Search results for: Sowing term
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 980

Search results for: Sowing term

980 Effects of Sowing Time on Yield and Oil Content of Different Sunflower Genotypes in Years with Different Water Supply

Authors: A. Novák, K. Máriás

Abstract:

We examined the effects of the sowing time on the yield production and oil content of the sunflower hybrids in 2010 and 2012. The crop year and the sowing time had both a strong impact on the yield, on the oil- content and yield. By delaying the sowing time both the yield crop result and the oil yield increased. In 2010 in terms of crop yield and oil yield results PR64H42 was the best, in 2012 NK Neoma, in all three sowing times. The oil content of the hybrids was better in 2010. The highest oil content was recorded at early sowing time. We found out that the hybrid had a stronger impact in 2010 on both crop yield result and on oil content than in 2012. The sowing time played a bigger role regarding yield results in 2012. In addition the sowing time influenced oil content development highly.

Keywords: Genotypes, oil content, sowing time, sunflower, yield.

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979 The Effects of Sowing Dates and Densities on Yield and Yield Components of Coriander(Coriandrum sativum L.)

Authors: M. E. Ghobadi, M. Ghobadi

Abstract:

Sowing date and density are two important factors in produce of coriander. A field experiment was conducted with treatments: sowing time (5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 19 June 2009) and plant density (10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2). The experimental plots were laid out in a factorial according to a RCBD with three replications. Results showed that the effect of sowing dates and densities were significant on grain yield and yield components, but interaction effects between sowing time and density were non significant for all of traits in this trial. At sowing times 5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 19 June, grain yield obtained 736.9, 837.8, 1003.1 and 1299.6 kg ha-1, respectively. At 10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2, grain yield were 794.9, 1031.0, 1092.3 and 959.3 kg ha-1, respectively. In this experiment, sowing at 19 June and 50 and 30 plants m-2 had the most grain yield.

Keywords: Coriander, sowing date, plant density, yield andyield components.

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978 Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Oil Yield of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

Authors: Ö. Öztürk, G. P. Gerem, A. Yenici, B. Haspolat

Abstract:

Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the important non-edible oilseed crops having immense industrial and medicinal value. Oil yield per unit area is the ultimate target in growing oilseed plants and sowing date is one of the important factors which have a clear role on production of active substances particularly in oilseeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date on the seed and oil yield of castor in Central Anatolia of Turkey in 2011. The field experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Black Diamond-2 castor cultivar was used as plant material. The treatment was four sowing dates of May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25. In this research; seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the effect of different sowing dates were significant on all of characteristics. In general; delayed sowing dates, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha-1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha-1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha-1, 43.67%, 677.3 kg ha-1) were recorded from the latest sowing date (June 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that early May could be recommended as an appropriate sowing date in the studied location and similar climates for achieved high oil yield of castor.

Keywords: Castor bean, Ricinus communis L., sowing date, seed yield, oil content.

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977 Technological Value of Selected Spring Wheat Cultivars Depending on the Sowing Date

Authors: Marta Wyzińska, Jerzy Grabiński, Alicja Sułek

Abstract:

The grain quality is a decisive factor in its use. In Poland, spring wheat is characterized by more favorable quality parameters in relation to the winter form of this species. In the present study, the effects of three different sowing dates (autumn, delayed autumn, and spring) and cultivar (Tybalt, Cytra, Bombona, Monsun, and Parabola) on the selected technological value parameters of spring wheat over three years were studied. The field trials were carried out in two locations (Bezek, Czesławice) in the Lubelskie Vivodeship, Poland. It was found that the falling number of spring wheat grains from autumn sowing dates was at a similar level to wheat sown in spring. The amount of wet gluten in the grain was variable in years, and its quality was better in wheat sown in spring. Sedimentation index was dependent upon on the cultivar.

Keywords: Sowing term, spring wheat, technological value, quality.

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976 The Effect of Sowing Time on Phytopathogenic Characteristics and Yield of Sunflower Hybrids

Authors: Adrienn Novák

Abstract:

The field research was carried out at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen in Eastern-Hungary, on the area of the aeolain loess of the Hajdúság. We examined the effects of the sowing time on the phytopathogenic characteristics and yield production by applying various fertilizer treatments on two different sunflower genotypes (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We applied three different sowing times (early, optimal, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control = no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection).

During our investigations, the studied cropyears were of different sowing time optimum in terms of yield amount (2012: early, 2013: average). By Pearson’s correlation analysis, we have found that delaying the sowing time pronouncedly decreased the extent of infection in both crop years (Diaporthe: r=0.663**, r=0.681**, Sclerotinia: r=0.465**, r=0.622**). The fungicide treatment not only decreased the extent of infection, but had yield increasing effect too (2012: r=0.498**, 2013: r=0.603**). In 2012, delaying of the sowing time increased (r=0.600**), but in 2013, it decreased (r= 0.356*) the yield amount.

Keywords: Fungicide treatment, genotypes, sowing time, yield, sunflower.

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975 Effects of Winter and Spring Sowing on Yield Components of Safflower Genotypes

Authors: Rahim Ada

Abstract:

The research was conducted with three replications as “Randomized Block Design” in Konya-Turkey ecological conditions. In the study, 16 of promising safflower lines (A8, E1, F4, F6, G16, H14, I1), and 1 cultivar (Dinçer) were evaluated in 2008-09 growing season. Some of the yield components such as plant height (cm), first branch height (cm), number of branches per plant, 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield (kg ha-1), oil content (%), oil yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Winter sowing showed higher values than spring sowing. The highest values were taken from Dinçer for plant height (86.7 cm), E1 (37.5 cm) for first branch height, F6 for number of branch (11.6 per plant), I1 for number of head (24.9 per plant), A8 for 1000 seed weight (51.75 g), Dinçer for seed yield (2927.1 kg ha-1), oil content (28.79 %) and also for oil yield (87.44 kg ha-1) respectively.

Keywords: Oil yield, Safflower, Sowing time, Yield components

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974 Correlation between the Sowing Date and the Yield of Maize on Chernozem Soil, in Connection with the Leaf Area Index and the Photosynthesis

Authors: E. Bene

Abstract:

Our sowing date experiment took place in the Demonstration Garden of Institution of Plant Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen, in 2012-2014. The paper contains data of test year 2014. Our purpose, besides several other examinations, was to observe how sowing date influences the leaf area index and the activity of photosynthesis of maize hybrids, and how those factors affect fruiting. In the experiment we monitored the change of the leaf area index and the photosynthesis of hybrids with four different growing seasons. The results obtained confirm that not only the environmental and agricultural factors in the growing season have effect on the yield, but also other factors like the leaf area index and the photosynthesis are determinative parameters, and all those factors together, modifying the effects of each other, develop average yields.

Keywords: Sowing date, hybrid, leaf area index, photosynthetic capacity.

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973 Effects of Late Sowing on Quality of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Authors: Mohammad-Eghbal Ghobadi, Mokhtar Ghobadi

Abstract:

Coriander is an annual and herbaceous plant, belong to the apiaceae family. This plant is cultivated world widely. It is well known for having medicinal properties. The aim of this experiment was to study seed quality of species grown in Kermanshah conditions. The experiment was carried out in research farm, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Coriander (local type) was grown in late spring May (5th and 20th) and Jun (4th and 19th), and plant density (10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2) in 2009. The experimental plots were laid out in a factorial according to a randomized complete block design with three replications. The fruits were harvest between 83.5 – 106.5 days after sowing. The essential oil and oil content was extracted by Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatuses, respectively. Results showed that delay at planting date increased the oil content. Also, with the increase at plant density was decreased oil content and essential oil.

Keywords: coriander, late sowing, plant density, oil content, essential oil

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972 Inner Quality Parameters of Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Populations in Different Sowing Technology Models

Authors: É. Vincze

Abstract:

Demand on plant oils has increased to an enormous extent that is due to the change of human nutrition habits on the one hand, while on the other hand to the increase of raw material demand of some industrial sectors, just as to the increase of biofuel production. Besides the determining importance of sunflower in Hungary the production area, just as in part the average yield amount of rapeseed has increased among the produced oil crops. The variety/hybrid palette has changed significantly during the past decade. The available varieties’/hybrids’ palette has been extended to a significant extent. It is agreed that rapeseed production demands professionalism and local experience. Technological elements are successive; high yield amounts cannot be produced without system-based approach. The aim of the present work was to execute the complex study of one of the most critical production technology element of rapeseed production, that was sowing technology. Several sowing technology elements are studied in this research project that are the following: biological basis (the hybrid Arkaso is studied in this regard), sowing time (sowing time treatments were set so that they represent the wide period used in industrial practice: early, optimal and late sowing time) plant density (in this regard reaction of rare, optimal and too dense populations) were modelled. The multifactorial experimental system enables the single and complex evaluation of rapeseed sowing technology elements, just as their modelling using experimental result data. Yield quality and quantity have been determined as well in the present experiment, just as the interactions between these factors. The experiment was set up in four replications at the Látókép Plant Production Research Site of the University of Debrecen. Two different sowing times were sown in the first experimental year (2014), while three in the second (2015). Three different plant densities were set in both years: 200, 350 and 500 thousand plants ha-1. Uniform nutrient supply and a row spacing of 45 cm were applied. Winter wheat was used as pre-crop. Plant physiological measurements were executed in the populations of the Arkaso rapeseed hybrid that were: relative chlorophyll content analysis (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurement. Relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) were monitored in 7 different measurement times.

Keywords: Inner quality, plant density, rapeseed, sowing time.

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971 Investigation on the Effectiveness of Zinc Sulphate and Biofertilizer on Mustard Plant

Authors: Khin S. Aye

Abstract:

The present work was conducted to find out the effect of biofertilizer formulated with four species of bacteria (two species of Azotobacter and two species of Lysobacter) and zinc sulphate. Field experiments with mustard plant were conducted to study the effectiveness of soil application of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after sowing. Plant height and condition of plant was found to be increased significantly using a mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate than other treatments after 40 days sowing. Three treatments were also used in this field experiment such as bacteria only, zinc sulphate only and mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate. The treatment using a mixture of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer had the best yield (4688.008 kg/ha) within 50 days of sowing and performed better than other treatments. Field experiment using zinc sulphate only was second best yield (3380.75Kg/ha) and biofertilizer only treatment gave (2639.04kg/ha).

Keywords: biofertilizer, zinc sulphate, mustard plant, bacteria

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970 Effect of Tillage Technology on Species Composition of Weeds in Monoculture of Maize

Authors: S. Chovancova, F. Illek, J. Winkler

Abstract:

The effect of tillage technology of maize on intensity of weed infestation and weed species composition was observed at experimental field. Maize is grown consecutively since 2001. The experimental site is situated at an altitude of 230 m above sea level in the Czech Republic. Variants of tillage technology are CT: plowing – conventional tillage 0.22 m, MT: loosening – disc tillage on the depth of 0.1 – 0.12 m, NT: direct sowing – without tillage. The evaluation of weed infestation was carried out by numerical method in years 2012 and 2013. Within the monitoring were found 20 various species of weeds. Conventional tillage (CT) primarily supports the occurrence of perennial weeds (Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis). Late spring species (Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli) were more frequently noticed on variants of loosening (MT) and direct sowing (NT). Different tillage causes a significant change of weed species spectrum in maize.

Keywords: Weeds, maize, tillage, loosening, direct sowing.

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969 The Effect of Pyridoxine and Different Levels of Nitrogen on Physiological Indices of Corn(Zea Mays L.var.sc704)

Authors: Gholamreza Farrokhi, Babak Paykarestan

Abstract:

One field experiment was conducted on corn (Zea mays L.Var. SC 704) to study the effect of three different basic levels of nitrogen (90, 140and 190 Kg/ha as urea) with 0.01% and 0.02% pyridoxine pre-sowing seed soaking for 8 hours. Water-soaked seeds were treated as controled. biomass production was recorded on 45, 70 and 95 days after sowing. Total dry material (TDM), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) was calculated form 45until 95 days after sowing. Yield and its components such as kernel yield, grain weight, biologic yield, harvest index and protein percentage was measured at harvest. In general, 0.02% pyridoxine and 190 Kg pure nitrogen/ha was shown gave maximum value for growth and yield parameters. N190 + 0.02 % pyridoxine enhanced seed yield and biologic yield by 57.15% and 62.98% compared to 90kg N and water – soaked treatment.

Keywords: Corn, Growth Indices, Nitrogen Levels, Physiological Indices, Pyridoxine.

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968 Influence of Combined Drill Coulters on Seedbed Compaction under Conservation Tillage Technologies

Authors: E. Šarauskis, L. Masilionyte, Z. Kriaučiūniene, K. Romaneckas

Abstract:

All over the world, including the Middle and East European countries, sustainable tillage and sowing technologies are applied increasingly broadly with a view to optimising soil resources, mitigating soil degradation processes, saving energy resources, preserving biological diversity, etc. As a result, altered conditions of tillage and sowing technological processes are faced inevitably. The purpose of this study is to determine the seedbed topsoil hardness when using a combined sowing coulter in different sustainable tillage technologies. The research involved a combined coulter consisting of two dissected blade discs and a shoe coulter. In order to determine soil hardness at the seedbed area, a multipenetrometer was used. It was found by experimental studies that in loosened soil, a combined sowing coulter equally suppresses the furrow bottom, walls and soil near the furrow; therefore, here, soil hardness was similar at all researched depths and no significant differences were established. In loosened and compacted (double-rolled) soil, the impact of a combined coulter on the hardness of seedbed soil surface was more considerable at a depth of 2 mm. Soil hardness at the furrow bottom and walls to a distance of up to 26 mm was 1.1 MPa. At a depth of 10 mm, the greatest hardness was established at the furrow bottom. In loosened and heavily compacted (rolled for 6 times) soil, at a depth of 2 and 10 mm a combined coulter most of all compacted the furrow bottom, which has a hardness of 1.8 MPa. At a depth of 20 mm, soil hardness within the whole investigated area varied insignificantly and fluctuated by around 2.0 MPa. The hardness of furrow walls and soil near the furrow was by approximately 1.0 MPa lower than that at the furrow bottom

Keywords: Coulters design, seedbed, soil hardness, combined coulters, soil compaction.

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967 Development and Analysis of a Machine to Equally Apply Mineral Fertilizer to Soil on Slopes

Authors: Qurbanov Huseyn Nuraddin

Abstract:

Reliable food supply of the population of a country is one of the main directions of the state's economic policy. Grain growing, which is the basis of agriculture, is important in this area. In the cultivation of cereals on slopes, the application of equal amounts of mineral fertilizers to under the soil before sowing is a very important technological process. The low level of technical equipment in this area prevents producers from providing the country with the necessary quality cereals. Experience in the operation of modern technical means has shown that at present, there is a need to provide an equal amount of fertilizer to under the soil on slopes, fully meeting the agro-technical requirements. No fundamental changes have been made to the industrial machines that fertilize under the soil, and unequal application of fertilizers to under the soil on slopes has been applied. This technological process leads to the destruction of new seedlings and reduced productivity due to intolerance to frost during the winter for the plant planted in the fall. In special climatic conditions, there is an optimal fertilization rate for each agricultural product. The application of fertilizers to the soil is one of the conditions that increase their efficiency in the field. As can be seen, the development of a new technical proposal for fertilizing and plowing the slopes in equal amounts on the slopes, improving the technological and design parameters, taking into account the physical and mechanical properties of fertilizers, is very important. Taking into account the above-mentioned issues, a combined plough was developed in our laboratory. Combined plough carries out pre-sowing technological operation in the cultivation of cereals, providing a smooth equal amount of mineral fertilizers to under the soil on the slopes. Mathematical models of a smooth spreader that evenly distributes fertilizers in the field have been developed. Thus, diagrams and graphs obtained without distribution on the eight partitions of the smooth spreader are constructed under the inclined angles of the slopes. Percentage and productivity of equal distribution in the field were noted by practical and theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Combined plough, mineral fertilizer, equal sowing, fertilizer norm, grain-crops, sowing fertilizer.

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966 Fenugreek in the Ecological Areas of Belarus and France

Authors: Elena Fauquet-Alekhine-Pavlovskaya, Irina M. Nesterova

Abstract:

On the territory of France fenugreek is spread since long on a line from the Gironde to the Italian border. In Belarus experimental cultivation has begun since 2004. Experiments with fenugreek variety Ovari 4 were conducted about time of sowing in order to study their growth, development, and evaluation of productivity in the North-east part of Belarus and Central part of France. Reaching full ripeness of seeds the plants of fenugreek in the Central part of France requires about 94-97 days. Average seeds yield of 2011-2012 is 1259 kg/ha. Plant height is about 36,8 cm. Plants were affected by aphid and in the high moist agro-climatic conditions by powdery mildew. In North-east part of Belarus plants need 86-93 days to full ripeness. Plants of fenugreek have steam about 59 cm. The average seeds yield of 2007-2009 was about 723 kg/ha. Plants were resistant to aphid and diseases.

Keywords: Fenugreek, time of sowing, variety, yield.

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965 Persistence of Termination for Term Rewriting Systems with Ordered Sorts

Authors: Munehiro Iwami

Abstract:

A property is persistent if for any many-sorted term rewriting system , has the property if and only if term rewriting system , which results from by omitting its sort information, has the property. Zantema showed that termination is persistent for term rewriting systems without collapsing or duplicating rules. In this paper, we show that the Zantema's result can be extended to term rewriting systems on ordered sorts, i.e., termination is persistent for term rewriting systems on ordered sorts without collapsing, decreasing or duplicating rules. Furthermore we give the example as application of this result. Also we obtain that completeness is persistent for this class of term rewriting systems.

Keywords: Theory of computing, Model-based reasoning, term rewriting system, termination

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964 Persistence of Termination for Non-Overlapping Term Rewriting Systems

Authors: Munehiro Iwami

Abstract:

A property is called persistent if for any many-sorted term rewriting system , has the property if and only if term rewriting system , which results from by omitting its sort information, has the property. In this paper,we show that termination is persistent for non-overlapping term rewriting systems and we give the example as application of this result. Furthermore we obtain that completeness is persistent for non-overlapping term rewriting systems.

Keywords: Theory of computing, Model-based reasoning, termrewriting system, termination

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963 Optimization of a Three-Term Backpropagation Algorithm Used for Neural Network Learning

Authors: Yahya H. Zweiri

Abstract:

The back-propagation algorithm calculates the weight changes of an artificial neural network, and a two-term algorithm with a dynamically optimal learning rate and a momentum factor is commonly used. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third term increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and optimization approaches for evaluating the learning parameters are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. This paper considers the optimization of the new back-propagation algorithm by using derivative information. A family of approaches exploiting the derivatives with respect to the learning rate, momentum factor and proportional factor is presented. These autonomously compute the derivatives in the weight space, by using information gathered from the forward and backward procedures. The three-term BP algorithm and the optimization approaches are evaluated using the benchmark XOR problem.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Backpropagation, Optimization.

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962 1/Sigma Term Weighting Scheme for Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Hanan Alshaher, Jinsheng Xu

Abstract:

Large amounts of data on the web can provide valuable information. For example, product reviews help business owners measure customer satisfaction. Sentiment analysis classifies texts into two polarities: positive and negative. This paper examines movie reviews and tweets using a new term weighting scheme, called one-over-sigma (1/sigma), on benchmark datasets for sentiment classification. The proposed method aims to improve the performance of sentiment classification. The results show that 1/sigma is more accurate than the popular term weighting schemes. In order to verify if the entropy reflects the discriminating power of terms, we report a comparison of entropy values for different term weighting schemes.

Keywords: Sentiment analysis, term weighting scheme, 1/sigma.

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961 Long-Term On-Chip Storage and Release of Liquid Reagents for Diagnostic Lab-on-a-Chip Applications

Authors: D. Czurratis, Y. Beyl, S. Zinober, R. Zengerle, F. Lärmer

Abstract:

A new concept for long-term reagent storage for Labon- a-Chip (LoC) devices is described. Here we present a polymer multilayer stack with integrated stick packs for long-term storage of several liquid reagents, which are necessary for many diagnostic applications. Stick packs are widely used in packaging industry for storing solids and liquids for long time. The storage concept fulfills two main requirements: First, a long-term storage of reagents in stick packs without significant losses and interaction with surroundings, second, on demand releasing of liquids, which is realized by pushing a membrane against the stick pack through pneumatic pressure. This concept enables long-term on-chip storage of liquid reagents at room temperature and allows an easy implementation in different LoC devices.

Keywords: Lab-on-a-Chip, long-term storage, reagent storage, stick pack.

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960 Irrigation Scheduling for Maize and Indian-mustard based on Daily Crop Water Requirement in a Semi- Arid Region

Authors: Vijay Shankar, C.S.P. Ojha, K.S. Hari Prasad

Abstract:

Maize and Indian mustard are significant crops in semi-arid climate zones of India. Improved water management requires precise scheduling of irrigation, which in turn requires an accurate computation of daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Daily crop evapotranspiration comes as a product of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and the growth stage specific crop coefficients modified for daily variation. The first objective of present study is to develop crop coefficients Kc for Maize and Indian mustard. The estimated values of Kc for maize at the four crop growth stages (initial, development, mid-season, and late season) are 0.55, 1.08, 1.25, and 0.75, respectively, and for Indian mustard the Kc values at the four growth stages are 0.3, 0.6, 1.12, and 0.35, respectively. The second objective of the study is to compute daily crop evapotranspiration from ET0 and crop coefficients. Average daily ETc of maize varied from about 2.5 mm/d in the early growing period to > 6.5 mm/d at mid season. The peak ETc of maize is 8.3 mm/d and it occurred 64 days after sowing at the reproductive growth stage when leaf area index was 4.54. In the case of Indian mustard, average ETc is 1 mm/d at the initial stage, >1.8 mm/d at mid season and achieves a peak value of 2.12 mm/d on 56 days after sowing. Improved schedules of irrigation have been simulated based on daily crop evapo-transpiration and field measured data. Simulation shows a close match between modeled and field moisture status prevalent during crop season.

Keywords: Crop coefficient, Crop evapotranspiration, Field moisture, Irrigation Scheduling

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959 A New Hybrid Model with Passive Congregation for Stock Market Indices Prediction

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new hybrid learning model for stock market indices prediction by adding a passive congregation term to the standard hybrid model comprising Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with Genetic Algorithm (GA) operators in training Neural Networks (NN). This new passive congregation term is based on the cooperation between different particles in determining new positions rather than depending on the particles selfish thinking without considering other particles positions, thus it enables PSO to perform both the local and global search instead of only doing the local search. Experiment study carried out on the most famous European stock market indices in both long term and short term prediction shows significantly the influence of the passive congregation term in improving the prediction accuracy compared to standard hybrid model.

Keywords: Global Search, Hybrid Model, Passive Congregation, Stock Market Prediction.

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958 Long-term Flexural Behavior of HSC Beams

Authors: Andreea Muntean, Cornelia Măgureanu

Abstract:

This article presents the analysis of experimental values regarding cracking pattern, specific strains and deformability for reinforced high strength concrete beams. The beams have the concrete class C80/95 and a longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 2.01%, respectively 3.39%. The elements were subjected to flexure under static short-term and long-term loading. The experimental values are compared with calculation values using the design relationships according to Eurocode 2.

Keywords: High strength concrete, beams, flexure.

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957 Synchronization of Oestrus in Goats with Progestogen Sponges and Short Term Combined FGA, PGF2α Protocols

Authors: G. Martemucci, D. Casamassima, A. G. D'Alessandro

Abstract:

The study aimed to evaluated the reproductive performance response to short term oestrus synchronization during the transition period. One hundred and sixty-five indigenous multiparous non-lactating goats were subdivided into the following six treatment groups for oestrus synchronization: NT control Group (N= 30), Fe-21d, FGA vaginal sponge for 21days+eCG at 19thd; FPe- 11d, FGA 11d + PGF2α and eCG at 9th d; FPe-10d, FGA 10d+ PGF2α and eCG at 8th d; FPe-9d, FGA 9d +PGF2α and eCG at 7thd; PFe-5d, PGF2α at d0 + FGA 5d + eCG at 5thd. The goats were natural mated (1 male/6 females). Fecundity rates (n. births /n. females treated x 100) were statistically higher (P < 0.05) in short term FPe-9d (157.9%), FPe- 11d (115.4%), FPe-10d (111.1%) and PFe-5d (107.7%) groups compared to the NT control Group (66.7%).

Keywords: Goats, oestrus synchronization, short-term protocols.

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956 The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear Damping Term

Authors: Jaipong Kasemsuwan

Abstract:

A numerical solution of the initial boundary value problem of the suspended string vibrating equation with the particular nonlinear damping term based on the finite difference scheme is presented in this paper. The investigation of how the second and third power terms of the nonlinear term affect the vibration characteristic. We compare the vibration amplitude as a result of the third power nonlinear damping with the second power obtained from previous report provided that the same initial shape and initial velocities are assumed. The comparison results show that the vibration amplitude is inversely proportional to the coefficient of the damping term for the third power nonlinear damping case, while the vibration amplitude is proportional to the coefficient of the damping term in the second power nonlinear damping case.

Keywords: Finite-difference method, the nonlinear damped equation, the numerical simulation, the suspended string equation

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955 Communication Behaviors as Predictors of Long-Term Dyadic Adjustment: Personality as a Moderator

Authors: Ariane Lazaridès, Claude Bélanger, Stéphane Sabourin

Abstract:

In this longitudinal study, we examined the moderating role of personality in the relationship between communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment. A sample of 82 couples completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. These couples were also videotaped during a 15-minute problem-solving discussion. Approximately 2.5 years later, these couples completed again the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results show that personality of both men and women moderates the relationship between communication behaviors of the partner and long-term dyadic adjustment of the individual. Women-s openness and men-s extraversion moderate the relationship between some communication behaviors and long-term dyadic adjustment

Keywords: Communication Behavior, Couples, Dyadic Adjustment, Personality.

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954 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using back propagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a twoterm algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, Backpropagation, Local Minima, Fast Convergence Rate.

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953 Fuzzy Ideology based Long Term Load Forecasting

Authors: Jagadish H. Pujar

Abstract:

Fuzzy Load forecasting plays a paramount role in the operation and management of power systems. Accurate estimation of future power demands for various lead times facilitates the task of generating power reliably and economically. The forecasting of future loads for a relatively large lead time (months to few years) is studied here (long term load forecasting). Among the various techniques used in forecasting load, artificial intelligence techniques provide greater accuracy to the forecasts as compared to conventional techniques. Fuzzy Logic, a very robust artificial intelligent technique, is described in this paper to forecast load on long term basis. The paper gives a general algorithm to forecast long term load. The algorithm is an Extension of Short term load forecasting method to Long term load forecasting and concentrates not only on the forecast values of load but also on the errors incorporated into the forecast. Hence, by correcting the errors in the forecast, forecasts with very high accuracy have been achieved. The algorithm, in the paper, is demonstrated with the help of data collected for residential sector (LT2 (a) type load: Domestic consumers). Load, is determined for three consecutive years (from April-06 to March-09) in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm and to forecast for the next two years (from April-09 to March-11).

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC), Data DependantFactors(DDF), Model Dependent Factors(MDF), StatisticalError(SE), Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF), MiscellaneousError(ME).

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952 Effects of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack Beans (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at Different Spacing and Weeding Regimes on Crops Productivity

Authors: Oluseun S. Oyelakin, Olalekan W. Olaniyi

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Ido town in Ido Local Government Area of Oyo state, Nigeria to determine the effects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L.) at different spacing and weeding regimes on crops productivity. The treatments were 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement involving two spatial crop arrangements. Spacing of 75 cm x 50 cm and 90 cm x 42 cm (41.667 cm) with two plants per stand resulted in plant population of approximately 53,000 plants/hectare. Also, Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two cropping patterns (sole and intercrop), three weeding regimes (weedy check, weeds once, and weed twice) with three replicates was used. Data were analyzed with SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and statistical means separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) (P ≤ 0.05). Intercropping and crop spacing did not have significant influence on the growth parameters and yield parameters. The maize grain yield of 1.11 t/ha obtained under sole maize was comparable to 1.05 t/ha from maize/jack beans. Weeding regime significantly influenced growth and yields of maize in intercropping with Jack beans. Weeding twice resulted in significantly higher growth than that of the other weeding regimes. Plant height at 6 Weeks After Sowing (WAS) under weeding twice regime (3 and 6 WAS) was 83.9 cm which was significantly different from 67.75 cm and 53.47 cm for weeding once (3 WAS) and no weeding regimes respectively. Moreover, maize grain yield of 1.3 t/ha obtained from plots weeded twice was comparable to that of 1.23 t/ha from single weeding and both were significantly higher than 0.71 t/ha maize grain yield obtained from the no weeding control. The dry matter production of Jack beans reduced at some growth stages due to intercropping of maize with Jack beans though with no significance effect on the other growth parameters of the crop. There was no effect on the growth parameters of Jack beans in maize/jack beans intercrop based on cropping spacing while comparable growth and dry matter production in Jack beans were produced in maize/Jack beans mixture with single weeding.

Keywords: Crop spacing, intercropping, growth parameter, weeding regime, sole cropping, week after sowing.

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951 Effect of Different Tillage Systems on Soil Properties and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

Authors: P. I. Moraru, T. Rusu

Abstract:

Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and crop yield. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1 - to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System (CS), Minimum Tillage (MT), No-Tillage (NT)) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2- to establish the effect of the changes on the production of wheat, maize and soybean. Five treatments were installed: CS-plough; MT-paraplow, chisel, rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this; soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. Water dynamics and soil temperature showed no differences on the effect of crop yields. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the four conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. Although wheat production at MT and NT applications, had no significant differences soybean production was significantly affected from MT and NT applications. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility.

Keywords: Soil tillage, soil properties, yield.

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