Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading
Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2021849Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 389
 Das, B. M. and Shin, E. C. 1996. Laboratory model tests for cyclic load-induced settlement of a strip foundation on a clayey soil. Geotech Geolog Eng 14(3):213-225.
 Sabbar A, Chegenizadeh A, Nikraz H (2016) Review of the experimental studies of the cyclic behaviour of granular materials: Geotechnical and pavement engineering. Aust Geomech J 51(2): 89-103.
 Peralta P (2010) Investigations on the behavior of large diameter piles under Long-Term lateral cyclic loading in cohesionless soil. IGtH, Germany.
 Shajarati A, Sørensen KW, Nielsen SK, Ibsen LB (2012) Behaviour of cohesionless soils during cyclic loading. Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark.
 Terzaghi K, Peck RB, Mesri G (1996) Soil mechanics in engineering practice. Wiley, New York.
 Salem M, Elmamlouk H, Agaiby S (2013) Static and cyclic behavior of North Coast calcareous sand in Egypt. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 55:83-91.
 Andersen KH (2009) Bearing capacity under cyclic loading—offshore, along the coast, and on land. Can Geotech J 46:513-535, https://doi.org/10.1139/T09-003 ANSYS17.2. 2017.
 Raymond GP, Komos FE (1978) Repeated load testing of a model plane strain footing. Can Geotech J 15(2):190-201.
 Tafreshi SM, Mehrjardi GT, Ahmadi M (2011) Experimental and numerical investigation on circular footing subjected to incremental cyclic loads. Int J Civ Eng 9(4): 265-274.
 Nguyen N-S, François S, Degrande G (2014) Discrete modeling of strain accumulation in granular soils under low amplitude cyclic loading. Comput Geotech 62:232-243.
 Asakereh A, Ghazavi M, Tafreshi SM (2013) Cyclic response of footing on geogrid-reinforced sand with void. Soils Found 53(3):363-374.
 Jahanger ZK, Antony SJ, Richter L (2016) Displacement patterns beneath a rigid beam indenting on layered soil. In: 8th Americas Reg Conf Int Soc Terr-Veh Sys Michigan, USA.
 Jahanger ZK, Antony SJ (2017a) Application of digital particle image velocimetry in the analysis of scale effects in granular soil. In: Proceedings Pro 19th Int Conf Soil Mech Dyn., 9(7) part X, Rome, pp.1134-1139.
 Jahanger ZK, Antony SJ (2017b) Application of particle image velocimetry in the analysis of scale effects in granular soil. Int J Civ Enviro Stru Const Archit Eng 11(7):832-837.
 Jahanger ZK, Sujatha J, Antony SJ (2018a) Local and global granular mechanical characteristics of grain–structure interactions. Ind Geotech J. 10.1007/s40098-018-0295-5.
 Jahanger ZK, Antony SJ, Martin E, Richter L (2018b) Interaction of a rigid beam resting on a strong granular layer overlying weak granular soil: Multi-Methodological Investigations. J Terramech 79:23-32.
 Jahanger ZK (2018) Micromechanical Investigations of Foundation Structures-Granular Soil Interactions. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.
 ASTM (1989) Soil and Rock, Building, Stores, Geotextiles. American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Standard. 04.08.
 Head KH (2006) Manual of Soil Laboratory Test. Volume 1: soil Classification and Compaction Tests. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
 Cerato B, Lutenegger A J (2007) Scale effects of shallow foundation bearing capacity on granular material. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 133:1192-1202.
 Dijkstra J, Gaudin C, White DJ, (2013) Comparison of failure modes below footings on carbonate and silica sands. Int J Phy Model Geotech 13(1):1-12.
 Tehrani FS, Arshad MI, Prezzi M, Salgado R (2017) Physical modeling of cone penetration in layered sand. J Geotech and Geoenviron Eng 144(1): p04017101.
 Lau CK (1988) Scale effects in tests on footings. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.
 Kumar J, Bhoi MK (2009) Interference of two closely spaced strip footings on sand using model tests. J Geotech Geoenv Eng 135(4):595-604.
 Adrian RJ (1991) Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 23: 261-304.
 Hamm E, Tapia F, Melo F (2011) Dynamics of shear bands in a dense granular material forced by a slowly moving rigid body. Phys Rev E, 84: 041304.
 O’Loughlin C, Lehane B (2010) Nonlinear cone penetration test-based method for predicting footing settlements on sand. J Geotech Geoenv Eng 136(3): 409-416.
 Murthy T G, Gnanamanickam E, Chandrasekar S (2012) Deformation field in indentation of a granular ensemble. Phys. Rev. E, 85: 061306.
 DantecDynamicsA/S (2013) DynamicStudio User’s Guide. Dantec Dynamics, Skovlunde, Denmark.
 Albaraki S, Antony, SJ (2014) How does internal angle of hoppers affect granular flow? Experimental studies using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Powd Tech 268:253-260.
 Gollin D, Brevis W, Bowman ET, Shepley P (2017) Performance of PIV and PTV for granular flow measurements. Granular Matter, 19(3):42. DOI 10.1007/s10035-017-0730-9.
 Vesic AS, (1973) Analysis of ultimate loads of foundations. Soil Mech Found Div 99(SM1): 45-73.
 Das BM (2016) Principles of foundation engineering. 8th edition, Cengage learning, India.
 Altaee A, Fellenius BH (1994) Physical modeling in sand. Can Geotech J 31:420-431.
 Bowles JE (1996). Foundation Analysis and Design. Fifth ed. McGraw-Hill, Singapore.
 Raymond GP (2002) Reinforced ballast behaviour subjected to repeated load. Geotext Geomemb 20(1):39-61.
 Tafreshi SM, Dawson A (2012) A comparison of static and cyclic loading responses of foundations on geocell-reinforced sand. Geotext Geomemb 32:55-68.
 Terzaghi, K., 1943. Theoretical Soil Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.