Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2603

Search results for: retort thermal treatment and packaging.

2603 Quality Evaluation of Ready to Eat Potatoes’ Produce in Flexible Packaging

Authors: Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Aija Ruzaike, Lija Dukalska, Ilze Stokmane, Liene Strauta

Abstract:

Experiments have been carried out at the Latvia University of Agriculture Department of Food Technology. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of thermal treatment in flexible retort pouch packaging on the quality of potatoes’ produce during the storage time. Samples were evaluated immediately after retort thermal treatment; and following 1; 2; 3 and 4 storage months at the ambient temperature of +18±2ºC in vacuum packaging from polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) and aluminum/polyethylene (Al/PE) film pouches with barrier properties. Experimentally the quality of the potatoes’ produce in dry butter and mushroom dressings was characterized by measuring pH, hardness, color, microbiological properties and sensory evaluation. The sterilization was effective in protecting the produce from physical, chemical, and microbial quality degradation. According to the study of obtained data, it can be argued that the selected product processing technology and packaging materials could be applied to provide the safety and security during four-month storage period.

Keywords: Potatoes’ produce, shelf life, retort thermal treatment and packaging.

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2602 Biodegradable Cellulose-Based Materials for the Use in Food Packaging

Authors: Azza A. Al-Ghamdi, Abir S. Abdel-Naby

Abstract:

Cellulose acetate (CA) is a natural biodegradable polymer. It forms transparent films by the casting technique. CA suffers from high degree of water permeability as well as the low thermal stability at high temperatures. To adjust the CA polymeric films to the manufacture of food packaging, its thermal and mechanical properties should be improved. The modification of CA by grafting it with N-Amino phenyl maleimide (N-APhM) led to the construction of hydrophobic branches throughout the polymeric matrix which reduced its wettability as compared to the parent CA. The branches built onto the polymeric chains had been characterized by UV/Vis, 13C-NMR and ESEM. The improvement of the thermal properties was investigated and compared to the parent CA using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), contact angle and mechanical testing measurements. The results revealed that the water-uptake was reduced by increasing the graft percentage. The thermal and mechanical properties were also improved.

Keywords: Cellulose acetate, food packaging, graft copolymerization.

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2601 Thermal Treatment Influence on the Quality of Rye Bread Packaged in Different Polymer Films

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Lija Dukalska, Olga Petrova, Dace Klava, Emils Kozlinskis, Martins Sabovics

Abstract:

this study was carried out to investigate the changes in quality parameters of rye bread packaged in different polymer films during convection air-flow thermal treatment process. Whole loafs of bread were placed in polymer pouches, which were sealed in reduced pressure air ambiance, bread was thermally treated in at temperature +(130; 140; and 150) ± 5 ºC within 40min, as long as the core temperature of the samples have reached accordingly +80±1 ºC. For bread packaging pouches were used: anti-fog Mylar®OL12AF and thermo resistant combined polymer material. Main quality parameters was analysed using standard methods: temperature in bread core, bread crumb and crust firmness value, starch granules volume and microflora. In the current research it was proved, that polymer films significantly influence rye bread quality parameters changes during thermal treatment. Thermo resistant combined polymer material film could be recommendable for packaged rye bread pasteurization, for maximal bread quality parameter keeping.

Keywords: bread, thermal treatment, bread crumb, bread crust, starch granule's volume.

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2600 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant

Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam

Abstract:

Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.

Keywords: Thermal power plant, lignite coal, pre-treatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, waste water, process water.

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2599 Packaging and Interconnection Technologies of Power Devices, Challenges and Future Trends

Authors: Raed A. Amro

Abstract:

Standard packaging and interconnection technologies of power devices have difficulties meeting the increasing thermal demands of new application fields of power electronics devices. Main restrictions are the decreasing reliability of bond-wires and solder layers with increasing junction temperature. In the last few years intensive efforts have been invested in developing new packaging and interconnection solutions which may open a path to future application of power devices. In this paper, the main failure mechanisms of power devices are described and principle of new packaging and interconnection concepts and their power cycling reliability are presented.

Keywords: Power electronics devices, Reliability, Power Cycling, Low-temperature joining technique (LTJT)

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2598 Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper

Authors: Tahany W. Sadak

Abstract:

Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec.  Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.

Keywords: Copper, hardness, heat treatment, thermal fatigue, thermal analysis.

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2597 Uniform Heating during Focused Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

Authors: To-Yuan Chen, Tzu-Ching Shih, Hao-Li Liu, Kuen-Cheng Ju

Abstract:

The focal spot of a high intensity focused ultrasound transducer is small. To heat a large target volume, multiple treatment spots are required. If the power of each treatment spot is fixed, it could results in insufficient heating of initial spots and over-heating of later ones, which is caused by the thermal diffusion. Hence, to produce a uniform heated volume, the delivered energy of each treatment spot should be properly adjusted. In this study, we proposed an iterative, extrapolation technique to adjust the required ultrasound energy of each treatment spot. Three different scanning pathways were used to evaluate the performance of this technique. Results indicate that by using the proposed technique, uniform heating volume could be obtained.

Keywords: focused ultrasound, thermal therapy, uniform heating, iteration, extrapolation, scan

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2596 Shelf Life Extension of Milk Pomade Sweet – Sherbet with Crunchy Peanut Chips by MAP in Various Packaging Materials

Authors: Eva Vorma, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska, Janis Skalbe

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to evaluate the hardness stability of milk pomade sweets packed in several packaging materials (OPP, Multibarrier 60 HFP, BIALON 65 HFP, BIALON 50 HFP, ECOLEAN) by several packaging technologies – modified atmosphere (MAP) (consisting of 30% CO2+70% N2; 30% N2+70% CO2 and 100% CO2) and control – in air ambiance. Samples were stored at the room temperature +21±1 °C. The studies of the samples were carried out before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 storage weeks.

Keywords: packaging, shelf life, sherbet with crunchy peanutchips, hardness.

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2595 Physicochemical Stability of Pulse Spreads during Storage after Sous Vide Treatment and High Pressure Processing

Authors: Asnate Kirse, Daina Karklina, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Ruta Galoburda

Abstract:

Pulses are high in plant protein and dietary fiber, and contain slowly digestible starches. Innovative products from pulses could increase their consumption and benefit consumer health. This study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical stability of processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Fradel) and maple pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L. cv. Bruno) spreads at 5 °C temperature during 62-day storage. Physicochemical stability of pulse spreads was compared after sous vide treatment (80 °C/15 min) and high pressure processing (700 MPa/10 min/20 °C). Pulse spreads were made by homogenizing cooked pulses in a food processor together with salt, citric acid, oil, and bruschetta seasoning. A total of four different pulse spreads were studied: Cowpea spread without and with seasoning, maple pea spread without and with seasoning. Transparent PA/PE and light proof PET/ALU/PA/PP film pouches were used for packaging of pulse spreads under vacuum. The parameters investigated were pH, water activity and mass losses. Pulse spreads were tested on days 0, 15, 29, 42, 50, 57 and 62. The results showed that sous-vide treatment and high pressure processing had an insignificant influence on pH, water activity and mass losses after processing, irrespective of packaging material did not change (p>0.1). pH and water activity of sous-vide treated and high pressure processed pulse spreads in different packaging materials proved to be stable throughout the storage. Mass losses during storage accounted to 0.1% losses. Chosen sous-vide treatment and high pressure processing regimes and packaging materials are suitable to maintain consistent physicochemical quality of the new products during 62-day storage.

Keywords: Cowpea, flexible packaging, maple pea, pH, water activity.

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2594 Design Approach for the Development of Format-Flexible Packaging Machines

Authors: G. Götz, P. Stich, J. Backhaus, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The rising demand for format-flexible packaging machines is caused by current market changes. Increasing the formatflexibility is a new goal for the packaging machine manufacturers’ product development process. There are no methodical or designorientated tools for a comprehensive consideration of this target. This paper defines the term format-flexibility in the context of packaging machines and shows the state-of-the-art for improving the changeover of production machines. The requirements for a new approach and the concept itself will be introduced, and the method elements will be explained. Finally, the use of the concept and the result of the development of a format-flexible packaging machine will be shown.

Keywords: Packaging machine, format-flexibility, changeover, design method.

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2593 The Effect of Ageing Treatment of Aluminum Alloys for Fuselage Structure-Light Aircraft

Authors: Shwe Wut Hmon Aye, Kay Thi Lwin, Waing Waing Kay Khine Oo

Abstract:

As the material used for fuselage structure must possess low density, high strength to weight ratio, the selection of appropriate materials for fuselage structure is one of the most important tasks. Aluminum metal itself is soft and low in strength. It can be made stronger by giving proper combination of suitable alloy addition, mechanical treatment and thermal treatment. The usual thermal treatment given to aluminum alloys is called age-hardening or precipitation hardening. In this paper, the studies are carried out on 7075 aluminum alloy which is how to improve strength level for fuselage structure. The marked effect of the strength on the ternary alloy is clearly demonstrated at several ageing times and temperatures. It is concluded that aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloy can get the highest strength level in natural ageing.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, ageing, heat treatment, strength.

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2592 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud

Abstract:

Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. ThereforeRFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25cm2 and 100cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, Redox flow battery, Packaging, Vanadium.

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2591 Acoustic and Thermal Isolation Performance Comparison between Recycled and Ceramic Roof Tiles Using Digital Holographic Interferometry

Authors: A. Araceli Sánchez, I. Manuel H. De la Torre, S. Fernando Mendoza, R. Cesar Tavera, R. Manuel de J. Briones

Abstract:

Recycling, as part of any sustainable environment, is continuously evolving and impacting on new materials in manufacturing. One example of this is the recycled solid waste of Tetra Pak ™ packaging, which is a highly pollutant waste as it is not biodegradable since it is manufactured with different materials. The Tetra Pak ™ container consists of thermally joined layers of paper, aluminum and polyethylene. Once disposed, this packaging is recycled by completely separating the paperboard from the rest of the materials. The aluminum and the polyethylene remain together and are used to create the poly-aluminum, which is widely used to manufacture roof tiles. These recycled tiles have different thermal and acoustic properties compared with traditional manufactured ceramic and cement tiles. In this work, we compare a group of tiles using nondestructive optical testing to measure the superficial micro deformations of the tiles under well controlled experiments. The results of the acoustic and thermal tests show remarkable differences between the recycled tile and the traditional ones. These results help to determine which tile could be better suited to the specific environmental conditions in countries where extreme climates, ranging from tropical, desert-like, to very cold are experienced throughout the year.

Keywords: Digital holographic interferometry, nondestructive testing, recycled, sustainable, thermal study.

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2590 Active Packaging Influence on the Shelf Life of Milk Pomade Sweet – Sherbet

Authors: Eva Ungure, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska, Vita Levkane

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to evaluate the quality of milk pomade sweet – sherbet packed in different packaging materials (Multibarrier 60, met.BOPET/PE, Aluthen), by several packaging technologies – active and modified atmosphere (MAP) (consisting of 100% CO2), and control – in air ambiance. Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture. Samples were stored at the room temperature +21±1 °C. The physiochemical properties – weight losses, moisture, hardening, colour and changes in headspace atmosphere concentration (CO2 and O2) of packs were analysed before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 storage weeks.

Keywords: packaging, shelf life, sherbet with crunchy peanut chip's

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2589 Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk

Authors: Jelena Zagorska, Inga Ciprovica

Abstract:

The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point of product. There are different substances, which can be added to milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk, skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances (formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have significant influence on freezing point of it.

Keywords: Antibiotics, freezing point, milk, pH, thermal treatment.

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2588 Noninvasive Assessment of Low Power Laser Radiation Effect on Skin Wound Healing Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: M.A. Calin, S.V. Parasca, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of laser radiation on the skin wound healing using infrared thermography as non-invasive method for the monitoring of the skin temperature changes during laser treatment. Thirty Wistar rats were used in this study. A skin lesion was performed at the leg on all rats. The animals were exposed to laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW, DP = 16.31 mW/cm2) for 600 s. Thermal images of wound were acquired before and after laser irradiation. The results have demonstrated that the tissue temperature decreases from 35.5±0.50°C in the first treatment day to 31.3±0.42°C after the third treatment day. This value is close to the normal value of the skin temperature and indicates the end of the skin repair process. In conclusion, the improvements in the wound healing following exposure to laser radiation have been revealed by infrared thermography.

Keywords: skin, wound, laser, thermal image

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2587 Nonlinear Thermal Expansion Model for SiC/Al

Authors: T.R. Sahroni, S. Sulaiman, I. Romli, M.R. Salleh, H.A. Ariff

Abstract:

The thermal expansion behaviour of silicon carbide (SCS-2) fibre reinforced 6061 aluminium matrix composite subjected to the influenced thermal mechanical cycling (TMC) process were investigated. The thermal stress has important effect on the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of the composites. The present paper used experimental data of the thermal expansion behaviour of a SiC/Al composite for temperatures up to 370°C, in which their data was used for carrying out modelling of theoretical predictions.

Keywords: Nonlinear, thermal, fibre reinforced, metal matrixcomposites

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2586 Integrated Waste-to-Energy Approach: An Overview

Authors: Tsietsi J. Pilusa, Tumisang G. Seodigeng

Abstract:

This study evaluates the benefits of advanced waste management practices in unlocking waste-to-energy opportunities within the solid waste industry. The key drivers of sustainable waste management practices, specifically with respect to packaging waste-to-energy technology options are discussed. The success of a waste-to-energy system depends significantly on the appropriateness of available technologies, including those that are well established as well as those that are less so. There are hard and soft interventions to be considered when packaging an integrated waste treatment solution. Technology compatibility with variation in feedstock (waste) quality and quantities remains a key factor. These factors influence the technology reliability in terms of production efficiencies and product consistency, which in turn, drives the supply and demand network. Waste treatment technologies rely on the waste material as feedstock; the feedstock varies in quality and quantities depending on several factors; hence, the technology fails, as a result. It is critical to design an advanced waste treatment technology in an integrated approach to minimize the possibility of technology failure due to unpredictable feedstock quality, quantities, conversion efficiencies, and inconsistent product yield or quality. An integrated waste-to-energy approach offers a secure system design that considers sustainable waste management practices.

Keywords: Emerging markets, evaluation tool, interventions, waste treatment technologies.

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2585 Food Package Design to Preserve Food Temperature

Authors: Sugiono, W. Ardiatna, H. Firdaus, N. Kusnandar, B. Utomo, J. A. Kadar

Abstract:

It is desirable that most human food is warm when eaten, including when food is obtained by taking it away from the point of sale in disposable food packaging. However, such packaging does not retain heat for a long time, which is necessary to ensure the food remains warm when eaten. The study looked for single-use food packaging that could retain the heat of the food for a long time. The methodology for obtaining such packaging is either by modifying available packages on the market or by making new ones with materials that are easily obtained locally, then testing by loading the local food and measuring its temperature and the length of time until it reaches the lowest acceptable temperature for hot food (56°C). Packages made of plastic boxes lined with thin aluminum foil on the inside are the best way to keep food warm for up to 44 minutes from the time it is put in the package to the time the required temperature is reached. Moreover, packaging made of local common food paper, where the food was put in a transparent plastic bag inside the package, was found to be the simplest package that could retain heat for 82.31% as long as the best packaging could, in this study. Plastic boxes with thin aluminum foil inside were the best single-use food packaging in this study that served to keep hot food warm and fit for consumption.

Keywords: Aluminum foil, hot food, local food, packaging.

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2584 Titanium-Aluminum Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie

Abstract:

In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminum oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviors of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behavior of the coating material.

Keywords: Corrosion, plasma electrolytic oxidation, thermal property, titanium-aluminum oxide.

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2583 Multiparametric Optimization of Water Treatment Process for Thermal Power Plants

Authors: B. Mukanova, N. Glazyrina, S. Glazyrin

Abstract:

The formulated problem of optimization of the technological process of water treatment for thermal power plants is considered in this article. The problem is of multiparametric nature. To optimize the process, namely, reduce the amount of waste water, a new technology was developed to reuse such water. A mathematical model of the technology of wastewater reuse was developed. Optimization parameters were determined. The model consists of a material balance equation, an equation describing the kinetics of ion exchange for the non-equilibrium case and an equation for the ion exchange isotherm. The material balance equation includes a nonlinear term that depends on the kinetics of ion exchange. A direct problem of calculating the impurity concentration at the outlet of the water treatment plant was numerically solved. The direct problem was approximated by an implicit point-to-point computation difference scheme. The inverse problem was formulated as relates to determination of the parameters of the mathematical model of the water treatment plant operating in non-equilibrium conditions. The formulated inverse problem was solved. Following the results of calculation the time of start of the filter regeneration process was determined, as well as the period of regeneration process and the amount of regeneration and wash water. Multi-parameter optimization of water treatment process for thermal power plants allowed decreasing the amount of wastewater by 15%.

Keywords: Direct problem, multiparametric optimization, optimization parameters, water treatment.

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2582 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electroceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electroceramics, firing.

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2581 Staling and Quality of Iranian Flat Bread Stored at Modified Atmosphere in Different Packaging

Authors: A. Hematian Sourki, F. Tabatabaei Yazdi, M. Ghiafeh Davoodi, S.A. Mortazavi, M. Karimi, S.H. Razavizadegan Jahromi, A. Pourfarzad

Abstract:

This study investigated the use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and different packaging to extend the shelf life of Barbari flat bread. Three atmospheres including 70%CO2 and 30%N2, 50% CO2 and 50%N2 and a normal air as control were used. The bread samples were packaged in three type pouches. The shelf life was determined by appearance of mold and yeast (M +Y) in Barbari bread samples stored at 25 ± 1°C and 38 ± 2% relative humidity. The results showed that it is possible to prolong the shelf life of Barbari bread from four days to about 21 days by using modified atmosphere packaging with high carbon dioxide concentration and high-barrier laminated and vacuum bags packages. However, the hardness of samples kept in MAP increase significantly by increase of carbon dioxide concentration. The correlation coefficient (r) between headspace CO2 concentration and hardness was 0.997, 0.997 and 0.599 for A, B and C packaging respectively. High negative correlation coefficients were found between the crumb moisture and the hardness values in various packaging. There were significant negative correlation coefficients between sensory parameters and hardness of texture.

Keywords: modified atmosphere packaging, flat bread, Iranian bread, staling, correlation.

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2580 Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey

Authors: Lee Suan Chua

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of thermal treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out in a temperature controlled water batch at 90oC for 4 hours. The honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results found that the thermal treatment produced not only hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of honey protein was due to the detection of free amino acids such as cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar dehydration was also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60 mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the principal component analysis, the score plot clearly shows that the chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2 hours of heating at 90oC.

Keywords: Honey colour, hydroxylmethylfurfural, thermal treatment, Tualang honey.

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2579 The Influence of Pad Thermal Diffusivity over Heat Transfer into the PCBs Structure

Authors: Mihai Brânzei, Ioan Plotog, Ion Pencea

Abstract:

The Pads have unique values of thermophysical properties (THP) having important contribution over heat transfer into the PCB structure. Materials with high thermal diffusivity (TD) rapidly adjust their temperature to that of their surroundings, because the HT is quick in compare to their volumetric heat capacity (VHC). In the paper is presenting the diffusivity tests (ASTM E1461 flash method) for PCBs with different core materials. In the experiments, the multilayer structure of PCBA was taken into consideration, an equivalent property referring to each of experimental structure be practically measured. Concerning to entire structure, the THP emphasize the major contribution of substrate in establishing of reflow soldering process (RSP) heat transfer necessities. This conclusion offer practical solution for heat transfer time constant calculation as function of thickness and substrate material diffusivity with an acceptable error estimation.

Keywords: heat transfer time constant, packaging, reflowsoldering process, thermal diffusivity.

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2578 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated and characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia.

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2577 Design of Thermal Control Subsystem for TUSAT Telecommunication Satellite

Authors: N. Sozbir, M. Bulut, M.F.Oktem, A.Kahriman, A. Chaix

Abstract:

TUSAT is a prospective Turkish Communication Satellite designed for providing mainly data communication and broadcasting services through Ku-Band and C-Band channels. Thermal control is a vital issue in satellite design process. Therefore, all satellite subsystems and equipments should be maintained in the desired temperature range from launch to end of maneuvering life. The main function of the thermal control is to keep the equipments and the satellite structures in a given temperature range for various phases and operating modes of spacecraft during its lifetime. This paper describes the thermal control design which uses passive and active thermal control concepts. The active thermal control is based on heaters regulated by software via thermistors. Alternatively passive thermal control composes of heat pipes, multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, radiators, paints and surface finishes maintaining temperature level of the overall carrier components within an acceptable value. Thermal control design is supported by thermal analysis using thermal mathematical models (TMM).

Keywords: Spacecraft thermal control, design of thermal control.

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2576 Thermal Insulating Silicate Materials Suitable for Thermal Insulation and Rehabilitation Structures

Authors: J. Hroudova, M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach

Abstract:

Problems insulation of building structures is often closely connected with the problem of moisture remediation. In the case of historic buildings or if only part of the redevelopment of envelope of structures, it is not possible to apply the classical external thermal insulation composite systems. This application is mostly effective thermal insulation plasters with high porosity and controlled capillary properties which assures improvement of thermal properties construction, its diffusion openness towards the external environment and suitable treatment capillary properties of preventing the penetration of liquid moisture and salts thereof toward the outer surface of the structure. With respect to the current trend of reducing the energy consumption of building structures and reduce the production of CO2 is necessary to develop capillary-active materials characterized by their low density, low thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties. The aim of researchers at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology is the development and study of hygrothermal behaviour of optimal materials for thermal insulation and rehabilitation of building structures with the possible use of alternative, less energy demanding binders in comparison with conventional, frequently used binder, which represents cement. The paper describes the evaluation of research activities aimed at the development of thermal insulation and repair materials using lightweight aggregate and alternative binders such as metakaolin and finely ground fly ash.

Keywords: Thermal insulating plasters, rehabilitation materials, thermal conductivity, lightweight aggregate, alternative binders.

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2575 Control of Thermal Flow in Machine Tools Using Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Reimund Neugebauer, Welf-Guntram Drossel, Andre Bucht, Christoph Ohsenbrügge

Abstract:

In this paper the authors propose and verify an approach to control heat flow in machine tool components. Thermal deformations are a main aspect that affects the accuracy of machining. Due to goals of energy efficiency, thermal basic loads should be reduced. This leads to inhomogeneous and time variant temperature profiles. To counteract these negative consequences, material with high melting enthalpy is used as a method for thermal stabilization. The increased thermal capacity slows down the transient thermal behavior. To account for the delayed thermal equilibrium, a control mechanism for thermal flow is introduced. By varying a gap in a heat flow path the thermal resistance of an assembly can be controlled. This mechanism is evaluated in two experimental setups. First to validate the ability to control the thermal resistance and second to prove the possibility of a self-sufficient option based on the selfsensing abilities of thermal shape memory alloys.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, heat transfer path, MT thermal stability, thermal shape memory alloy

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2574 The Effect of Chemical Treatment on TL Glow Curves of CdS/ZnS Thin Films Deposited by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

The effect of chemical treatment in CdCl2 and thermal annealing in 400°C, on the defect structures of potentially useful ZnS\CdS solar cell thin films deposited onto quartz substrate and prepared by vacuum deposition method was studied using the Thermoluminesence (TL) techniques. A series of electron and hole traps are found in the various deposited samples studied. After annealing, however, it was observed that the intensity and activation energy of TL signal increases with loss of the low temperature electron traps.

Keywords: CdS, chemical treatment, heat treatment, Thermoluminescence, trapping parameters, thin film, vacuumdeposition, ZnS

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