%0 Journal Article
	%A Erik Pontiskoski and  Kazuhiro Asakawa
	%D 2009
	%J International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering
	%B World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
	%I Open Science Index 29, 2009
	%T Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia
	%U https://publications.waset.org/pdf/11055
	%V 29
	%X This is a conceptual paper on the application of open
innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia.
Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and
organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame
barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and
commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers:
cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies
balanced between internal and external resources to launch products
that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in
mature markets.
	%P 370 - 375