Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 576

Search results for: profile

576 Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Won-Gi Jeon, Byoung-Chul Song, Jae-Hong Park, Ki-Won Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, an open framework based smart energy storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed. An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.

Keywords: ESS, open framework, profile, PV, UPS.

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575 Modeling of the Cavitation by Bubble around a NACA0009 Profile

Authors: L. Hammadi, D. Boukhaloua

Abstract:

In this study, a numerical model was developed to predict cavitation phenomena around a NACA0009 profile. The equations of the Rayleigh-Plesset and modified Rayleigh-Plesset are used to modeling the cavitation by bubble around a NACA0009 profile. The study shows that the distributions of pressures around extrados and intrados of profile for angle of incidence equal zero are the same. The study also shows that the increase in the angle of incidence makes it possible to differentiate the pressures on the intrados and the extrados.

Keywords: Cavitation, NACA0009 profile, flow, pressure coefficient.

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574 Development of Low-Profile Antenna for Mini UAV with Reconnaissance Mission

Authors: Chien-Chun Hung, Yao-Jen Teng, Yung-Sheng Tien, Yu-Tsung Tsai

Abstract:

Microstrip antennas are conformable to planar and nonplanar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to fabricate using modern printed-circuit technology. Circular polarization of low-profile microstrip patch with high bandwidth is achieved in this research through the use of a three-cross-arms branch-line coupler with sequential rotated arrays, another low-profile antenna of hollow cylinder is also proposed and the function of reconnaissance with microstrip antenna on Mini UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are evaluated in practical flight test.

Keywords: low-profile antenna, Mini UAV, reconnaissance

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573 The Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction on Thermal Conductivity of Pultruded Profile

Authors: V. Lukášová, P. Peukert, V. Votrubec

Abstract:

Thermal conductivity in the x, y and z-directions was measured on a pultruded profile that was manufactured by the technology of pulling from glass fibers and a polyester matrix. The results of measurements of thermal conductivity showed considerable variability in different directions. The caused variability in thermal conductivity was expected due fraction variations. The cross-section of the pultruded profile was scanned. An image analysis illustrated an uneven distribution of the fibers and the matrix in the cross-section. The distribution of these inequalities was processed into a Voronoi diagram in the observed area of the pultruded profile cross-section. In order to verify whether the variation of the fiber volume fraction in the pultruded profile can affect its thermal conductivity, the numerical simulations in the ANSYS Fluent were performed. The simulation was based on the geometry reconstructed from image analysis. The aim is to quantify thermal conductivity numerically. Above all, images with different volume fractions were chosen. The results of the measured thermal conductivity were compared with the calculated thermal conductivity. The evaluated data proved a strong correlation between volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the pultruded profile. Based on presented results, a modification of production technology may be proposed.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, pultruded profile, volume fraction, thermal conductivity.

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572 Generalized Method for Estimating Best-Fit Vertical Alignments for Profile Data

Authors: Said M. Easa, Shinya Kikuchi

Abstract:

When the profile information of an existing road is missing or not up-to-date and the parameters of the vertical alignment are needed for engineering analysis, the engineer has to recreate the geometric design features of the road alignment using collected profile data. The profile data may be collected using traditional surveying methods, global positioning systems, or digital imagery. This paper develops a method that estimates the parameters of the geometric features that best characterize the existing vertical alignments in terms of tangents and the expressions of the curve, that may be symmetrical, asymmetrical, reverse, and complex vertical curves. The method is implemented using an Excel-based optimization method that minimizes the differences between the observed profile and the profiles estimated from the equations of the vertical curve. The method uses a 'wireframe' representation of the profile that makes the proposed method applicable to all types of vertical curves. A secondary contribution of this paper is to introduce the properties of the equal-arc asymmetrical curve that has been recently developed in the highway geometric design field.

Keywords: Optimization, parameters, data, reverse, spreadsheet, vertical curves

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571 Alternative Computational Arrangements on g-Group (g > 2) Profile Analysis

Authors: Emmanuel U. Ohaegbulem, Felix N. Nwobi

Abstract:

Alternative and simple computational arrangements in carrying out multivariate profile analysis when more than two groups (populations) are involved are presented. These arrangements have been demonstrated to not only yield equivalent results for the test statistics (the Wilks lambdas), but they have less computational efforts relative to other arrangements so far presented in the literature; in addition to being quite simple and easy to apply.

Keywords: Coincident profiles, g-group profile analysis, level profiles, parallel profiles, repeated measures MANOVA.

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570 Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti64 to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution

Authors: A. Al-Sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, L. Houssiau, P. Plapper

Abstract:

Composite metal–polymer materials, in particular titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.

Keywords: Laser welding, metals to polymers joining, process monitoring, temperature profile, thermography.

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569 Fenestration Effects on Cross Ventilation for a Typical Taiwanese School Building When Applying Wind Profile

Authors: Wei-Hwa Chiang, Hao-Hsiang Hsu, Jian-Sheng Huang

Abstract:

Appropriate ventilation in a classroom is helpful for enhancing air exchange rate and student concentration. This study focuses on the effects of fenestration in a four-story school building by performing numerical simulation of a building when considering indoor and outdoor environments simultaneously. The wind profile function embedded in PHOENICS code was set as the inlet boundary condition in a suburban environment. Sixteen fenestration combinations were compared in a classroom containing thirty seats. This study evaluates mean age of air (AGE) and airflow pattern of a classroom on different floors. Considering both wind profile and fenestration effects, the airflow on higher floors is channeled toward the area near ceiling in a room and causes older mean age of air in the breathing zone. The results in this study serve as a useful guide for enhancing natural ventilation in a typical school building.

Keywords: Cross ventilation, Fenestration effect, Wind profile, Mean age of air, CFD

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568 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim

Abstract:

This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.  

Keywords: Two-dimensional Flapping Airfoil, Thrust Performance, Effective Angle of Attack, CFD and Experiments.

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567 Effect of Curing Profile to Eliminate the Voids / Black Dots Formation in Underfill Epoxy for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Packaging

Authors: Zainudin Kornain, Azman Jalar, Rozaidi Rasid, Fong Chee Seng

Abstract:

Void formation in underfill is considered as failure in flip chip manufacturing process. Void formation possibly caused by several factors such as poor soldering and flux residue during die attach process, void entrapment due moisture contamination, dispense pattern process and setting up the curing process. This paper presents the comparison of single step and two steps curing profile towards the void and black dots formation in underfill for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Ceramic Ball Grid Array Package (FC-CBGA). Statistic analysis was conducted to analyze how different factors such as wafer lot, sawing technique, underfill fillet height and curing profile recipe were affected the formation of voids and black dots. A C-Mode Scanning Aqoustic Microscopy (C-SAM) was used to scan the total count of voids and black dots. It was shown that the 2 steps curing profile provided solution for void elimination and black dots in underfill after curing process.

Keywords: black dots formation, curing profile, FC-CBGA, underfill, void formation,

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566 A New Method for Estimation of the Source Coherency Structure of Wideband Sources

Authors: Yong-jun Zhao, Heng-li Zhang, Zong-yun Hu

Abstract:

Based on the sources- smoothed rank profile (SRP) and modified minimum description length (MMDL) principle, a method for estimation of the source coherency structure (SCS) and the number of wideband sources is proposed in this paper. Instead of focusing, we first use a spatial smoothing technique to pre-process the array covariance matrix of each frequency for de-correlating the sources and then use smoothed rank profile to determine the SCS and the number of wideband sources. We demonstrate the availability of the method by numerical simulations.

Keywords: Wideband sources, source coherency structure (SCS), smoothed rank profile (SRP).

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565 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: Natural surfactant, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity.

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564 Influence of Tool Profile on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy 5083

Authors: A. Chandrashekar, H. N. Reddappa, B. S. Ajaykumar

Abstract:

A Friction stir welding tool is a critical component to the success of the process. The tool typically consists of a rotating round shoulder and a threaded cylindrical pin that heats the work piece, mostly by friction, and moves the softened alloy around it to form the joint. In this research work, an attempt has been made to investigate the relationship between FSW variables mainly tool profile, rotating speed, welding speed and the mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, percentage elongation, and micro hardness) of friction stir welded aluminum alloy 5083 joints. From the experimental details, it can be assessed that the joint produced by using Triflute profile tool has contribute superior mechanical and structural properties as compared to Tapered unthreaded & Threaded tool for 1000rpm.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, Tool profile, Rotating speed, Strength, Speed ratio.

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563 Pressure Angle and Profile Shift Factor Effects on the Natural Frequency of Spur Tooth Design

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan

Abstract:

In this paper, an (irregular) case relating to base circle, root circle, and pressure angle has been discussed and a computer programme has been developed to simulate and plot spur gear tooth profile, including involute and trochoid curves based on the formulation of rack cutter using different values of pressure angle and profile shift factor and it gave the values of all important geometric parameters. The results showed the flexibility of this approach and versatility of the programme to draw many different cases of spur gear teeth of any module, pressure angle, profile shift factor, number of teeth and rack cutter tip radius. The procedure developed can be extended to produce finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms also. Finite elements model of these irregular cases have been built using above programme, and modal analysis has been done using ANSYS software, and natural frequencies of these selected cases have been obtained and discussed.

Keywords: involute, trochoid, pressure angle, profile shift factor, natural frequency

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562 Secured Session Based Profile Caching for E-Learning Systems Using WiMAX Networks

Authors: R. Chithra, B. Kalaavathi

Abstract:

E-Learning enables the users to learn at anywhere at any time. In E-Learning systems, authenticating the E-Learning user has security issues. The usage of appropriate communication networks for providing the internet connectivity for E-learning is another challenge. WiMAX networks provide Broadband Wireless Access through the Multicast Broadcast Service so these networks can be most suitable for E-Learning applications. The authentication of E-Learning user is vulnerable to session hijacking problems. The repeated authentication of users can be done to overcome these issues. In this paper, session based Profile Caching Authentication is proposed. In this scheme, the credentials of E-Learning users can be cached at authentication server during the initial authentication through the appropriate subscriber station. The proposed cache based authentication scheme performs fast authentication by using cached user profile. Thus, the proposed authentication protocol reduces the delay in repeated authentication to enhance the security in ELearning.

Keywords: Authentication, E-Learning, WiMAX, Security, Profile caching.

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561 A Computational Comparison between Revetec Engine and Conventional Internal Combustion Engines on the Indicated Torque

Authors: Maisara Mohyeldin Gasim, A. K. Amirruddin, A. Shahrani

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of replacing crankshaft with cam on the indicated torque during compression and power strokes in internal combustion engines. A Cycloidal cam profile was used in Revetec engine to calculate and compare the torque to a conventional engine, using a computational method. Firstly, the cylinder pressure was calculated using Ferguson equation, and then the torque calculated depending on cylinder pressure values in every crank angle. the results showed that by using Cycloidal cam profile in Revetec engine the torque can increased by 14% compared with conventional engines, which means an increase in engine efficiency.

Keywords: Revetec engine, indicated torque, cam profile.

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560 Finite Volume Model to Study the Effect of Buffer on Cytosolic Ca2+ Advection Diffusion

Authors: Brajesh Kumar Jha, Neeru Adlakha, M. N. Mehta

Abstract:

Calcium [Ca2+] is an important second messenger which plays an important role in signal transduction. There are several parameters that affect its concentration profile like buffer source etc. The effect of stationary immobile buffer on Ca2+ concentration has been incorporated which is a very important parameter needed to be taken into account in order to make the model more realistic. Interdependence of all the important parameters like diffusion coefficient and influx over [Ca2+] profile has been studied. Model is developed in the form of advection diffusion equation together with buffer concentration. A program has been developed using finite volume method for the entire problem and simulated on an AMD-Turion 32-bit machine to compute the numerical results.

Keywords: Ca2+ profile, buffer, Astrocytes, Advection diffusion, FVM

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559 Energy Based Temperature Profile for Heat Transfer Analysis of Concrete Section Exposed to Fire on One Side

Authors: Pattamad Panedpojaman

Abstract:

For fire safety purposes, the fire resistance and the structural behavior of reinforced concrete members are assessed to satisfy specific fire performance criteria. The available prescribed provisions are based on standard fire load. Under various fire scenarios, engineers are in need of both heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. For heat transfer analysis, the study proposed a modified finite difference method to evaluate the temperature profile within a cross section. The research conducted is limited to concrete sections exposed to a fire on their one side. The method is based on the energy conservation principle and a pre-determined power function of the temperature profile. The power value of 2.7 is found to be a suitable value for concrete sections. The temperature profiles of the proposed method are only slightly deviate from those of the experiment, the FEM and the FDM for various fire loads such as ASTM E 119, ASTM 1529, BS EN 1991-1-2 and 550 oC. The proposed method is useful to avoid incontinence of the large matrix system of the typical finite difference method to solve the temperature profile. Furthermore, design engineers can simply apply the proposed method in regular spreadsheet software.

Keywords: temperature profile, finite difference method, concrete section, one-side fire exposed, energy conservation

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558 Tool Damage and Adhesion Effects in Turning and Drilling of Hardened Steels

Authors: Chris M. Taylor, Ian Cook, Raul Alegre, Pedro Arrazola, Phil Spiers

Abstract:

Noteworthy results have been obtained in the turning and drilling of hardened high-strength steels using tungsten carbide based cutting tools. In a finish turning process, it was seen that surface roughness and tool flank wear followed very different trends against cutting time. The suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the profile cut into the workpiece surface is determined by the tool’s cutting edge profile. It is shown that the profile appearing on the cut surface changes rapidly over time, so the profile of the tool cutting edge should also be changing rapidly. Workpiece material adhered onto the cutting tool, which is also known as a built-up edge, is a phenomenon which could explain the observations made. In terms of tool damage modes, workpiece material adhesion is believed to have contributed to tool wear in examples provided from finish turning, thread turning and drilling. Additionally, evidence of tool fracture and tool abrasion were recorded.

Keywords: Turning, drilling, adhesion, wear, hard steels.

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557 Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets

Authors: Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tail water depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Keywords: Densimetric Froude Number, Jets, Nozzle, Sand, Scour, Tailwater, Time.

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556 Profile Analysis and Experiences on the Tourism of Jalapão State Park, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Mary L. G. S. Senna, Felipe S. Spindler

Abstract:

The State Park Jalapão - PEJ proved to be one of the protected areas that has attracted tourists from all over the world with its unique scenic landscapes. Although the region already has a considerable tourist flow, to our knowledge there is a lack of continuity of studies in the region capable of drawing a plan of activities, such as the profile of the tourist and analysis of their experiences in the region, carried out from 2006-2007. Therefore, this study was proposed to know the profile and experiences of tourists visiting the park today, making a connection with the earlier study, in order to generate subsidies to trace improvement actions. We conducted interviews with tourists in the main tourism season 2015. The results show that after eight years of carrying out the first study, there were no changes, highlighting the lack of a tourism plan for the park.

Keywords: Jalapão, profile tourist, level of satisfaction.

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555 Doping Profile Measurement and Characterization by Scanning Capacitance Microscope for PocketImplanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Farseem Mannan Mohammedy, Quazi Deen Mohd Khosru

Abstract:

This paper presents the doping profile measurement and characterization technique for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. Scanning capacitance microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to image the extent of lateral dopant diffusion in MOS structures. The data are capacitance vs. voltage measurements made on a nano scale device. The technique is nondestructive when imaging uncleaved samples. Experimental data from the published literature are presented here on actual, cleaved device structures which clearly indicate the two-dimensional dopant profile in terms of a spatially varying modulated capacitance signal. Firstorder deconvolution indicates the technique has much promise for the quantitative characterization of lateral dopant profiles. The pocket profile is modeled assuming the linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. From the model, the effective doping concentration is found to use in modeling and simulation results of the various parameters of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The potential of the technique to characterize important device related phenomena on a local scale is also discussed.

Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Scanning Capacitance Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope.

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554 A Frame Work for Query Results Refinement in Multimedia Databases

Authors: Humaira Liaquat, Nadeem Iftikhar, Shaukat Ali, Zohaib Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

In the current age, retrieval of relevant information from massive amount of data is a challenging job. Over the years, precise and relevant retrieval of information has attained high significance. There is a growing need in the market to build systems, which can retrieve multimedia information that precisely meets the user's current needs. In this paper, we have introduced a framework for refining query results before showing it to the user, using ambient intelligence, user profile, group profile, user location, time, day, user device type and extracted features. A prototypic tool was also developed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Context aware retrieval, Information retrieval, Ambient Intelligence, Multimedia databases, User and group profile.

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553 Using Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Generation Allocation to Reduce Losses and Improve Voltage Profile

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for the optimal allocation of Distributed generation in distribution systems. In this paper, our aim would be optimal distributed generation allocation for voltage profile improvement and loss reduction in distribution network. Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used as the solving tool, which referring two determined aim; the problem is defined and objective function is introduced. Considering to fitness values sensitivity in genetic algorithm process, there is needed to apply load flow for decision-making. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with GA, till access to acceptable results of this operation. We used MATPOWER package for load flow algorithm and composed it with our Genetic Algorithm. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software and applied ETAP software for evaluating of results correctness. It was implemented on part of Tehran electricity distributing grid. The resulting operation of this method on some testing system is illuminated improvement of voltage profile and loss reduction indexes.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Allocation, Voltage Profile, losses, Genetic Algorithm.

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552 Optimal Allocation of DG Units for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement of Distribution Networks using PSO Algorithm

Authors: K. Varesi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique for the optimal allocation of Distributed Generation (DG) units in the power systems. In this paper our aim is to decide optimal number, type, size and location of DG units for voltage profile improvement and power loss reduction in distribution network. Two types of DGs are considered and the distribution load flow is used to calculate exact loss. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with PSO till access to acceptable results of this operation. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software. Test results indicate that PSO method can obtain better results than the simple heuristic search method on the 30-bus and 33- bus radial distribution systems. It can obtain maximum loss reduction for each of two types of optimally placed multi-DGs. Moreover, voltage profile improvement is achieved.

Keywords: Distributed Generation (DG), Optimal Allocation, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Power Loss Minimization, Voltage Profile Improvement.

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551 Analytic and Finite Element Solutions for Temperature Profiles in Welding using Varied Heat Source Models

Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi, John Norrish, Anh Kiet Tieu

Abstract:

Solutions for the temperature profile around a moving heat source are obtained using both analytic and finite element (FEM) methods. Analytic and FEM solutions are applied to study the temperature profile in welding. A moving heat source is represented using both point heat source and uniform distributed disc heat source models. Analytic solutions are obtained by solving the partial differential equation for energy conservation in a solid, and FEM results are provided by simulating welding using the ANSYS software. Comparison is made for quasi steady state conditions. The results provided by the analytic solutions are in good agreement with results obtained by FEM.

Keywords: Analytic solution, FEM, Temperature profile, HeatSource Model

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550 Comparison of Three Versions of Conjugate Gradient Method in Predicting an Unknown Irregular Boundary Profile

Authors: V. Ghadamyari, F. Samadi, F. Kowsary

Abstract:

An inverse geometry problem is solved to predict an unknown irregular boundary profile. The aim is to minimize the objective function, which is the difference between real and computed temperatures, using three different versions of Conjugate Gradient Method. The gradient of the objective function, considered necessary in this method, obtained as a result of solving the adjoint equation. The abilities of three versions of Conjugate Gradient Method in predicting the boundary profile are compared using a numerical algorithm based on the method. The predicted shapes show that due to its convergence rate and accuracy of predicted values, the Powell-Beale version of the method is more effective than the Fletcher-Reeves and Polak –Ribiere versions.

Keywords: Boundary elements, Conjugate Gradient Method, Inverse Geometry Problem, Sensitivity equation.

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549 Effect of Rolling Parameters on Thin Strip Profile in Cold Rolling

Authors: H. B. Tibar, Z. Y. Jiang

Abstract:

In this study, the influence of rolling process parameters such as the work roll cross angle and work roll shifting value on the strip shape and profile of aluminum have been investigated under dry conditions at a speed ratio of 1.3 using Hille 100 experimental mill. The strip profile was found to improve significantly with increase in work roll cross angle from 0o to 1o, with an associated decrease in rolling force. The effect of roll shifting (from 0 to 8mm) was not as significant as the roll cross angle. However, an increase in work roll shifting value achieved a similar decrease in rolling force as that of work roll cross angle. The effect of work roll shifting was also found to be maximum at an optimum roll speed of 0.0986 m/s for the desired thickness. Of all these parameters, the most significant effect of the strip shape profile was observed with variation of work roll cross angle. However, the rolling force can be a significantly reduced by either increasing the the work roll cross angle or work roll shifting.

Keywords: Rolling speed ratio, strip shape, work roll cross angle, work roll shifting.

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548 Binarization of Text Region based on Fuzzy Clustering and Histogram Distribution in Signboards

Authors: Jonghyun Park, Toan Nguyen Dinh, Gueesang Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel approach to accurately detect text regions including shop name in signboard images with complex background for mobile system applications. The proposed method is based on the combination of text detection using edge profile and region segmentation using fuzzy c-means method. In the first step, we perform an elaborate canny edge operator to extract all possible object edges. Then, edge profile analysis with vertical and horizontal direction is performed on these edge pixels to detect potential text region existing shop name in a signboard. The edge profile and geometrical characteristics of each object contour are carefully examined to construct candidate text regions and classify the main text region from background. Finally, the fuzzy c-means algorithm is performed to segment and detected binarize text region. Experimental results show that our proposed method is robust in text detection with respect to different character size and color and can provide reliable text binarization result.

Keywords: Text detection, edge profile, signboard image, fuzzy clustering.

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547 Noise Reduction in Web Data: A Learning Approach Based on Dynamic User Interests

Authors: Julius Onyancha, Valentina Plekhanova

Abstract:

One of the significant issues facing web users is the amount of noise in web data which hinders the process of finding useful information in relation to their dynamic interests. Current research works consider noise as any data that does not form part of the main web page and propose noise web data reduction tools which mainly focus on eliminating noise in relation to the content and layout of web data. This paper argues that not all data that form part of the main web page is of a user interest and not all noise data is actually noise to a given user. Therefore, learning of noise web data allocated to the user requests ensures not only reduction of noisiness level in a web user profile, but also a decrease in the loss of useful information hence improves the quality of a web user profile. Noise Web Data Learning (NWDL) tool/algorithm capable of learning noise web data in web user profile is proposed. The proposed work considers elimination of noise data in relation to dynamic user interest. In order to validate the performance of the proposed work, an experimental design setup is presented. The results obtained are compared with the current algorithms applied in noise web data reduction process. The experimental results show that the proposed work considers the dynamic change of user interest prior to elimination of noise data. The proposed work contributes towards improving the quality of a web user profile by reducing the amount of useful information eliminated as noise.

Keywords: Web log data, web user profile, user interest, noise web data learning, machine learning.

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