Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30578
Baking Quality of Hulled Wheat Species in Organic Farming

Authors: P. Konvalina, I. Capouchová, Z. Stehno


The organic farmers use wider range of crop varieties than the conventional farming. Bread wheat is the most favorite and the most common food crop. The organic bread wheat is usually of worse technological quality. Therefore, it is supposed to be an attractive alternative to the hulled wheat species (einkorn, emmer wheat and spelt). Twenty-five hulled bread wheat varieties and control bread wheat ones were grown on the certified organic parcel in České Budějovice (the Czech Republic) between 2009 and 2012. Their baking quality was measured and evaluated with standard methods, and in accordance with ICC. The results have shown that the grain of hulled wheat varieties contain a lot of proteins in grains (up to 18 percent); even the organic hulled bread wheat varieties are characterized by such good baking quality. Einkorn and emmer wheat are of worse technological quality of proteins (low values of gluten index and Zeleny test), which is a disadvantage of these two wheat species. On the other hand, spelt wheat is of better technological quality and is similar to the control bread wheat varieties. Mixtures consisting of bread wheat, among others, are considered good alternatives; they may contribute to wider range of use of the hulled wheat species. It is one of the possibilities which may increase the proportion of proteins in bread wheat grains; the nutrition-rich hulled wheat grains may be also used in such way at the same time.

Keywords: Organic Farming, spelt, einkorn, Baking quality, emmer wheat

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1493


[1] H. Willer, L. Kilcher, The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends 2009. Bonn, Frick, D, CH: IFOAM, FiBL, 2009.
[2] E. Suchowilska, W. Kandler, M. Sulyok, M. Wiwart, R. Krska, "Mycotoxins profiles in the grain of Triticum monococcum, Triticum diccocum and Triticum spelta after head infection with Fusarium culmorum." J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 90, 556-565, 2009.
[3] H. Wieser, K. J. Mueller, P. Koehler, "Studies on the protein composition and baking quality of einkorn lines," Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 229, pp. 523-532, 2009.
[4] Z. Stehno, "Možnosti p─østov├ín├¡ a využit├¡ pluchat├¢ch p┼íenic," in Proc. P─østov├ín├¡ a využit├¡ n─økter├¢ch opom├¡jen├¢ch a netradi─ìn├¡ch plodin v ─îR, Prague, 2001, pp. 4-7.
[5] M. Marconi, R. Cubadda, "Emmer wheat," in Speciality grains for food and feed, In: E-S. M. Abdel-Aal, P. Wood, Eds. St. Paul: American Association of Cereal Chemists, 2005, pp 63-108.
[6] S. Marino, R. Tognetti, A. Alvino, "Crop yield and grain quality of emmer populations grown in central Italy, as affected by nitrogen fertilization," Eur. J. Agron., vol. 31, pp. 233-240, 2009.
[7] A. Giuliani, A. Karagöz, N. Zencirci, "Emmer (Triticum dicoccon) Production and Market Potential in Marginal Mountainous Areas of Turkey," Mt. Res. Dev., vol. 29, pp. 220-229, 2009.
[8] M. Feldman, "Origin of Cultivated Wheat," in The World Wheat Book: A History of Wheat Breeding, H. P. Bojean, W. J. Angus, Eds. Paris: Lavoiser Publishing, 2001, pp. 3-56.
[9] A. Troccoli, P. Codianni, "Appropriate seeding rate for einkorn, emmer, and spelt grown under rainfed condition in southern Italy," Eur. J. Agron., vol. 22, pp. 293-300, 2005.
[10] M. Zaharieva, N. G. Ayana, A. Al Hakimi, S. C. Misra, P. Monneveux, "Cultivated Emmer Wheat (Triticum diccocum Schrank), an Old Crop with a Promising Future: a Review," Gen. Res. Crop Evol., vol. 57, pp. 937-962, 2010.
[11] E. M. Færgestad, E. L. Molteberg, E. M. Magnus, "Interrelationships of Protein Composition, Protein Level, Baking Process and the Characteristics of Hearth Bread and Pan Bread," J. Cereal Sci., vol. 31, pp. 309-320, 2000.
[12] L. Dotla─ìil, J. Hermuth, Z. Stehno, V. Dvoř├í─ìek, J. Bradov├í, L. Lei┼íov├í, "How can wheat landraces contribute to present breeding?" Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed., vol. 46 (Special issue), pp. 70-74, 2010.
[13] H. Grausgruber, C. Sailer, G. Ghambashidze, L. Bolyos, P. Ruckenbauer, ÔÇ×Genetic variation in agronomic and qualitative traits of ancient wheat," in Proc. Genetic variation for plant breeding, Proceedings of the 17th EUCARPIA General Congress, Vienna, 2004, pp. 19-22.
[14] M. G. D-Egidio, S. Nardi, V. Vallega, "Grain, flour and dough characteristics of selected strains of diploid wheat, Triticum monococum L.," Cereal Chem., vol. 70, pp. 298-303, 1993.
[15] E-S. M., Abdel-Aal, P., Hucl, F. W. Sosulski, P. R. Bhirud, "Kernel, milling and baking properties of spring-type spelt and einkorn wheats," J. Cereal Sci., vol. 26, pp. 363-370, 1997.
[16] M. Corbellini, S. Empilli, P. Vaccino, A. Brandolini, B. Borghi, M. Heun, F. Salamini, "Einkorn characterization for bread and cookie production in relation to protein subunit composition," Cereal Chem., vol. 76, pp. 727-733, 1999.
[17] M. Wiwart, J. Perkowski, W. Budzyński, E. Suchowilska, M. Buśko, A. Matysiak, "Concentrations of ergosterol and trichothecenes in the grains of three Triticum species," Czech J. Food Sci., vol. 29, pp. 430-440, 2011.
[18] J. Zimolka, S. Edler, L. Hřivna, J. J├ínsk├¢, P. Kraus, J. Mare─ìek, F. Novotn├¢, R. Richter, K. ┼ÿ├¡ha, F. Tich├¢, P┼íenice - p─østov├ín├¡, hodnocen├¡ a užit├¡ zrna. Praha, CZ: Profi Press, 2005.