Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: S. Joseph Antony

81 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing.

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80 Application of Particle Image Velocimetry in the Analysis of Scale Effects in Granular Soil

Authors: Zuhair Kadhim Jahanger, S. Joseph Antony

Abstract:

The available studies in the literature which dealt with the scale effects of strip footings on different sand packing systematically still remain scarce. In this research, the variation of ultimate bearing capacity and deformation pattern of soil beneath strip footings of different widths under plane-strain condition on the surface of loose, medium-dense and dense sand have been systematically studied using experimental and noninvasive methods for measuring microscopic deformations. The presented analyses are based on model scale compression test analysed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Upper bound analysis of the current study shows that the maximum vertical displacement of the sand under the ultimate load increases for an increase in the width of footing, but at a decreasing rate with relative density of sand, whereas the relative vertical displacement in the sand decreases for an increase in the width of the footing. A well agreement is observed between experimental results for different footing widths and relative densities. The experimental analyses have shown that there exists pronounced scale effect for strip surface footing. The bearing capacity factors rapidly decrease up to footing widths B=0.25 m, 0.35 m, and 0.65 m for loose, medium-dense and dense sand respectively, after that there is no significant decrease in . The deformation modes of the soil as well as the ultimate bearing capacity values have been affected by the footing widths. The obtained results could be used to improve settlement calculation of the foundation interacting with granular soil.

Keywords: PIV, granular mechanics, scale effect, upper bound analysis.

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79 Migrating Words and Voices in Joseph O’Neill’s Netherland and The Dog

Authors: Masami Usui

Abstract:

The 21th century has already witnessed the rapid globalization of catastrophes caused by layered political, social, religious, cultural, and environmental conflicts. The post 9/11 literature that reflects these characteristics retells the experiences of those who are, whether directly or indirectly, involved in the globalized catastrophes of enlarging and endangering their boundaries and consequences. With an Irish-Turkish origin, a Dutch and British educational background, and as an American green-card holder, Joseph O’Neill challenges this changing circumstances of the expanding crisis. In his controversial novel, Netherland (2008), O’Neill embodies the deeply-rooted compromises, the transplanted conflicts, and human internalized crisis in post 9/11 New York City. O’Neill presents to us the transition between Netherland to New York with a post-colonial perspective. This internalized conflicts are revised in The Dog (2014) in which a newly-constructing and expanding global city of gold, Dubai, represents the transitional location from New York City. Through these two novels, words and voices are migrating beyond cultural and political boundaries and discussing what a collective mind embodies in this globalized society.  

Keywords: American literature, global literature, cultural studies, political science.

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78 Solution of The KdV Equation with Asymptotic Degeneracy

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew

Abstract:

Recently T. C. Au-Yeung, C.Au, and P. C. W. Fung [2] have given the solution of the KdV equation [1] to the boundary condition , where b is a constant. We have further extended the method of [2] to find the solution of the KdV equation with asymptotic degeneracy. Via simulations we find both bright and dark Solitons (i.e. Solitons with opposite phases).

Keywords: KdV equation, Asymptotic Degeneracy, Solitons, Inverse Scattering

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77 Analysis of Production Loss on a Linear Walking Worker Line

Authors: Qian Wang, Sylvain Lassalle, Antony R. Mileham, Geraint W. Owen

Abstract:

This paper mathematically analyses the varying magnitude of production loss, which may occur due to idle time (inprocess waiting time and traveling time) on a linear walking worker assembly line. Within this flexible and reconfigurable assembly system, each worker travels down the line carrying out each assembly task at each station; and each worker accomplishes the assembly of a unit from start to finish and then travels back to the first station to start the assembly of a new product. This strategy of system design attempts to combine the flexibility of the U-shaped moving worker assembly cell with the efficiency of the conventional fixed worker assembly line. The paper aims to evaluate the effect of idle time that may offset the labor efficiency of each walking worker providing an insight into the mechanism of such a flexible and reconfigurable assembly system.

Keywords: Production lines, manufacturing systems, assemblysystems, walking workers.

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76 Solitons in Nonlinear Optical Lattices

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew

Abstract:

Based on the Lagrangian for the Gross –Pitaevskii equation as derived by H. Sakaguchi and B.A Malomed [5] we have derived a double well model for the nonlinear optical lattice. This model explains the various features of nonlinear optical lattices. Further, from this model we obtain and simulate the probability for tunneling from one well to another which agrees with experimental results [4].

Keywords: Double well model, nonlinear optical lattice, Solitons, tunneling.

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75 A Brief Review on Recent Trends in Alternative Sources of Energy

Authors: Divya S., Jibin Joseph

Abstract:

Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels. Today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. Most of the recent and existing alternative sources of energy are discussed below

Keywords: Athra Quinone Disulphonic Acid (AQDS), Renewable Methanol (RM), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).

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74 Serviceability of Fabric-Formed Concrete Structures

Authors: Yadgar Tayfur, Antony Darby, Tim Ibell, Mark Evernden, John Orr

Abstract:

Fabric form-work is a technique to cast concrete structures with a great advantage of saving concrete material of up to 40%. This technique is particularly associated with the optimized concrete structures that usually have smaller cross-section dimensions than equivalent prismatic members. However, this can make the structural system produced from these members prone to smaller serviceability safety margins. Therefore, it is very important to understand the serviceability issue of non-prismatic concrete structures. In this paper, an analytical computer-based model to optimize concrete beams and to predict load-deflection behaviour of both prismatic and non-prismatic concrete beams is presented. The model was developed based on the method of sectional analysis and integration of curvatures. Results from the analytical model were compared to load-deflection behaviour of a number of beams with different geometric and material properties from other researchers. The results of the comparison show that the analytical program can accurately predict the load-deflection response of concrete beams with medium reinforcement ratios. However, it over-estimates deflection values for lightly reinforced specimens. Finally, the analytical program acceptably predicted load-deflection behaviour of on-prismatic concrete beams.

Keywords: Concrete beams, deflections, fabric formwork, optimisation, serviceability.

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73 U.S. Supreme Court Justices and Partisanship: Support for the President and Solicitor General

Authors: James Meernik, Joseph Ignagni, Rebecca Deen

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the extent to which the justices of the U.S. Supreme Court cast votes that support the positions of the president, or more generally the Executive Branch. Can presidents count on such deference from those justices they nominate or those whom are nominated by other presidents of the same party? Or, do the justices demonstrate judicial independence and impartiality such that they are not so predisposed to vote in favor of arguments of their nominating president-s party? The results suggest that while in general the justices do not exhibit any marked tendency to partisan support of presidents, more recent and conservative Supreme Court justices are significantly more likely to support Republican presidents.

Keywords: Separation of Powers, Solicitor General, U.S. President

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72 Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate

Authors: R. Joseph Raviselvan, K. Ramanathan, P. Perumal, M. R. Thansekhar

Abstract:

Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. The coating properties are influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was developed and the optimum response was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

Keywords: Hardness, RSM, sputtering, TiN XRD.

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71 Optimizing Machine Vision System Setup Accuracy by Six-Sigma DMAIC Approach

Authors: Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

Machine vision system provides automatic inspection to reduce manufacturing costs considerably. However, only a few principles have been found to optimize machine vision system and help it function more accurately in industrial practice. Mostly, there were complicated and impractical design techniques to improve the accuracy of machine vision system. This paper discusses implementing the Six Sigma Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) approach to optimize the setup parameters of machine vision system when it is used as a direct measurement technique. This research follows a case study showing how Six Sigma DMAIC methodology has been put into use.

Keywords: DMAIC, machine vision system, process capability, Taguchi parameter design.

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70 Concept of Automation in Management of Electric Power Systems

Authors: Richard Joseph, Nerey Mvungi

Abstract:

An electric power system includes a generating, a transmission, a distribution, and consumers subsystems. An electrical power network in Tanzania keeps growing larger by the day and become more complex so that, most utilities have long wished for real-time monitoring and remote control of electrical power system elements such as substations, intelligent devices, power lines, capacitor banks, feeder switches, fault analyzers and other physical facilities. In this paper, the concept of automation of management of power systems from generation level to end user levels was determined by using Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E) version 30.3.2.

Keywords: Automation, Distribution subsystem, Generating subsystem, PSS/E, TANESCO, Transmission subsystem.

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69 Determination of Alkaline Protease Production In Serratia Marcescens Sp7 Using Agro Wastes As Substrate Medium, Optimization Of Production Parameters And Purification Of The Enzyme

Authors: Baby Joseph, Sankarganesh Palaniyandi

Abstract:

The enzyme alkaline protease production was determined under solid state fermentation using the soil bacteria Serratia marcescens sp7. The maximum production was obtained from wheat bran medium than ground nut shell and chemically defined medium. The physiological fermentation factors such as pH of the medium (pH 8), Temperature (40oC) and incubation time (48 hrs) played a vital role in alkaline protease production in all the above. 100Mm NaCl has given better resolution during elution of the enzymes. The enzyme production was found to be associated with growth of the bacterial culture.

Keywords: Alkaline protease, Wheat bran, Ground nut shell, Serratia marcescens

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68 Robust Variogram Fitting Using Non-Linear Rank-Based Estimators

Authors: Hazem M. Al-Mofleh, John E. Daniels, Joseph W. McKean

Abstract:

In this paper numerous robust fitting procedures are considered in estimating spatial variograms. In spatial statistics, the conventional variogram fitting procedure (non-linear weighted least squares) suffers from the same outlier problem that has plagued this method from its inception. Even a 3-parameter model, like the variogram, can be adversely affected by a single outlier. This paper uses the Hogg-Type adaptive procedures to select an optimal score function for a rank-based estimator for these non-linear models. Numeric examples and simulation studies will demonstrate the robustness, utility, efficiency, and validity of these estimates.

Keywords: Asymptotic relative efficiency, non-linear rank-based, robust, rank estimates, variogram.

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67 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: Mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity.

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66 Automatic Generation Control of an Interconnected Power System with Capacitive Energy Storage

Authors: Rajesh Joseph Abraham, D. Das, Amit Patra

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the application of small rating Capacitive Energy Storage units for the improvement of Automatic Generation Control of a multiunit multiarea power system. Generation Rate Constraints are also considered in the investigations. Integral Squared Error technique is used to obtain the optimal integral gain settings by minimizing a quadratic performance index. Simulation studies reveal that with CES units, the deviations in area frequencies and inter-area tie-power are considerably improved in terms of peak deviations and settling time as compared to that obtained without CES units.

Keywords: Automatic Generation Control, Capacitive EnergyStorage, Integral Squared Error.

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65 A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine

Authors: Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip, Ebobenow Joseph

Abstract:

In this paper, to model a real life wind turbine, a probabilistic approach is proposed to model the dynamics of the blade elements of a small axial wind turbine under extreme stochastic wind speeds conditions. It was found that the power and the torque probability density functions even-dough decreases at these extreme wind speeds but are not infinite. Moreover, we also fund that it is possible to stabilize the power coefficient (stabilizing the output power)above rated wind speeds by turning some control parameters. This method helps to explain the effect of turbulence on the quality and quantity of the harness power and aerodynamic torque.

Keywords: Probability, Stochastic, Probability density function, Turbulence.

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64 Differentiation of Heart Rate Time Series from Electroencephalogram and Noise

Authors: V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, P. Dhanasekaran, Paul Joseph K.

Abstract:

Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular non-invasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system. Most of the methods were hired from techniques used for time series analysis. Currently used methods are time domain, frequency domain, geometrical and fractal methods. A new technique, which searches for pattern repeatability in a time series, is proposed for quantifying heart rate (HR) time series. These set of indices, which are termed as pattern repeatability measure and pattern repeatability ratio are able to distinguish HR data clearly from noise and electroencephalogram (EEG). The results of analysis using these measures give an insight into the fundamental difference between the composition of HR time series with respect to EEG and noise.

Keywords: Approximate entropy, heart rate variability, noise, pattern repeatability, and sample entropy.

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63 The Efficacy of Technology in Enhancing the Development and Learning of Children (0 – 5 Years)

Authors: Adesina, Olusola Joseph

Abstract:

The use of Technological tools in the classroom setting has drawn the interest of researchers all over the world in the recent time. Technology has been identified in the recent time as potentials tools to aid learning especially during early childhood stage. The main objective of this is to assist the upcoming younger generations to acquire necessary skills for cognitive development which later enhances effective teaching learning process. The integration of Technology in early childhood requires a careful selection of devices that will both assist the children and the teachers or care givers. This paper therefore, examines some selected literature evidences and highlighted the efficacy of various technologies tools in enhancing the development and learning of children (0 – 5 years). Conclusion and recommendations were also drawn in this paper. 

Keywords: Development, Efficacy, Learning, Technological Device.

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62 Performance Assessment of GSO Satellite before and after Enhancing Pointing Effect

Authors: A. E. Emam, Joseph Victor, M. Abd Elghany

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of the orbit inclination on the pointing error of the satellite antenna and consequently on its footprint on earth for a typical Ku- band payload system. The performance assessment is examined using both analytical simulations and practical measurements, taking into account all the additional sources of the pointing errors, such as East-West station keeping, orbit eccentricity, and actual attitude control performance. An implementation and computation of the sinusoidal biases in satellite roll and pitch used to compensate the pointing error of the satellite antenna coverage is studied and evaluated before and after the pointing corrections performed. A method for evaluation of the performance of the implemented biases has been introduced through measuring satellite received level from a mono-pulse tracking 11.1m transmitting antenna before and after the implementation of the pointing corrections.

Keywords: Satellite, inclined orbit, pointing errors, coverage optimization.

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61 Adoption and Diffusion of E-Government Services in India: The Impact of User Demographics and Service Quality

Authors: Sayantan Khanra, Rojers P. Joseph

Abstract:

This study attempts to analyze the impact of demography and service quality on the adoption and diffusion of e-Government services in the context of India. The objective of this paper is to study the users' perception about e-Government services and investigate the key variables that are most salient to the Indian populace. At the completion of this study, a research model that would help to understand the relationship involving the demographic variables and service quality dimensions, and the willingness to adopt e-Government services is expected to be developed. Dedicated authorities, particularly those in developing economies, may use that model or its augmented versions to design and update e-Government services and promote their use among citizens. After all, enhanced public participation is required to improve efficiency, engagement and transparency in the implementation of the aforementioned services.

Keywords: Adoption and diffusion of e-Government services, demographic variables, hierarchical regression analysis, service quality dimensions.

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60 iSEA: A Mobile Based Learning Application for History and Culture Knowledge Enhancement for the ASEAN Region

Authors: Maria Visitacion N. Gumabay, Byron Joseph A. Hallar, Annjeannette Alain D. Galang

Abstract:

This study was intended to provide a more efficient and convenient way for mobile users to enhance their knowledge about ASEAN countries. The researchers evaluated the utility of the developed crossword puzzle application and assessed the general usability of its user interface for its intended purpose and audience of users. The descriptive qualitative research method for the research design and the Mobile-D methodology was employed for the development of the software application output. With a generally favorable reception from its users, the researchers concluded that the iSEA Mobile Based Learning Application can be considered ready for general deployment and use. It was also concluded that additional studies can also be done to make a more complete assessment of the knowledge gained by its users before and after using the application.

Keywords: Mobile learning, e-learning, crossword, ASEAN, iSEA.

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59 Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients

Authors: Subha D. Puthankattil, Paul K. Joseph

Abstract:

Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.

Keywords: EEG, Depression, Wavelet entropy, Approximate entropy, Relative Wavelet energy, Multiresolution decomposition.

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58 Neuron Dynamics of Single-Compartment Traub Model for Hardware Implementations

Authors: J. C. Moctezuma, V. Breña-Medina, Jose Luis Nunez-Yanez, Joseph P. McGeehan

Abstract:

In this work we make a bifurcation analysis for a single compartment representation of Traub model, one of the most important conductance-based models. The analysis focus in two principal parameters: current and leakage conductance. Study of stable and unstable solutions are explored; also Hop-bifurcation and frequency interpretation when current varies is examined. This study allows having control of neuron dynamics and neuron response when these parameters change. Analysis like this is particularly important for several applications such as: tuning parameters in learning process, neuron excitability tests, measure bursting properties of the neuron, etc. Finally, a hardware implementation results were developed to corroborate these results.

Keywords: Traub model, Pinsky-Rinzel model, Hopf bifurcation, single-compartment models, Bifurcation analysis, neuron modeling.

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57 The Next Frontier for Mobile Based Augmented Reality: An Evaluation of AR Uptake in India

Authors: K. Krishna Milan Rao, Nelvin Joseph, Praveen Dwarakanath

Abstract:

Augmented and Virtual Realties is quickly becoming a hotbed of activity with millions of dollars being spent on R & D and companies such as Google and Microsoft rushing to stake their claim. Augmented reality (AR) is however marching ahead due to the spread of the ideal AR device – the smartphone. Despite its potential, there remains a deep digital divide between the Developed and Developing Countries. The Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) and Hofstede cultural dimensions also predict the behaviour intention to uptake AR in India will be large. This paper takes a quantified approach by collecting 340 survey responses to AR scenarios and analyzing them through statistics. The Survey responses show that the Intention to Use, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Enjoyment dimensions are high among the urban population in India. This along with the exponential smartphone indicates that India is on the cusp of a boom in the AR sector.

Keywords: Mobile augmented reality, technology acceptance model, Hofstede, cultural dimensions, India.

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56 Vermicomposting of Waste Corn Pulp Blended with Cow Dung Manure using Eisenia Fetida

Authors: Musaida M. M. Manyuchi, Anthony Phiri, Ngoni Chirinda, Perkins Muredzi, Joseph Govhaand, Thamary Sengudzwa

Abstract:

Waste corn pulp was investigated as a potential feedstock during vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. Corn pulp is the major staple food in Southern Africa and constitutes about 25% of the total organic waste. Wastecooked corn pulp was blended with cow dung in the ratio 6:1 respectively to optimize the vermicomposting process. The feedstock was allowed to vermicompost for 30 days. The vermicomposting took place in a 3- tray plastic worm bin. Moisture content, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were monitoreddaily. The NPK content was determined at day 30. During vermicomposting, moisture content increased from 27.68% to 52.41%, temperature ranged between 19- 25◦C, pH increased from 5.5 to 7.7, and electrical conductivity decreased from 80000μS/cm to 60000μS/cm. The ash content increased from 11.40% to 28.15%; additionally the volatile matter increased from 1.45% to 10.02%. An odorless, dark brown vermicompost was obtained. The vermicompost NPK content was 4.19%, 1.15%, and 6.18% respectively.

Keywords: Corn pulp, Eisenia fetida, vermicomposting, waste management.

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55 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: Mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference.

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54 Quantification of Heart Rate Variability: A Measure based on Unique Heart Rates

Authors: V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, P. Dhanasekaran, A. Naseem, N. G. Karthick, T. K. Abdul Jaleel, Paul K.Joseph

Abstract:

It is established that the instantaneous heart rate (HR) of healthy humans keeps on changing. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular non invasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system. Depressed HRV has been found in several disorders, like diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease, characterised by autonomic nervous dysfunction. A new technique, which searches for pattern repeatability in a time series, is proposed specifically for the analysis of heart rate data. These set of indices, which are termed as pattern repeatability measure and pattern repeatability ratio are compared with approximate entropy and sample entropy. In our analysis, based on the method developed, it is observed that heart rate variability is significantly different for DM patients, particularly for patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, diabetes mellitus, heart rate variability, pattern identification, sample entropy

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53 Evaluation of Bacterial Composition of the Aerosol of Selected Abattoirs in Akure, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Joseph O. Obameso, Titus A. Olukibiti

Abstract:

This study was carried out to reveal the bacterial composition of aerosol in the studied abattoirs. Bacteria isolated were characterized according to microbiological standards. Factors such as temperature and distance were considered as variable in this study. The isolation was carried out at different temperatures such as 27oC, 31oC and 29oC and at various distances of 100meters and 200meters away from the slaughter sites. Result obtained showed that strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Micrococcus sp. were identified. The total viable counts showed that more microorganisms were present in the morning while the least viable count of 388cfu was recorded in the evening period of this study. This study also showed that more microbial loads were recorded the further the distance is to the slaughter site. Conclusively, the array of bacteria isolated suggests that abattoir sites may be a potential source of pathogenic organisms to commuters if located within residential environment.

Keywords: Abattoir, Aerosol, Bacterial Composition, Environment.

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52 Effects of the Sintering Process on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelain from Ugandan Ceramic Minerals

Authors: Peter W. Olupot, Stefan Jonsson, Joseph K. Byaruhanga

Abstract:

Porcelain specimens were fired at 6C/min to 1250C (dwell time 0.5-3h) and cooled at 6C/min to room temperature. Additionally, three different slower firing/cooling cycles were tried. Sintering profile and effects on MOR, crystalline phase content and morphology were investigated using dilatometry, 4-point bending strength, XRD and FEG-SEM respectively. Industrial-sized specimens prepared using the promising cycle were tested basing on the ANSI standards. Increasing dwell time from 1h to 3h at peak temperature of 1250C resulted in neither a significant effect on the quartz and mullite content nor MOR. Reducing the firing/cooling rate to below 6C/min, for peak temperature of 1250C (dwell time of 1h) does not result in improvement of strength of porcelain. The industrial sized specimen exhibited flashover voltages of 20.3kV (dry) and 9.3kV (wet) respectively, transverse strength of 12.5kN and bulk density of 2.27g/cm3, which are satisfactory. There was however dye penetration during porosity test. KeywordsDwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

Keywords: Dwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

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