Search results for: cognition
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: cognition

71 An Analysis of Users- Cognition Difference on Urban Design Elements in Waterfronts

Authors: Sook-Yeon Shim, Hwan-Su Seo, Tae-Hyun Kim, Hongkyu Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify ideal urban design elements of waterfronts and to analyze the differences in users- cognition among these elements. This study follows three steps as following: first is identifying the urban design elements of waterfronts from literature review and second is evaluating intended users- cognition of urban design elements in urban waterfronts. Lastly, third is analyzing the users- cognition differences. As the result, evaluations of waterfront areas by users show similar features that non-waterfront urban design elements contain the highest degree of importance. This indicates the difference of users- cognition has dimensions of frequency and distance, and demonstrates differences in the aspect of importance than of satisfaction. Multi-Dimensional Scaling Method verifies differences among their cognition. This study provides elements to increase satisfaction of users from differences of their cognition on design elements for waterfronts. It also suggests implications on elements when waterfronts are built.

Keywords: Cognition Difference, , Multi-Dimensional Scaling , Urban Design Elements , Waterfront

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70 Memory and Higher Cognition

Authors: A. Páchová

Abstract:

Working memory (WM) can be defined as the system which actively holds information in the mind to do tasks in spite of the distraction. Contrary, short-term memory (STM) is a system that represents the capacity for the active storing of information without distraction. There has been accumulating evidence that these types of memory are related to higher cognition (HC). The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between HC and memory (visual STM and WM, auditory STM and WM). 59 primary school children were tested by intelligence test, mathematical tasks (HC) and memory subtests. We have shown that visual but not auditory memory is a significant predictor of higher cognition. The relevance of these results are discussed.

Keywords: higher cognition, long-term memory, short-term memory, working memory

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69 Cognition Technique for Developing a World Music

Authors: Haider Javed Uppal, Javed Yunas Uppal

Abstract:

In today's globalized world, it is necessary to develop a form of music that is able to evoke equal emotional responses among people from diverse cultural backgrounds. Indigenous cultures throughout history have developed their own music cognition, specifically in terms of the connections between music and mood. With the advancements in artificial intelligence technologies, it has become possible to analyze and categorize music features such as timbre, harmony, melody, and rhythm, and relate them to the resulting mood effects experienced by listeners. This paper presents a model that utilizes a screenshot translator to convert music from different origins into waveforms, which are then analyzed using machine learning and information retrieval techniques. By connecting these waveforms with Thayer's matrix of moods, a mood classifier has been developed using fuzzy logic algorithms to determine the emotional impact of different types of music on listeners from various cultures.

Keywords: Cognition, world music, artificial intelligence, Thayer’s matrix.

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68 Myth in Political Discourse as a Form of Linguistic Consciousness

Authors: Kuralay Kenzhekanova, Akmaral Dalelbekkyzy

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the problem of political discourse and its reflection on mass cognition. This article is dedicated to describe the myth as one of the main features of political discourse. The dominance of an expressional and emotional component in the myth is shown. Precedent phenomenon plays an important role in distinguishing the myth from the linguistic point of view. Precedent phenomena show the linguistic cognition, which is characterized by their fame and recognition. Four types of myths such as master myths, a foundation myth, sustaining myth, eschatological myths are observed. The myths about the national idea are characterized by national specificity. The main aim of the political discourse with the help of myths is to influence on the mass consciousness in order to motivate the addressee to certain actions so that the target purpose is reached owing to unity of forces.

Keywords: Cognition, myth, linguistic consciousness, types of myths, political discourse, political myth, precedent phenomena.

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67 Synergy in Vertical Transformations of Expert Designers

Authors: G. Haupt

Abstract:

Existing literature ondesign reasoning seems to give either one sided accounts on expert design behaviour based on internal processing. In the same way ecological theoriesseem to focus one sidedly on external elementsthat result in a lack of unifying design cognition theory. Although current extended design cognition studies acknowledge the intellectual interaction between internal and external resources, there still seems to be insufficient understanding of the complexities involved in such interactive processes. As such,this paper proposes a novelmulti-directional model for design researchers tomap the complex and dynamic conduct controlling behaviour in which both the computational and ecological perspectives are integrated in a vertical manner. A clear distinction between identified intentional and emerging physical drivers, and relationships between them during the early phases of experts- design process, is demonstrated by presenting a case study in which the model was employed.

Keywords: External representation, early phases, extended design cognition, internal processes and external drivers, conduct controlling behaviour.

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66 Representing Collective Unconsciousness Using Neural Networks

Authors: Pierre Abou-Haila, Richard Hall, Mark Dawes

Abstract:

Instead of representing individual cognition only, population cognition is represented using artificial neural networks whilst maintaining individuality. This population network trains continuously, simulating adaptation. An implementation of two coexisting populations is compared to the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction. Applications include multi-agent systems such as artificial life or computer games.

Keywords: Collective unconsciousness, neural networks, adaptation, predator-prey simulation.

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65 Embodied Cognition as a Concept of Educational Neuroscience and Phenomenology

Authors: Elham Shirvani-Ghadikolaei

Abstract:

In this paper, we examine the connection between the human mind and body within the framework of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology. We study the role of this connection in designing more efficient learning environments, alongside the findings in physical recognition and educational neuroscience. Our research shows the interplay between the mind and the body in the external world and discusses its implications. Based on these observations, we make suggestions as to how the educational system can benefit from taking into account the interaction between the mind and the body in educational affairs.

Keywords: Educational neurosciences, embodied cognition, pedagogical neurosciences, phenomenology.

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64 Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia

Authors: Erik Pontiskoski, Kazuhiro Asakawa

Abstract:

This is a conceptual paper on the application of open innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia. Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers: cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies balanced between internal and external resources to launch products that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in mature markets.

Keywords: managerial cognition, open innovation.

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63 Embodied Cognition and Its Implications in Education: An Overview of Recent Literature

Authors: Panagiotis Kosmas, Panayiotis Zaphiris

Abstract:

Embodied Cognition (EC) as a learning paradigm is based on the idea of an inseparable link between body, mind, and environment. In recent years, the advent of theoretical learning approaches around EC theory has resulted in a number of empirical studies exploring the implementation of the theory in education. This systematic literature overview identifies the mainstream of EC research and emphasizes on the implementation of the theory across learning environments. Based on a corpus of 43 manuscripts, published between 2013 and 2017, it sets out to describe the range of topics covered under the umbrella of EC and provides a holistic view of the field. The aim of the present review is to investigate the main issues in EC research related to the various learning contexts. Particularly, the study addresses the research methods and technologies that are utilized, and it also explores the integration of body into the learning context. An important finding from the overview is the potential of the theory in different educational environments and disciplines. However, there is a lack of an explicit pedagogical framework from an educational perspective for a successful implementation in various learning contexts.

Keywords: Embodied cognition, embodied learning, education, technology, schools.

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62 Dual-Task – Immersion in the Interactions of Simultaneously Performed Tasks

Authors: M. Liebherr, P. Schubert, S. Kersten, C. Dietz, L. Franz, C. T. Haas

Abstract:

With a long history, dual-task has become one of the most intriguing research fields regarding human brain functioning and cognition. However, findings considering effects of taskinterrelations are limited (especially, in combined motor and cognitive tasks). Therefore, we aimed at developing a measurement system in order to analyse interrelation effects of cognitive and motor tasks. On the one hand, the present study demonstrates the applicability of the measurement system and on the other hand first results regarding a systematisation of different task combinations are shown. Future investigations should combine imagine technologies and this developed measurement system.

Keywords: Dual-task, interference, cognition, measurement.

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61 Drive-Related Behaviors as Elements of Thinking

Authors: Peter Pfeifer, Julian Pfeifer, Niko Pfeifer

Abstract:

Information processing is at the focus of brain and cognition research. This work has a different perspective, it starts with behaviors. The detailed analysis of behaviors leads to the discovery that a significant proportion of them are based on only five basic drives. These basic drives are combinable, and the combinations result in the diversity of human behavior and thinking. The key elements are drive memories. They collect memories of drive-related situations and feelings. They contain variations of basic drives in numerous areas of life and build combinations with different meanings depending on the area. Human thinking could be explained with variations on these nested combinations of basic drives.

Keywords: Cognitive modeling, psycholinguistics, psychology, psychophysiology of cognition.

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60 Evaluation of Cognitive Benefits among Differently Abled Subjects with Video Game as Intervention

Authors: H. Nagendra, Vinod Kumar, S. Mukherjee

Abstract:

In this study, the potential benefits of playing action video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among deaf and dumb subjects.

Keywords: Cognitive enhancement, video games, EEG band powers, Deaf and Dumb subjects.

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59 A Distributed Cognition Framework to Compare E-Commerce Websites Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: C. lo Storto

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach based on the adoption of a distributed cognition framework and a non parametric multicriteria evaluation methodology (DEA) designed specifically to compare e-commerce websites from the consumer/user viewpoint. In particular, the framework considers a website relative efficiency as a measure of its quality and usability. A website is modelled as a black box capable to provide the consumer/user with a set of functionalities. When the consumer/user interacts with the website to perform a task, he/she is involved in a cognitive activity, sustaining a cognitive cost to search, interpret and process information, and experiencing a sense of satisfaction. The degree of ambiguity and uncertainty he/she perceives and the needed search time determine the effort size – and, henceforth, the cognitive cost amount – he/she has to sustain to perform his/her task. On the contrary, task performing and result achievement induce a sense of gratification, satisfaction and usefulness. In total, 9 variables are measured, classified in a set of 3 website macro-dimensions (user experience, site navigability and structure). The framework is implemented to compare 40 websites of businesses performing electronic commerce in the information technology market. A questionnaire to collect subjective judgements for the websites in the sample was purposely designed and administered to 85 university students enrolled in computer science and information systems engineering undergraduate courses.

Keywords: Website, e-commerce, DEA, distributed cognition, evaluation, comparison.

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58 A Study of Lurking Behavior: The Desire Perspective

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng, Chi-Wei Chen

Abstract:

Lurking behavior is common in information-seeking oriented communities. Transferring users with lurking behavior to be contributors can assist virtual communities to obtain competitive advantages. Based on the ecological cognition framework, this study proposes a model to examine the antecedents of lurking behavior in information-seeking oriented virtual communities. This study argues desire for emotional support, desire for information support, desire for performance-approach, desire for performance -avoidance, desire for mastery-approach, desire for mastery-avoidance, desire for ability trust, desire for benevolence trust, and desire for integrity trust effect on lurking behavior. This study offers an approach to understanding the determinants of lurking behavior in online contexts.

Keywords: Lurking behavior, the ecological cognition framework, Information-seeking oriented virtual communities, Desire.

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57 Functional Near Infrared Spectroscope for Cognition Brain Tasks by Wavelets Analysis and Neural Networks

Authors: Truong Quang Dang Khoa, Masahiro Nakagawa

Abstract:

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has been recently increased in research. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscope (fNIRs) is one the latest technologies which utilize light in the near-infrared range to determine brain activities. Because near infrared technology allows design of safe, portable, wearable, non-invasive and wireless qualities monitoring systems, fNIRs monitoring of brain hemodynamics can be value in helping to understand brain tasks. In this paper, we present results of fNIRs signal analysis indicating that there exist distinct patterns of hemodynamic responses which recognize brain tasks toward developing a BCI. We applied two different mathematics tools separately, Wavelets analysis for preprocessing as signal filters and feature extractions and Neural networks for cognition brain tasks as a classification module. We also discuss and compare with other methods while our proposals perform better with an average accuracy of 99.9% for classification.

Keywords: functional near infrared spectroscope (fNIRs), braincomputer interface (BCI), wavelets, neural networks, brain activity, neuroimaging.

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56 The Effects of the Impact of Instructional Immediacy on Cognition and Learning in Online Classes

Authors: Glenda A. Gunter

Abstract:

Current research has explored the impact of instructional immediacy, defined as those behaviors that help build close relationships or feelings of closeness, both on cognition and motivation in the traditional classroom and online classroom; however, online courses continue to suffer from higher dropout rates. Based on Albert Bandura-s Social Cognitive Theory, four primary relationships or interactions in an online course will be explored in light of how they can provide immediacy thereby reducing student attrition and improving cognitive learning. The four relationships are teacher-student, student-student, and student-content, and studentcomputer. Results of a study conducted with inservice teachers completing a 14-week online professional development technology course will be examined to demonstrate immediacy strategies that improve cognitive learning and reduce student attrition. Results of the study reveal that students can be motivated through various interactions and instructional immediacy behaviors which lead to higher completion rates, improved self-efficacy, and cognitive learning.

Keywords: Distance Learning, Self-Efficacy, Instructional immediacy, Student achievement.

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55 Manodharmam: A Scientific Methodology for Improvisation and Cognition in Carnatic Music

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

Abstract:

Music is ubiquitous in human lives. Ever since the foetus hears the sound inside the mother’s womb and later upon birth the baby experiences alluring sounds, the curiosity of learning emanates and evokes exploration. Music is an education than a mere entertainment. The intricate balance between music, education and entertainment has well been recognized by the scientific community and is being explored as a viable tool to understand and improve the human cognition. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da and Ni in the Carnatic music system that are analogous to C, D, E, F, G, A and B of the western system. The Carnatic music builds on the conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation) and rendering styles that evolved over centuries and established its stance. The complex but erudite raga system has been designed with elaborate experiments on srutis (musical sounds) and human perception abilities. In parallel, ‘rasa’- the emotions evoked by certain srutis and hence the ragas been solidified along with the power of language in combination with the musical sounds. The Carnatic music branches out as Kalpita sangeetam (pre-composed music) and Manodharma sangeetam (improvised music). This article explores the Manodharma sangeetam and its subdivisions such as raga alapana, swara kalpana, neraval and ragam-tanam-pallavi (RTP). The intrinsic mathematical strategies in its practice methods toward improvising the music have been discussed in detail with concert examples. The techniques on swara weaving for swara kalpana rendering and methods on the alapana development are also discussed at length with an emphasis on the impact on the human cognitive abilities. The articulation of the outlined conscious practice methods not only helps to leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners but also onsets cognitive developments.

Keywords: Carnatic, Manodharmam, music cognition, Alapana.

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54 Overriding Moral Intuitions – Does It Make Us Immoral? Dual-Process Theory of Higher Cognition Account for Moral Reasoning

Authors: Michał Białek, Simon J. Handley

Abstract:

Moral decisions are considered as an intuitive process, while conscious reasoning is mostly used only to justify those intuitions. This problem is described in few different dual-process theories of mind, that are being developed e.g. by Frederick and Kahneman, Stanovich and Evans. Those theories recently evolved into tri-process theories with a proposed process that makes ultimate decision or allows to paraformal processing with focal bias.. Presented experiment compares the decision patterns to the implications of those models. In presented study participants (n=179) considered different aspects of trolley dilemma or its footbridge version and decided after that. Results show that in the control group 70% of people decided to use the lever to change tracks for the running trolley, and 20% chose to push the fat man down the tracks. In contrast, after experimental manipulation almost no one decided to act. Also the decision time difference between dilemmas disappeared after experimental manipulation. The result supports the idea of three co-working processes: intuitive (TASS), paraformal (reflective mind) and algorithmic process.

Keywords: Moral reasoning, moral decision, reflection, trolley problem, dual-process theory of reasoning, tri-process theory of cognition.

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53 Tourist Awareness of Environmental and Recreational Behaviors at the Guandu Wetland, North Taiwan

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Chih-Cheng Chen, You-Ting Liao

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to discuss the relationship between tourist awareness of environmental issues and their own recreational behaviors in the Taipei Guandu Wetland. A total of 392 questionnaires were gathered for data analysis using descriptive statistics, t-testing, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc comparisons. The results showed that most of the visitors there enjoying the beautiful scenery are 21 to 30 years old with a college education. The means and standard deviations indicate that tourists express a positive degree of cognition of environmental issues and recreational behaviors. They suggest that polluting the environment is harmful to the natural ecosystem and that the natural resources of ecotourism are fragile, as well as expressing a high degree of recognition of the need to protect wetlands. Most of respondents are cognizant of the regulations proposed by the Guandu Wetland administration which asks that users exercise self-control and follow recommended guidelines when traveling the wetland. There were significant differences in the degree of cognition related to the variables of age, number of visits and reasons for visiting. We found that most respondents with relatively high levels of education would like to learn more about the wetland and are supportive of its conservation.

Keywords: Guandu Wetland, environmental awareness, recreational behaviors, conservation.

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52 An AI-Generated Semantic Communication Platform in Human-Computer Interaction Course

Authors: Yi Yang, Jiasong Sun

Abstract:

Almost every aspect of our daily lives is now intertwined with some degree of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). HCI courses draw on knowledge from disciplines as diverse as computer science, psychology, design principles, anthropology and more. The HCI courses in the Department of Electronics at Tsinghua University, known as the Media and Cognition course, is constantly updated to reflect the most advanced technological advances, such as virtual reality, augmented reality and artificial intelligence-based interaction. For more than a decade, this course has used an interest-based approach to teaching, in which students proactively propose some research-based questions and collaborate with teachers, using course knowledge to explore potential solutions. Semantic communication plays a key role in facilitating understanding and interaction between users and computer systems, ultimately enhancing system usability and user experience. The advancements in AI-generated technology, which has gained significant attention from both academia and industry in recent years, are exemplified by language models like GPT-3 that generate human-like dialogues from given prompts. The latest version of the HCI course practices a semantic communication platform based on AI-generated techniques. We explored a student-centered model and proposed an interest-based teaching method. Students are no longer just recipients of knowledge, but become active participants in the learning process driven by personal interests, thereby encouraging students to take responsibility for their own education. One of the latest results of this teaching approach in the course "Media and Cognition" is a student proposal to develop a semantic communication platform rooted in artificial intelligence generative technologies. The platform solves a key challenge in communications technology: the ability to preserve visual signals. The interest-based approach emphasizes personal curiosity and active participation, and the proposal of an artificial intelligence-generated semantic communication platform is an example and successful result of how students can exert greater creativity when they have the power to control their own learning.

Keywords: Human-computer interaction, media and cognition course, semantic communication, retain ability, prompts.

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51 Management of Cultural Heritage: Bologna Gates

Authors: A. Ippolito, C. Bartolomei

Abstract:

A growing demand is felt today for realistic 3D models enabling the cognition and popularization of historical-artistic heritage. Evaluation and preservation of Cultural Heritage is inextricably connected with the innovative processes of gaining, managing, and using knowledge. The development and perfecting of techniques for acquiring and elaborating photorealistic 3D models, made them pivotal elements for popularizing information of objects on the scale of architectonic structures.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, databases, non-contact survey, 2D- 3D models.

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50 Map UI Design of IoT Application Based on Passenger Evacuation Behaviors in Underground Station

Authors: Meng-Cong Zheng

Abstract:

When the public space is in an emergency, how to quickly establish spatial cognition and emergency shelter in the closed underground space is the urgent task. This study takes Taipei Station as the research base and aims to apply the use of Internet of things (IoT) application for underground evacuation mobility design. The first experiment identified passengers' evacuation behaviors and spatial cognition in underground spaces by wayfinding tasks and thinking aloud, then defined the design conditions of User Interface (UI) and proposed the UI design.  The second experiment evaluated the UI design based on passengers' evacuation behaviors by wayfinding tasks and think aloud again as same as the first experiment. The first experiment found that the design conditions that the subjects were most concerned about were "map" and hoping to learn the relative position of themselves with other landmarks by the map and watch the overall route. "Position" needs to be accurately labeled to determine the location in underground space. Each step of the escape instructions should be presented clearly in "navigation bar." The "message bar" should be informed of the next or final target exit. In the second experiment with the UI design, we found that the "spatial map" distinguishing between walking and non-walking areas with shades of color is useful. The addition of 2.5D maps of the UI design increased the user's perception of space. Amending the color of the corner diagram in the "escape route" also reduces the confusion between the symbol and other diagrams. The larger volume of toilets and elevators can be a judgment of users' relative location in "Hardware facilities." Fire extinguisher icon should be highlighted. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. However, "Compass and return to present location" are less used in underground space.

Keywords: Evacuation behaviors, IoT application, map UI design, underground station.

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49 Generalized Exploratory Model of Human Category Learning

Authors: Toshihiko Matsuka

Abstract:

One problem in evaluating recent computational models of human category learning is that there is no standardized method for systematically comparing the models' assumptions or hypotheses. In the present study, a flexible general model (called GECLE) is introduced that can be used as a framework to systematically manipulate and compare the effects and descriptive validities of a limited number of assumptions at a time. Two example simulation studies are presented to show how the GECLE framework can be useful in the field of human high-order cognition research.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, category learning, cognitive modeling, radial basis functions.

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48 The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has "always" used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard.

Keywords: Emotions, decision making, consumer behavior.

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47 On the Constructivist Teaching of Extensive Reading for English Majors

Authors: Haiyan Wang

Abstract:

Constructivism, the latest teaching and learning theory in western countries which is based on the premise that cognition (learning) is the result of "mental construction", lays emphasis on the learner's active learning. Guided by constructivism, this thesis discusses the teaching plan and its application in extensive reading course. In extensive reading classroom, emphasis should be laid on the activation of students' prior knowledge, grasping the skills of fast reading and the combination of reading and writing to check extracurricular reading. With three factors supplementing each other, students' English reading ability can be improved effectively.

Keywords: Constructivism, extensive reading, constructivist teaching.

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46 Cognitive Virtual Exploration for Optimization Model Reduction

Authors: Livier Serna, Xavier Fischer, Fouad Bennis

Abstract:

In this paper, a decision aid method for preoptimization is presented. The method is called “negotiation", and it is based on the identification, formulation, modeling and use of indicators defined as “negotiation indicators". These negotiation indicators are used to explore the solution space by means of a classbased approach. The classes are subdomains for the negotiation indicators domain. They represent equivalent cognitive solutions in terms of the negotiation indictors being used. By this method, we reduced the size of the solution space and the criteria, thus aiding the optimization methods. We present an example to show the method.

Keywords: Optimization Model Reduction, Pre-Optimization, Negotiation Process, Class-Making, Cognition Based VirtualExploration.

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45 Neuroplasticity: A Fresh Beginning for Life

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ezatollah Ahmadi

Abstract:

Neuroplasticity or the flexibility of the neural system is the ability of the brain to adapt to the lack or deterioration of sense and the capability of the neural system to modify itself through changing shape and function. Not only have studies revealed that neuroplasticity does not end in childhood, but also they have proven that it continues till the end of life and is not limited to the neural system and covers the cognitive system as well. In the field of cognition, neuroplasticity is defined as the ability to change old thoughts according to new conditions and the individuals' differences in using various styles of cognitive regulation inducing several social, emotional and cognitive outcomes. This paper attempts to discuss and define major theories and principles of neuroplasticity and elaborate on nature or nurture.

Keywords: Neuroplasticity, Cognitive plasticity, Plasticity theories, Plasticity mechanisms.

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44 The Comparative Analysis of Micro-reading and Traditional Reading Based On Schema Theory

Authors: Haiyan Wang

Abstract:

Micro-reading is a new way of reading depended on short messages of mobile phones, network articles and short literary forms, which impacts greatly on traditional way of reading. The effect of "micro-reading" is deeper especially for those growing middle school students and college students. Aiming at the problem with the development of college students' micro-reading and based on the influence of schema theory on the research of cognition of reading, this paper is to analyze the comparison between micro-reading and traditional reading and explore reading strategies in micro-era based on the negative and positive effect which schema theory has on micro-reading.

Keywords: Schema theory, comparative analysis, micro-reading, traditional reading

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43 Problem-based Learning Approach to Human Computer Interaction

Authors: Oon-Seng Tan

Abstract:

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has been an emerging field that draws in the experts from various fields to enhance the application of computer programs and the ease of computer users. HCI has much to do with learning and cognition and an emerging approach to learning and problem-solving is problembased learning (PBL). The processes of PBL involve important cognitive functions in the various stages. This paper will illustrate how closely related fields to HCI, PBL and cognitive psychology can benefit from informing each other through analysing various cognitive functions. Several cognitive functions from cognitive function disc (CFD) would be presented and discussed in relation to human-computer interface. This paper concludes with the implications of bridging the gaps amongst these disciplines.

Keywords: problem-based learning, human computerinteraction, cognitive psychology, Cognitive Function Disc (CFD)

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42 Cognition of Driving Context for Driving Assistance

Authors: Manolo Dulva Hina, Clement Thierry, Assia Soukane, Amar Ramdane-Cherif

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented our innovative way of determining the driving context for a driving assistance system. We invoke the fusion of all parameters that describe the context of the environment, the vehicle and the driver to obtain the driving context. We created a training set that stores driving situation patterns and from which the system consults to determine the driving situation. A machine-learning algorithm predicts the driving situation. The driving situation is an input to the fission process that yields the action that must be implemented when the driver needs to be informed or assisted from the given the driving situation. The action may be directed towards the driver, the vehicle or both. This is an ongoing work whose goal is to offer an alternative driving assistance system for safe driving, green driving and comfortable driving. Here, ontologies are used for knowledge representation.

Keywords: Cognitive driving, intelligent transportation system, multimodal system, ontology, machine learning.

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