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Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia

Authors: Erik Pontiskoski, Kazuhiro Asakawa


This is a conceptual paper on the application of open innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia. Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers: cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies balanced between internal and external resources to launch products that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in mature markets.

Keywords: open innovation, managerial cognition

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

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