**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1250

# Search results for: mixture velocity

##### 1250 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity difference.

##### 1249 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

**Authors:**
Aicha Rima Cheniti,
Hatem Besbes,
Joseph Haggege,
Christophe Sintes

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

**Keywords:**
Mean carbon dioxide pressure,
mean mixture pressure,
mixture velocity,
radial velocity.

##### 1248 The Effect of Mixture Velocity and Droplet Diameter on Oil-water Separator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

**Authors:**
M. Abdulkadir,
V. Hernandez-Perez

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
CFD,
droplet diameter,
mixture velocity

##### 1247 Non-Destructive Evaluation of 2-Mercapto Substituted Pyrimidine Derivatives in Different Concentration and Different Percentages in Dioxane-Water Mixture

**Authors:**
Pravin S. Bodke,
Shradha S. Binani,
Ravi V. Joat

**Abstract:**

Science and technology of ultrasonic is widely used in recent years for industrial and medicinal application. The acoustical properties of 2-mercapto substituted pyrimidines viz.,2- Mercapto-4- (2’,4’ –dichloro phenyl) – 6-(2’ – hydroxyl -4’ –methyl-5’ – chlorophenyl) pyrimidine and 2 –Mercapto – 4-(4’ –chloro phenyl) – 6-(2’ – hydroxyl -4’ –methyl-5’ –chlorophenyl) pyrimidine have been investigated from the ultrasonic velocity and density measurements at different concentration and different % in dioxane-water mixture at 305K. The adiabatic compressibility (βs), acoustic impedance (Z), intermolecular free length (Lf), apparent molar volume(ϕv) and relative association (RA) values have been calculated from the experimental data of velocity and density measurement at concentration range of 0.01- 0.000625 mol/lit and 70%,75% and 80% dioxane water mixture. These above parameters are used to discuss the structural and molecular interactions.

**Keywords:**
Acoustical parameters,
Density,
Dioxane-water
mixture,
Ultrasonic velocity.

##### 1246 Velocity Filter Banks using 3-D FFT

**Authors:**
G. Koukiou,
V. Anastassopoulos

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Velocity filters,
filter banks,
3-D FFT.

##### 1245 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

**Authors:**
Xiaolai Zhang,
Haitao Zhang,
Qiwen Sun,
Weixin Qian,
Weiyong Ying

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
LDV,
fixed fluidized bed,
velocity,
Fischer-Tropsch
synthesis.

##### 1244 Minimum Fluidization Velocities of Binary-Solid Mixtures: Model Comparison

**Authors:**
Mohammad Asif

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bed void fraction,
Binary solid mixture,
Minimumfluidization velocity,
Packing models

##### 1243 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

**Authors:**
E. Keramaris

**Abstract:**

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

**Keywords:**
Particle image velocimetry,
sand bed,
velocity distribution,
Reynolds number.

##### 1242 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

**Authors:**
Wan Chian Li,
Justie Su-Tzu Juan,
Yi-Chun Wang,
Shu-Chuan Chen

**Abstract:**

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

**Keywords:**
evolutionary tree,
mixture tree,
mutated site,
distance.

##### 1241 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

**Authors:**
Erjola Reufi,
Jozefita Marku,
Thomas Bier

**Abstract:**

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

**Keywords:**
Compressive strength,
polypropylene fiber,
steel fiber,
ultrasonic pulse velocity,
volume,
type of fiber.

##### 1240 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

**Authors:**
Yongzheng Li,
Hongfang Ma,
Qiwen Sun,
Haitao Zhang,
Weiyong Ying

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Circulating fluidized bed,
laser doppler velocimeter,
particle velocity,
radial profile.

##### 1239 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation

**Authors:**
Praveen Kumar,
Nitin Kumar,
Hemant Kumar

**Abstract:**

*k-ε*turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.

**Keywords:**
Computational fluid dynamics,
erosion,
slurry transportation,
k-ε Model.

##### 1238 Properties of SMA Mixtures Containing Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate

**Authors:**
Taher Baghaee Moghaddam,
Mohamed Rehan Karim

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Asphalt mixture,
Environment,
Mix properties,
Polyethylene terephthalate

##### 1237 Learning an Overcomplete Dictionary using a Cauchy Mixture Model for Sparse Decay

**Authors:**
E. S. Gower,
M. O. J. Hawksford

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
expectation-maximization,
Pitman estimator,
sparsedecomposition

##### 1236 Low Air Velocity Measurement Characteristics- Variation Due to Flow Regime

**Authors:**
A. Pedišius,
V. Janušas,
A. Bertašienė

**Abstract:**

The paper depicts air velocity values, reproduced by laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) and ultrasonic anemometer (UA), relations with calculated ones from flow rate measurements using the gas meter which calibration uncertainty is ± (0.15 – 0.30) %. Investigation had been performed in channel installed in aerodynamical facility used as a part of national standard of air velocity. Relations defined in a research let us confirm the LDA and UA for air velocity reproduction to be the most advantageous measures. The results affirm ultrasonic anemometer to be reliable and favourable instrument for measurement of mean velocity or control of velocity stability in the velocity range of 0.05 m/s – 10 (15) m/s when the LDA used. The main aim of this research is to investigate low velocity regularities, starting from 0.05 m/s, including region of turbulent, laminar and transitional air flows. Theoretical and experimental results and brief analysis of it are given in the paper. Maximum and mean velocity relations for transitional air flow having unique distribution are represented. Transitional flow having distinctive and different from laminar and turbulent flow characteristics experimentally have not yet been analysed.

**Keywords:**
Laser Doppler anemometer,
ultrasonic anemometer,
air flow velocities,
transitional flow regime,
measurement,
uncertainty.

##### 1235 Experimental Investigation of Phase Distributions of Two-phase Air-silicone Oil Flow in a Vertical Pipe

**Authors:**
M. Abdulkadir,
V. Hernandez-Perez,
S. Sharaf,
I. S. Lowndes,
B. J. Azzopardi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
WMS,
phase distribution,
silicone-oil,
riser

##### 1234 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

**Authors:**
Ratul Das

**Abstract:**

The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

**Keywords:**
Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter,
gravel-bed,
spike removal,
Reynolds shear stress,
near-bed turbulence,
velocity power spectra.

##### 1233 An Exact Solution to Support Vector Mixture

**Authors:**
Monjed Ezzeddinne,
Nicolas Lefebvre,
Régis Lengellé

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Identification,
Learning systems,
Mixture ofExperts,
Support Vector Machines.

##### 1232 Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region

**Authors:**
S. Sivakumar,
Ravikiran Sangras,
Vasudevan Raghavan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Contoured nozzle,
hot-wire anemometer,
Reynolds
number,
velocity fluctuations,
velocity spectra.

##### 1231 Self Organizing Mixture Network in Mixture Discriminant Analysis: An Experimental Study

**Authors:**
Nazif Çalış,
Murat Erişoğlu,
Hamza Erol,
Tayfun Servi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Self Organizing Mixture Network,
MixtureDiscriminant Analysis,
Waveform Datasets,
Glass Identification,
Mixture of Multivariate Normal Distributions

##### 1230 Real-time Tracking in Image Sequences based-on Parameters Updating with Temporal and Spatial Neighborhoods Mixture Gaussian Model

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gaussian mixture model,
real-time tracking,
sequence image,
gradient.

##### 1229 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Binary Mixture Diffusion Using Modern Graphics Processors

**Authors:**
Mohammad Amin Safi,
Mahmud Ashrafizaadeh,
Amir Ali Ashrafizaadeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Lattice Boltzmann model,
Graphical processing unit,
Binary mixture diffusion,
2D flow simulations,
Optimized algorithm.

##### 1228 Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column

**Authors:**
Mário A. R. Talaia

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bubbles,
terminal velocity,
two phase-flow,
vertical
column.

##### 1227 Numerical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid in a Concentric Annular Tube Using Two-Phase Mixture Model

**Authors:**
Roghayyeh Motallebzadeh,
Shahin Hajizadeh,
Mohammad Reza Ghasemi

**Abstract:**

Laminar mixed Convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh Numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al_{2}O_{3} nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.

**Keywords:**
Buoyancy force,
Laminar mixed convection,
Mixture model,
Nanofluid,
Two-phase.

##### 1226 Measurement of Steady Streaming from an Oscillating Bubble Using Particle Image Velocimetry

**Authors:**
Yongseok Kwon,
Woowon Jeong,
Eunjin Cho,
Sangkug Chung,
Kyehan Rhee

**Abstract:**

Steady streaming flow fields induced by a 500 mm bubble oscillating at 12 kHz were measured using microscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The accuracy of velocity measurement using a micro PIV system was checked by comparing the measured velocity fields with the theoretical velocity profiles in fully developed laminar flow. The steady streaming flow velocities were measured in the sagittal plane of the bubble attached on the wall. Measured velocity fields showed upward jet flow with two symmetric counter-rotating vortices, and the maximum streaming velocity was about 12 mm/s, which was within the velocity ranges measured by other researchers. The measured streamlines were compared with the analytical solution, and they also showed a reasonable agreement.

**Keywords:**
Oscillating bubble,
Particle-Image-Velocimetry microstreaming.

##### 1225 Investigation of Self-Similarity Solution for Wake Flow of a Cylinder

**Authors:**
A. B. Khoshnevis,
F. Zeydabadi,
F. Sokhanvar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Self-similarity,
wake of single circular cylinder

##### 1224 Color Image Segmentation using Adaptive Spatial Gaussian Mixture Model

**Authors:**
M.Sujaritha,
S. Annadurai

**Abstract:**

An adaptive spatial Gaussian mixture model is proposed for clustering based color image segmentation. A new clustering objective function which incorporates the spatial information is introduced in the Bayesian framework. The weighting parameter for controlling the importance of spatial information is made adaptive to the image content to augment the smoothness towards piecewisehomogeneous region and diminish the edge-blurring effect and hence the name adaptive spatial finite mixture model. The proposed approach is compared with the spatially variant finite mixture model for pixel labeling. The experimental results with synthetic and Berkeley dataset demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in improving the segmentation and it can be employed in different practical image content understanding applications.

**Keywords:**
Adaptive; Spatial,
Mixture model,
Segmentation,
Color.

##### 1223 Effects of Injection Velocity and Entrance Airflow Velocity on Droplets Sizing in a Duct

**Authors:**
M. M. Doustdar ,
M. Mojtahedpoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ramjet,
droplet sizing,
injection velocity,
air flow
velocity,
efficient mass fraction.

##### 1222 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

**Authors:**
Nosheen Zareen Khan,
Abdul Majeed Siddiqui,
Muhammad Afzal Rana

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Approximate solution,
constricted tube,
non-Newtonian fluids,
Reynolds number.

##### 1221 Effect of Using Crumb Rubber with Warm-Mix-Asphalt Additive in Laboratory and Field Aging

**Authors:**
Mustafa Akpolat,
Baha Vural Kök

**Abstract:**

Using a waste material such as crumb rubber (CR) obtained by waste tires has become an important issue in respect to sustainability. However, the CR modified mixture also requires high manufacture temperature as a polymer modified mixture. For this reason in this study, it is intended to produce a CR modified mixture with warm mix asphalt additives in the same mixture. Asphalt mixtures produced by pure, 10%CR, 10%CR+3% Sasobit and 10%CR+0.7% Evotherm were subjected to aging procedure in the laboratory and the field. The indirect tensile repeated tests were applied to aged and original specimens. It was concluded that the fatigue life of the mixtures increased significantly with the increase of aging time. CR+Sasobit modified mixture aged at the both field and laboratory gave the highest load cycle among the mixtures.

**Keywords:**
Crumb rubber,
warm mix asphalt,
aging,
fatigue.