Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: migration

54 Repatriates in the Kazakhstan: The Problems of Migration and Adaptation to the Historic Homeland

Authors: B.K. Kalshabayeva, A.S. Seisenbayeva

Abstract:

The article is devoted to Kazakh repatriates and their migration to Kazakhstan as historical homeland, and also addresses the problem of migrants- adaptation in the republic, particularly in Almaty oblast (region). The authors used up-to-date statictics and materials of the Department of Migration Committee to analyze the newcomers- number and features of the repatriate-s location in this oblast. Having studied this region they were able to identify the main reasons why Kazakh Diaspora in Central Asia, Iran, Avganistana and Turkey is eager to come back to their historic homeland along with repatriates adaptation to the republic.

Keywords: Kazakh diaspora, repatriates, migration, adaptation, Central Asia, Iran, Avganistan, Migration Committee.

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53 Possibilities of Building Regional Migration Governance due to the Venezuelan Diaspora in Ibero-America (2015-2018)

Authors: Jonathan Palatz Cedeño

Abstract:

The paper will seek to examine the scope and limitations of the process of construction of ordinary and extraordinary migration regulatory tools of the countries of Latin America, due to the Venezuelan diaspora in Ibero-America (2015-2018). The analysis methodology will be based on a systematic presentation of the existing advances in the subject under a qualitative approach, in which the results are detailed. We hold that an important part of the Latin American countries that used to be the emitters of migrants have had to generate, with greater or lesser success both nationally and regionally, ordinary and extraordinary migration regulatory tools to respond to the rapid intensification of the current Venezuelan migratory flows. This fact beyond implementing policies for the reception and integration of this population marks a new moment that represents a huge challenge both for the receiving States and for the young Ibero-American institutional migration system. Therefore, we can say that measures to adopt reception and solidarity policies, despite being supported by organs of the multilateral system such as UNHCR and IOM, are not found as guidelines for national and regional action, at the expense of the reactions of the respective public opinions and the influence of what to do of the neighboring countries in the face of the problem.

Keywords: Venezuela, migration, Migration policies and governance, Venezuelan diaspora.

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52 The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan

Authors: Anwar Hassen Tsega

Abstract:

International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.

Keywords: Labor migration, human security, trafficking, smuggling, Ethiopia, Sudan.

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51 Green Bridges and Their Migration Potential

Authors: Jaroslav Žák, Aleš Florian

Abstract:

Green bridges enable wildlife to pass through linear structures, especially freeways. The term migration potential is used to quantify their functionality. The proposed methodology for determining migration potential eliminates the mathematical, systematic and ecological inaccuracies of previous methodologies and provides a reliable tool for designers and environmentalists. The methodology is suited especially to medium-sized and large mammals, is mathematically correct, and its correspondence with reality was tested by monitoring existing green bridges. 

Keywords: Green bridges, migration potential, partial probabilities, wildlife migration.

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50 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

Abstract:

The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: Comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security.

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49 Kirchhoff’s Depth Migration over Heterogeneous Velocity Models with Ray Tracing Modeling Approach

Authors: Alok Kumar Routa, Priya Ranjan Mohanty

Abstract:

Complex seismic signatures are generated due to the complexity of the subsurface which is difficult to interpret. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model the complex subsurface using the Ray tracing modeling technique. Add to this, for the imaging of these geological features, Kirchhoff’s prestack depth migration is applied over the synthetic common shot gather dataset. It is found that the Kirchhoff’s migration technique in addition with the Ray tracing modeling concept has the flexibility towards the imaging of various complex geology which gives satisfactory results with proper delineation of the reflectors at their respective true depth position. The entire work has been carried out under the MATLAB environment.

Keywords: Kirchhoff’s migration, Prestack depth migration, Ray tracing modeling, Velocity model.

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48 Measures for Limiting Corruption upon Migration Wave in Europe

Authors: Jordan Georgiev Deliversky

Abstract:

Fight against migrant smuggling has been put as a priority issues at the European Union policy agenda for more than a decade. The trafficked person, who has been targeted as the object of criminal exploitation, is specifically unique for human trafficking. Generally, the beginning of human trafficking activities is related to profit from the victim’s exploitation. The objective of this paper is to present measures that could result in the limitation of corruption mainly through analyzing the existing legislation framework against corruption in Europe. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, as corruption could be characterized as one of the most significant reasons for refugees to flee their countries. The main results show that law enforcement must turn the focus on the financing of the organized crime groups that are involved in migrant smuggling activities. Corruption has a significant role in managing smuggling operations and in particular when criminal organizations and networks are involved. Illegal migrants and refugees usually represent significant sources of additional income for officials involved in the process of boarding protection and immigration control within the European Union borders.

Keywords: Corruption, influence, human smuggling, legislation, migration.

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47 Migration from Commercial to in-House Developed Learning Management Systems

Authors: Lejla A. Bexheti, Visar S. Shehu, Adrian A. Besimi

Abstract:

The Learning Management Systems present learning environment which offers a collection of e-learning tools in a package that allows a common interface and information sharing among the tools. South East European University initial experience in LMS was with the usage of the commercial LMS-ANGEL. After a three year experience on ANGEL usage because of expenses that were very high it was decided to develop our own software. As part of the research project team for the in-house design and development of the new LMS, we primarily had to select the features that would cover our needs and also comply with the actual trends in the area of software development, and then design and develop the system. In this paper we present the process of LMS in-house development for South East European University, its architecture, conception and strengths with a special accent on the process of migration and integration with other enterprise applications.

Keywords: e-learning tools, LMS, migration, user feedback.

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46 Migration Aspect in the Realization of the Chinese “Going Out Policy” Strategy

Authors: Nazira B. Boldurukova

Abstract:

The article examines the potential of the Chinese diaspora abroad. Investigate the influence of the highest in the People's Republic of foreign economic strategy of "Going to the outside" on the investment activity of Chinese enterprises abroad, the export of labor.

Keywords: China, migrants, reform, economic strategy, migration policy, huaqiao.

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45 The Study on Migration Strategy of Legacy System

Authors: Chao Qi, Fuyang Peng, Bo Deng, Xiaoyan Su

Abstract:

In the upgrade process of enterprise information systems, whether new systems will be success and their development will be efficient, depends on how to deal with and utilize those legacy systems. We propose an evaluation system, which comprehensively describes the capacity of legacy information systems in five aspects. Then a practical legacy systems evaluation method is scripted. Base on the evaluation result, we put forward 4 kinds of migration strategy: eliminated, maintenance, modification, encapsulating. The methods and strategies play important roles in practice.

Keywords: Legacy Systems, Evaluation Method, Migration Strategy.

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44 Data Migration Methodology from Relational to NoSQL Databases

Authors: Mohamed Hanine, Abdesadik Bendarag, Omar Boutkhoum

Abstract:

Currently, the field of data migration is very topical. As the number of applications developed rapidly, the ever-increasing volume of data collected has driven the architectural migration from Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) to NoSQL (Not Only SQL) database. This very recent technology is important enough in the field of database management. The main aim of this paper is to present a methodology for data migration from RDBMS to NoSQL database. To illustrate this methodology, we implement a software prototype using MySQL as a RDBMS and MongoDB as a NoSQL database. Although this is a hard engineering work, our results show that the proposed methodology can successfully accomplish the goal of this study.

Keywords: Data Migration, MySQL, RDBMS, NoSQL, MongoDB.

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43 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: Data quality, Georgia, methodology, out-migration, policy.

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42 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the migration  process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model  with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the  determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm  household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of  Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm  households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households.  The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants  of migration at farm household level are household age, economically  active males and females, number of young and old dependent  members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other  hand the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability  of economically adult male in the household, number of young  dependents and agricultural land holding.

 

Keywords: Determinants, Heckman Probit Model, Migration, Rural- Urban.

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41 Migration Loneliness and Family Links: A Case Narrative

Authors: R.Narchal

Abstract:

Culture and family structure provide a sense security. Further, the chrono, macro and micro contexts of development influence developmental transitions and timetable particularly owing to variations in the macrosystem associated with non normative life events like migration. Migration threatens family links, security and attachment bonds. Rising migratory trends have prompted an increased interest in migration consequences on familial bonds, developmental autonomy, socialization process, and sense of security. This paper takes a narrative approach and applies the attachment paradigm from a lifespan perspective, to examine the settlement experiences of an India-born migrant student in Sydney, Australia. It focuses on her quest to preserve family ties; her remote secure base; her continual struggle to balance dependency and autonomy, a major developmental milestone. As positional parental power is culturally more potent in the Indian society, the paper therefore raises some important concerns related to cultural expectations, adaptation, acculturative stress and sense of security.

Keywords: Attachment, family security, migration & loneliness, narrative, remote secure base

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40 Optimizing Mobile Agents Migration Based on Decision Tree Learning

Authors: Yasser k. Ali, Hesham N. Elmahdy, Sanaa El Olla Hanfy Ahmed

Abstract:

Mobile agents are a powerful approach to develop distributed systems since they migrate to hosts on which they have the resources to execute individual tasks. In a dynamic environment like a peer-to-peer network, Agents have to be generated frequently and dispatched to the network. Thus they will certainly consume a certain amount of bandwidth of each link in the network if there are too many agents migration through one or several links at the same time, they will introduce too much transferring overhead to the links eventually, these links will be busy and indirectly block the network traffic, therefore, there is a need of developing routing algorithms that consider about traffic load. In this paper we seek to create cooperation between a probabilistic manner according to the quality measure of the network traffic situation and the agent's migration decision making to the next hop based on decision tree learning algorithms.

Keywords: Agent Migration, Decision Tree learning, ID3 algorithm, Naive Bayes Classifier

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39 Sri Lanka – Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

Abstract:

Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: Labour migration, Remittances, Middle East, Sri Lanka.

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38 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

Abstract:

We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: Internal migration, Bayesian approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia.

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37 Migration and Unemployment Duration: The Case of the OECD Countries

Authors: Vincent Fromentin

Abstract:

This paper examines whether or not immigration has a positive influence on the duration of unemployment, in a macroeconomic perspective. We analyse also whether the degree of labor market integration can influence migration. The integration of immigrants into the labor market is a recurrence theme in the work on the economic consequences of immigration. However, to our knowledge, no researchers have studied the impact of immigration on unemployment duration, and vice versa. With two methodology of research (panel estimations (OLS and 2SLS) and panel cointegration techniques), we show that migration seems to influence positively the short-term unemployment and negatively long-term unemployment, for 14 OECD destination countries. In addition, immigration seems to be conditioned by the structural and institutional characteristics of the labour market.

Keywords: international migration, unemployment duration, OECD countries, panel data

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36 European Radical Right Parties as Actors in Securitization of Migration

Authors: Mehmet Gökay Özerim

Abstract:

This study reveals that anti-immigrant policies in Europe result from a process of securitization, and that, within this process, radical right parties have been formulating discourses and approaches through a construction process by using some common security themes. These security themes can be classified as national security, economic security, cultural security and internal security. The frequency with which radical right parties use these themes may vary according to the specific historical, social and cultural characteristics of a particular country.

Keywords: European Union, International Migration, Radical Right Parties, Securitization.

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35 Migration of a Drop in Simple Shear Flow at Finite Reynolds Numbers: Size and Viscosity Ratio Effects

Authors: M. Bayareh, S. Mortazavi

Abstract:

The migration of a deformable drop in simple shear flow at finite Reynolds numbers is investigated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using a finite difference/front tracking method. The objectives of this study are to examine the effectiveness of the present approach to predict the migration of a drop in a shear flow and to investigate the behavior of the drop migration with different drop sizes and non-unity viscosity ratios. It is shown that the drop deformation depends strongly on the capillary number, so that; the proper non-dimensional number for the interfacial tension is the capillary number. The rate of migration increased with increasing the drop radius. In other words, the required time for drop migration to the centreline decreases. As the viscosity ratio increases, the drop rotates more slowly and the lubrication force becomes stronger. The increased lubrication force makes it easier for the drop to migrate to the centre of the channel. The migration velocity of the drop vanishes as the drop reaches the centreline under viscosity ratio of one and non-unity viscosity ratios. To validate the present calculations, some typical results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

Keywords: drop migration, shear flow, front-tracking method, finite difference method.

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34 Asynchronous Parallel Distributed Genetic Algorithm with Elite Migration

Authors: Kazunori Kojima, Masaaki Ishigame, Goutam Chakraborty, Hiroshi Hatsuo, Shozo Makino

Abstract:

In most of the popular implementation of Parallel GAs the whole population is divided into a set of subpopulations, each subpopulation executes GA independently and some individuals are migrated at fixed intervals on a ring topology. In these studies, the migrations usually occur 'synchronously' among subpopulations. Therefore, CPUs are not used efficiently and the communication do not occur efficiently either. A few studies tried asynchronous migration but it is hard to implement and setting proper parameter values is difficult. The aim of our research is to develop a migration method which is easy to implement, which is easy to set parameter values, and which reduces communication traffic. In this paper, we propose a traffic reduction method for the Asynchronous Parallel Distributed GA by migration of elites only. This is a Server-Client model. Every client executes GA on a subpopulation and sends an elite information to the server. The server manages the elite information of each client and the migrations occur according to the evolution of sub-population in a client. This facilitates the reduction in communication traffic. To evaluate our proposed model, we apply it to many function optimization problems. We confirm that our proposed method performs as well as current methods, the communication traffic is less, and setting of the parameters are much easier.

Keywords: Parallel Distributed Genetic Algorithm (PDGA), asynchronousPDGA, Server-Client configuration, Elite Migration

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33 Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Lobzhanidze, N. Damenia, N. Sagareishvili

Abstract:

The article substantiates that youth employment in Georgia, especially in the agricultural sector, is an acute socio-economic problem. The paper analyzes the indicators of youth employment and unemployment rates by age and gender in the agriculture sector. Research revealed that over the past decade, the unemployment rate in rural areas has decreased; however, the problem of unemployment is more sensitive than in the city in this field. The article established youth unemployment rates in rural areas; it assesses labor and educational migration causes. Based on the survey, there are proposed findings and recommendations of the agricultural sector about improving youth employment, reducing unemployment rate, reaching migration processes optimization.

Keywords: Agricultural education, the agricultural sector, unemployment rate, youth employment, youth migration.

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32 Data Migration between Document-Oriented and Relational Databases

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

Current tools for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases have several disadvantages. We propose a new approach for data migration between documentoriented and relational databases. During data migration the relational schema of the target (relational database) is automatically created from collection of XML documents. Proposed approach is verified on data migration between document-oriented database IBM Lotus/ Notes Domino and relational database implemented in relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL.

Keywords: data migration, database, document-oriented database, XML, relational schema

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31 A Methodology for Data Migration between Different Database Management Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

In present days the area of data migration is very topical. Current tools for data migration in the area of relational database have several disadvantages that are presented in this paper. We propose a methodology for data migration of the database tables and their data between various types of relational database systems (RDBMS). The proposed methodology contains an expert system. The expert system contains a knowledge base that is composed of IFTHEN rules and based on the input data suggests appropriate data types of columns of database tables. The proposed tool, which contains an expert system, also includes the possibility of optimizing the data types in the target RDBMS database tables based on processed data of the source RDBMS database tables. The proposed expert system is shown on data migration of selected database of the source RDBMS to the target RDBMS.

Keywords: Expert system, fuzzy, data migration, database, relational database, data type, relational database management system.

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30 International Migration of Highly Skilled Indian Professionals: A Case Study of Indian IT Professionals in Japan, Preliminary Results

Authors: Rimpi Rani

Abstract:

In the 2000s, a new migration trend of highly skilled Indian professionals towards Japan has appeared. This paper examines the factors that set off the incoming of highly skilled Indian professionals in Japan, mainly focusing on IT professionals’ immigration, and the reasons of the increase in their number. It investigates the influence of four factors: The Japanese immigration policy, the bilateral relations between India and Japan, the higher education system in India and the American H-1B visa policy with its cap system. This study concludes that increased and continuous supply of highly skilled Indian professionals have intensified the competition for migration to traditional destinations like the USA. This led Indian professionals   to consider other options such as Japan.

Keywords: International migration, India, Japan, highly skilled professionals.

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29 Fractal Dimension of Breast Cancer Cell Migration in a Wound Healing Assay

Authors: R. Sullivan, T. Holden, G. Tremberger, Jr, E. Cheung, C. Branch, J. Burrero, G. Surpris, S. Quintana, A. Rameau, N. Gadura, H. Yao, R. Subramaniam, P. Schneider, S. A. Rotenberg, P. Marchese, A. Flamhlolz, D. Lieberman, T. Cheung

Abstract:

Migration in breast cancer cell wound healing assay had been studied using image fractal dimension analysis. The migration of MDA-MB-231 cells (highly motile) in a wound healing assay was captured using time-lapse phase contrast video microscopy and compared to MDA-MB-468 cell migration (moderately motile). The Higuchi fractal method was used to compute the fractal dimension of the image intensity fluctuation along a single pixel width region parallel to the wound. The near-wound region fractal dimension was found to decrease three times faster in the MDA-MB- 231 cells initially as compared to the less cancerous MDA-MB-468 cells. The inner region fractal dimension was found to be fairly constant for both cell types in time and suggests a wound influence range of about 15 cell layer. The box-counting fractal dimension method was also used to study region of interest (ROI). The MDAMB- 468 ROI area fractal dimension was found to decrease continuously up to 7 hours. The MDA-MB-231 ROI area fractal dimension was found to increase and is consistent with the behavior of a HGF-treated MDA-MB-231 wound healing assay posted in the public domain. A fractal dimension based capacity index has been formulated to quantify the invasiveness of the MDA-MB-231 cells in the perpendicular-to-wound direction. Our results suggest that image intensity fluctuation fractal dimension analysis can be used as a tool to quantify cell migration in terms of cancer severity and treatment responses.

Keywords: Higuchi fractal dimension, box-counting fractal dimension, cancer cell migration, wound healing.

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28 Migration among Multicities

Authors: Ming Guan

Abstract:

This paper proposes a simple model of economic geography within the Dixit-Stiglitz-Iceberg framework that may be used to analyze migration patterns among three cities. The cost–benefit tradeoffs affecting incentives for three types of migration, including echelon migration, are discussed. This paper develops a tractable, heterogeneous-agent, general equilibrium model, where agents share constant human capital, and explores the relationship between the benefits of echelon migration and gross human capital. Using Chinese numerical solutions, we study the manifestation of echelon migration and how it responds to changes in transportation cost and elasticity of substitution. Numerical results demonstrate that (i) there are positive relationships between a migration-s benefit-and-wage ratio, (ii) there are positive relationships between gross human capital ratios and wage ratios as to origin and destination, and (iii) we identify 13 varieties of human capital convergence among cities. In particular, this model predicts population shock resulting from the processes of migration choice and echelon migration.

Keywords: Dixit-Stiglitz-Iceberg framework, elasticity , echelonmigration, trade-off

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27 Schema and Data Migration of a Relational Database RDB to the Extensible Markup Language XML

Authors: Alae El Alami, Mohamed Bahaj

Abstract:

This article discusses the passage of RDB to XML documents (schema and data) based on metadata and semantic enrichment, which makes the RDB under flattened shape and is enriched by the object concept. The integration and exploitation of the object concept in the XML uses a syntax allowing for the verification of the conformity of the document XML during the creation. The information extracted from the RDB is therefore analyzed and filtered in order to adjust according to the structure of the XML files and the associated object model. Those implemented in the XML document through a SQL query are built dynamically. A prototype was implemented to realize automatic migration, and so proves the effectiveness of this particular approach.

Keywords: RDB, XML, DTD, semantic enrichment.

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26 Can We Secure Security?

Authors: Dominykas Broga

Abstract:

Until recently it would have been unusual to consider classifying population movements and refugees as security problem. However, efforts at shaping our world to make ourselves secure have paradoxically led to ever greater insecurity. The feeling of uncertainty, pertinent throughout all discourses of security, has led to the creation of security production into seemingly benign routines of everyday life. Yet, the paper argues, neither of security discourses accounted for, disclosed and challenged the fundamental aporias embedded in Western security narratives. In turn, the paper aims to unpick the conventional security wisdom, which is haunted with strong ontologies, embedded in the politics of Orientalism, and (in)security nexus. The paper concludes that current security affair conceals the integral impossibility of fulfilling its very own promise of assured security. The paper also provides suggestions about alternative security discourse based on mutual dialogue.

Keywords: Identity, (in)security, migration, ontology

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25 The Global Crisis, Remittance Transfers, and Livelihoods of the Poor

Authors: Craig Loschmann

Abstract:

With the global financial crisis turning into what more and more appears to be a prolonged “Great Recession", we are witnessing marked reductions in remittance transfers to developing countries with the likely possibility that overall flows will decline even further in the near future. With countless families reliant on remittance inflows as a source of income maintaining their economic livelihood, a reduction would put many at risk of falling below or deeper into poverty. Recognizing the importance of remittance inflows as a lifeline to the poor, policy should aim to (1) reduce the barriers to remit in both sending and receiving nations thus easing the decline in transfers; (2) leverage the development impacts of remittances; and (3) buffer vulnerable groups dependent on remittance transfers as a source of livelihood through sound countercyclical macroeconomic policies.

Keywords: crisis, migration, remittance, livelihood.

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