All in all, it can be concluded that because Onsen is involved in people’s life in Beppu and keep local people united in the community. Tōji’s attraction is shown when local people try to create the new type of Onsen program so as to keep their traditional way of Tōji.

Keywords: Hot spring, Tōji, Treatment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1283
252 Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Yields and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat under Different Environmental Conditions

Authors: Alicja Sułek, Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak, Marta Wyzińska, Anna Nieróbca

Abstract:

In 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, a field experiment was conducted in two locations: Osiny and Wielichowo (Poland). The two-factor experiment was based on the method of randomized subblocks, in three replications. The first factor (A) was dose of nitrogen fertilization (two levels). The second factor (B) was nine winter wheat cultivars. It was found that winter wheat cultivars exhibited different reactions to higher nitrogen fertilization depending on the years and localities. Only KWS Dacanto cultivar under all growing conditions showed a significant increase in grain yield after the application of a higher level of nitrogen fertilization. The increase in nitrogen fertilization influenced the increase in gluten proteins content in wheat grain, but these changes were statistically significant only in the first year of the study. The quality of gluten does not depend on nitrogen fertilization. The quality of wheat grain depends on cultivars.

Keywords: Fertilization, grain quality, winter wheat, yield.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 468
251 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: Vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1679
250 Precipitation Change and its Implication in the Change of Winter Wheat drought and Production in North China Region from 2000 to 2010

Authors: Y. Huang, Q. J. Tian, L. T. Du, J. Liu, S. S. Li

Abstract:

Understanding how precipitation inter-annually changes and its implication in agricultural drought and production change in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth season is critical for crop production in China. MODIS Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and daily mean precipitation time series for the main growth season(Feb. to May) of winter wheat from 2000 to 2010 were used to analyze the distribution of trends of precipitation, agricultural drought and winter wheat yield change respectively, and relationships between them in North China region(Huang-huai-hai region, HHH region), China. The results indicated that the trend of precipitation in HHH region past 11 years was increasing, which had induced generally corresponding decreasing trend of agricultural drought and increasing trend of wheat yield, while the trend of drought was spatially diverse. The study could provide a basis for agricultural drought research during winter wheat season in HHH region under the ground of climate change.

Keywords: drought, MODIS, precipitation change, TVDI, winter wheat production

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1393
249 Development and Characterization of Wheat Bread with Lupin Flour

Authors: Paula M. R. Correia, Marta Gonzaga, Luis M. Batista, Luísa Beirão-Costa, Raquel F. P. Guiné

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-chemical and sensorial properties. The water absorption of wheat flour with 10% of lupin was higher than that of the normal wheat flours, and Wheat Ceres flour presented the lower value, with lower dough development time and high stability time. The breads presented low moisture but a considerable water activity. The density of bread decreased with the introduction of lupin flour. The breads were quite white, and during storage the colour parameters decreased. The lupin flour clearly increased the number of alveolus, but the total area increased significantly just for the Wheat Cerealis bread. The addition of lupin flour increased the hardness and chewiness of breads, but the elasticity did not vary significantly. Lupin bread was sensorially similar to wheat bread produced with WCerealis flour, and the main differences are the crust rugosity, colour and alveolus characteristics.

Keywords: Lupin flour, physical-chemical properties, sensorial analysis, wheat flour.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2024
248 Wheat Bran Carbohydrates as Substrate for Bifidobacterium lactis Development

Authors: V. Radenkovs, D. Klava, K. Juhnevica

Abstract:

The present study addresses problems and solutions related to new functional food production. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) bran obtained from industrial mill company “Dobeles dzirnavieks”, was used to investigate them as raw material like nutrients for Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran starch was carried out by α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Sigma Aldrich). The Viscozyme L purchased from (Sigma Aldrich) were used for reducing released sugar. Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 purchased from (Probio-Tec® CHR Hansen) was cultivated in enzymatically hydrolysed wheat bran mash. All procedures ensured the number of active Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in the final product reached 105 CFUg-1. After enzymatic and bacterial fermentations sample were freeze dried for analysis of chemical compounds. All experiments were performed at Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture in January- March 2013. The obtained results show that both types of wheat bran (enzymatically treated and non-treated) influenced the fermentative activity and number of Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 viable in wheat bran mash. Amount of acidity strongly increase during the wheat bran mash fermentation. The main objective of this work was to create low-energy functional enzymatically and bacterially treated food from wheat bran using enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and following cultivation of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12.

Keywords: Viscozyme L, α-amylase, Bifidobacterium lactis, fermented wheat bran.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2497
247 Study of Water Relations, Chlorophyll and their Correlations with Grain Yield in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes

Authors: Mokhtar Ghobadi, Saeed Khosravi, Danial Kahrizi, Firooz Shirvani

Abstract:

The objective of this experiment was to study of water relations and chlorophyll in different wheat genotypes and their correlations with grain and biological yields. 21 genotypes of bread wheat were compared in a field experiment as randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The results showed that relative water deficit, relative water loss, excised leaf water retention, cell membrane stability, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, grain yield and biological yield were different significantly among wheat genotypes, but SPAD-chlorophyll index, relative water content and chlorophyll florescence were not. Significant correlations were not observed among above mentioned water relations and chlorophyll characteristics with grain yield, but there was a positive and significant correlation between biological yield and grain yield.

Keywords: Wheat, water relations, chlorophyll, yield

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2011