Search results for: Hardness
257 Hardness Variations as Affected by Bar Diameter of AISI 4140 Steel
Authors: Hamad K. Al-Khalid, Ayman M. Alaskari, Samy E. Oraby
Abstract:Hardness of the widely used structural steel is of vital importance since it may help in the determination of many mechanical properties of a material under loading situations. In order to obtain reliable information for design, properties homogeneity should be validated. In the current study the hardness variation over the different diameters of the same AISI 4140 bar is investigated. Measurements were taken on the two faces of the stock at equally spaced eight sectors and fifteen layers. Statistical and graphical analysis are performed to asses the distribution of hardness measurements over the specified area. Hardness measurements showed some degree of dispersion with about ± 10% of its nominal value provided by manufacturer. Hardness value is found to have a slight decrease trend as the diameter is reduced. However, an opposite behavior is noticed regarding the sequence of the sector indicating a nonuniform distribution over the same area either on the same face or considering the corresponding sector on the other face (cross section) of the same material bar.
Keywords: Hardness; Hardness variation; AISI 4140 steel; Bardiameter; Statistical Analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2833
256 The Effect of Ageing on Impact Toughness and Microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloy
Authors: Swami Naidu Gurugubelli
The present study aims at determining the effect of ageing on the impact toughness and microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu - Mg alloy. Following the 2 h solutionizing treatment at 450°C and water quench, the specimens were aged at 200°C for various periods (1 to 18 h). The precipitation stages during ageing were monitored by hardness measurements. For each specimen group, Charpy impact and hardness tests were carried out. During ageing the impact toughness of the alloy first increased, and then, following a maxima decreased due to the precipitation of intermediate phases, finally it reached its minimum at the peak hardness. Correlations between hardness and impact toughness were investigated.
Keywords: Ageing, alloy, hardness, microstructure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1984
255 Temperature-Dependence of Hardness and Wear Resistance of Stellite Alloys
Authors: S. Kapoor, R. Liu, X. J. Wu, M. X. Yao
Abstract:A group of Stellite alloys are studied in consideration of temperature effects on their hardness and wear resistance. The hardness test is conducted on a micro-hardness tester with a hot stage equipped that allows heating the specimen up to 650°C. The wear resistance of each alloy is evaluated using a pin-on-disc tribometer with a heating furnace built-in that provides the temperature capacity up to 450°C. The experimental results demonstrate that the hardness and wear resistance of Stellite alloys behave differently at room temperature and at high temperatures. The wear resistance of Stellite alloys at room temperature mainly depends on their carbon content and also influenced by the tungsten content in the alloys. However, at high temperatures the wear mechanisms of Stellite alloys become more complex, involving multiple factors. The relationships between chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of these alloys are studied, with focus on temperature effect on these relations.
Keywords: Stellite alloy, temperature, hardness, wear resistanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6306
254 Optimization of Artificial Ageing Time and Temperature on Evaluation of Hardness and Resistivity of Al-Si-Mg (Cu or/& Ni) Alloys
Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny
The factors necessary to obtain an optimal heat treatment that influence the hardness and resistivity of Al-6Si-0.5Mg casting alloys with Cu or/and Ni additions were investigated. The alloys were homogenised (24hr at 500oC), solutionized (2hr at 540oC) and artificially ageing at various times and temperatures. The alloys were aged isochronally for 60 minutes at temperatures up to 400oC and isothermally at 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 & 300oC for different periods in the range 15 to 360 minutes. The hardness and electrical resistivity of the alloys were measured for various artificial ageing times and temperatures. From the isochronal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum ageing at 225oC. And from the isothermal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum for 60 minutes at 225oC. So the optimal heat treatment consists of 60 minutes ageing at 225oC.
Keywords: Ageing, Al-Si-Mg alloy, hardness, resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2888
253 Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate
Authors: R. Joseph Raviselvan, K. Ramanathan, P. Perumal, M. R. Thansekhar
Abstract:Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. The coating properties are influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was developed and the optimum response was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).
Keywords: Hardness, RSM, sputtering, TiN XRD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
252 Aging Behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC Composite in T4 and T6 Treatments
Authors: Melby Chacko, Jagannath Nayak
The aging behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC composite was investigated using Rockwell B hardness measurement. The composite was solutionized at 350°C and quenched in water. The composite was aged at room temperature (T4 treatment) and also at 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C (T6 treatment). The natural and artificial aging behaviour of composite was studied using aging curves determined at different temperatures. The aging period for peak aging for different temperatures was identified. The time required for attaining peak aging decreased with increase in the aging temperature. The peak hardness was found to increase with increase with aging temperature and the highest peak hardness was observed at 180ºC. Beyond 180ºC the peak hardness was found to be decreasing.
Keywords: 6061 Al-SiC composite, Aging curve, Rockwell B hardness, T4, T6 treatments.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4631
251 Nanoindentation of Thin Films Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition
Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Khlifi Kaouthar, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed
Abstract:These Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters that are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nanoindentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 190 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.
Keywords: CrN/AlCrN, coatings, hardness, nano-indentation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2098
250 Effect of Natural Binder on Pang-Rum Hardness
Authors: Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Khemjira Jarmkom, Warachate Khobjai, Surachai Techaoei
Abstract:The aim of this study is to improve Pang-Rum (PR) hardness by adding natural binders. PR is one of Thai tradition aroma products. In the past, it was used for aesthetic propose on face and body with good odor. Nowadays, PR is not popular and going to be disappeared. Five natural materials, i.e. agar, rice flour, glutinous flour, corn starch, and tapioca starch were selected to use as binders. Binders were dissolved with boiled water into concentration 5% and 10% w/w except agar that was prepared 0.5% and 1% w/w. PR with and without binder were formulated. Physical properties, i.e. weight, shape, color, and hardness were evaluated. PR with 10% of corn starch solution had suitable hardness (14.2±0.9 kg) and the best appearance. In the future, it would be planned to study about odor and physical stability for decorated product development.
Keywords: Aromatic water, hardness, natural binder, pang-rum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 899
249 Effect of Alloying Elements and Hot Forging/Rolling Reduction Ratio on Hardness and Impact Toughness of Heat Treated Low Alloy Steels
Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash
Abstract:The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of alloying elements and thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) i.e. hot rolling and forging with different reduction ratios on the hardness (HV) and impact toughness (J) of heat-treated low alloy steels. An understanding of the combined effect of TMT and alloying elements and by measuring hardness, impact toughness, resulting from different heat treatment following TMT of the low alloy steels, it is possible to determine which conditions yielded optimum mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Experimental Correlations between hot work reduction ratio, hardness and impact toughness for thermo-mechanically heat treated low alloy steels are analyzed quantitatively, and both regression and mathematical hardness and impact toughness models are developed.
Keywords: Hot Forging, hot rolling, heat treatment, hardness (hv), impact toughness (j), microstructure, low alloy steels.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3308
248 Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloy 7449
Authors: Suleiman E. Al-lubani, Mohammad E. Matarneh, Hussien M. Al-Wedyan, Ala M. Rayes
Abstract:Aluminum alloy has an extensive range of industrial application due to its consistent mechanical properties and structural integrity. The heat treatment by precipitation technique affected the Magnesium, Silicon Manganese and copper crystals dissolved in the Aluminum alloy. The crystals dislocated to precipitate on the crystal’s boundaries of the Aluminum alloy when given a thermal energy increased its hardness. In this project various times and temperature were varied to find out the best combination of these variables to increase the precipitation of the metals on the Aluminum crystal’s boundaries which will lead to get the highest hardness. These specimens are then tested for their hardness and tensile strength. It is noticed that when the temperature increases, the precipitation increases and consequently the hardness increases. A threshold temperature value (264C0) of Aluminum alloy should not be reached due to the occurrence of recrystalization which causes the crystal to grow. This recrystalization process affected the ductility of the alloy and decrease hardness. In addition, and while increasing the temperature the alloy’s mechanical properties will decrease. The mechanical properties, namely tensile and hardness properties are investigated according to standard procedures. In this research, different temperature and time have been applied to increase hardening.The highest hardness at 100°c in 6 hours equals to 207.31 HBR, while at the same temperature and time the lowest elongation equals to 146.5.
Keywords: Aluminum alloy, recrystalization process, heat treatment, hardness properties, precipitation, intergranular breakage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3961
247 Effect of Water Hardness and Free Residual Chlorine on Black Tea Brew
Authors: P. Murugesan, G. Venkateswaran, V. A. Shanmuga Selvan
Water used for brewing tea plays a major role in the quality of tea. Water with higher hardness gives very dark coloured brew. This study was conducted to determine the effect of water hardness and free residual chlorine on the quality of black tea liquor. Theaflavin (TF) and Thearubigin (TR) levels are lower in comparison with the tea brewed in distilled water. At the same time, there is an increase in High Polymerized Substance (HPS) and Total Liquor Colour (TLC). While water with higher hardness has a negative impact on tea brew, water with high concentration of free residual chlorine did not affect the quality of tea brew.
Keywords: Theaflavin, Thearubigin, high polymerized substance, total liquor colour, hardness, residual chlorine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2343
246 Strength Optimization of Induction Hardened Splined Shaft – Material and Geometric Aspects
Authors: I. Barsoum, F. Khan
the current study presents a modeling framework to determine the torsion strength of an induction hardened splined shaft by considering geometry and material aspects with the aim to optimize the static torsion strength by selection of spline geometry and hardness depth. Six different spline geometries and seven different hardness profiles including non-hardened and throughhardened shafts have been considered. The results reveal that the torque that causes initial yielding of the induction hardened splined shaft is strongly dependent on the hardness depth and the geometry of the spline teeth. Guidelines for selection of the appropriate hardness depth and spline geometry are given such that an optimum static torsion strength of the component can be achieved.
Keywords: Static strength, splined shaft, torsion, induction hardening, hardness profile, finite element, optimization, design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4863
245 Influence of Combined Drill Coulters on Seedbed Compaction under Conservation Tillage Technologies
Authors: E. Šarauskis, L. Masilionyte, Z. Kriaučiūniene, K. Romaneckas
Abstract:All over the world, including the Middle and East European countries, sustainable tillage and sowing technologies are applied increasingly broadly with a view to optimising soil resources, mitigating soil degradation processes, saving energy resources, preserving biological diversity, etc. As a result, altered conditions of tillage and sowing technological processes are faced inevitably. The purpose of this study is to determine the seedbed topsoil hardness when using a combined sowing coulter in different sustainable tillage technologies. The research involved a combined coulter consisting of two dissected blade discs and a shoe coulter. In order to determine soil hardness at the seedbed area, a multipenetrometer was used. It was found by experimental studies that in loosened soil, a combined sowing coulter equally suppresses the furrow bottom, walls and soil near the furrow; therefore, here, soil hardness was similar at all researched depths and no significant differences were established. In loosened and compacted (double-rolled) soil, the impact of a combined coulter on the hardness of seedbed soil surface was more considerable at a depth of 2 mm. Soil hardness at the furrow bottom and walls to a distance of up to 26 mm was 1.1 MPa. At a depth of 10 mm, the greatest hardness was established at the furrow bottom. In loosened and heavily compacted (rolled for 6 times) soil, at a depth of 2 and 10 mm a combined coulter most of all compacted the furrow bottom, which has a hardness of 1.8 MPa. At a depth of 20 mm, soil hardness within the whole investigated area varied insignificantly and fluctuated by around 2.0 MPa. The hardness of furrow walls and soil near the furrow was by approximately 1.0 MPa lower than that at the furrow bottom
Keywords: Coulters design, seedbed, soil hardness, combined coulters, soil compaction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1299
244 Study on the Effect of Volume Fraction of Dual Phase Steel to Corrosion Behaviour and Hardness
Authors: R. Nadlene, H. Esah, S. Norliana, M.A. Mohd Irwan
Abstract:The objective of this project is to study the corrosion behaviour and hardness based on the presence of martensite in dual phase steel. This study was conducted on six samples of dual phase steel which have different percentage of martensite. A total of 9 specimens were prepared by intercritical annealing process to study the effect of temperature to the formation of martensite. The low carbon steels specimens were heated for 25 minutes in a specified temperature ranging from 7250C to 8250C followed by rapid cooling in water. The measurement of corrosion rate was done by using extrapolation tafel method, while potentiostat was used to control and measured the current produced. This measurement is performed through a system named CMS105. The result shows that a specimen with higher percentage of martensite is likely to corrode faster. Hardness test for each specimen was conducted to compare its hardness with low carbon steel. The results obtained indicate that the specimen hardness is proportional to the amount of martensite in dual phase steel.
Keywords: dual phase steel, corrosion behaviour, hardness, intercritical annealing, martensiteProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2852
243 Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V
Authors: Salah Gariani, Islam Shyha, Fawad Inam, Dehong Huo
A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.
Keywords: Impinging supply system, micro-hardness, shoulder milling, Ti-6Al-4V, vegetable oil-based cutting fluid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 710
242 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW
Authors: Ramesh S., Sasiraaju A. S., Sidhaarth K., Sudhan Rajkumar N., Manivel Muralidaran V.
This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.
Keywords: Chromoly, Gas Metal Arc Weld (GMAW), Hardness, Multi pass weld, Shielding gas composition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2864
241 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy
Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long
Abstract:Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.
Keywords: Irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1555
240 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites
Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah
Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.
Keywords: Burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, Surface hardness, Surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2148
239 Interaction Effect of Feed Rate and Cutting Speed in CNC-Turning on Chip Micro-Hardness of 304- Austenitic Stainless Steel
Authors: G. H. Senussi
Abstract:The present work is concerned with the effect of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) and distance from the center of work piece as input variables on the chip micro-hardness as response or output. Three experiments were conducted; they were used to investigate the chip micro-hardness behavior at diameter of work piece for 30[mm], 40[mm], and 50[mm]. Response surface methodology (R.S.M) is used to determine and present the cause and effect of the relationship between true mean response and input control variables influencing the response as a two or three dimensional hyper surface. R.S.M has been used for designing a three factor with five level central composite rotatable factors design in order to construct statistical models capable of accurate prediction of responses. The results obtained showed that the application of R.S.M can predict the effect of machining parameters on chip micro-hardness. The five level factorial designs can be employed easily for developing statistical models to predict chip micro-hardness by controllable machining parameters. Results obtained showed that the combined effect of cutting speed at it?s lower level, feed rate and depth of cut at their higher values, and larger work piece diameter can result increasing chi micro-hardness.
Keywords: Machining Parameters, Chip Micro-Hardness, CNCMachining, 304-Austenic Stainless Steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3173
238 Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process
Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U.
In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.
Keywords: Surface hardness, response surface methodology, microstructure, central composite design, deep cold rolling, surface roughness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1644
237 Evaluation of Texture of Packhams Pears
Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Bruno L. Marques
The textural parameters, together with appearance and flavor, are sensory attributes of great importance for the product to be accepted by the consumer. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the textural attributes of Packhams pears in the fresh state, after drying in a chamber with forced convection at 50ºC, lyophilized and re-hydrated. In texture analysis it was used the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). The parameters analyzed were hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, elasticity and chewiness. From the results obtained is possible to see that the drying operation greatly affected some textural properties of the pears, so that the hardness diminished very much with drying, for both drying methods.
Keywords: Drying, pear, texture, hardness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
236 Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy
Authors: K. A. Mistry, I. B. Patel, A. H. Prajapati
In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.
Keywords: EDAX, hardening coefficient, Micro hardness, Bi-Pb alloy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1853
235 Fabrication of Single Crystal of Mg Alloys Containing Rare Earth Elements
Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha
Abstract:Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as Mg-1Al, Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-3Li, and AZ31 alloys were successfully fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method. Single crystals of pure Mg were also made in this study. To determine the exact orientation of crystals, Laue back-reflection method and pole figure measurement were carried out on each single crystal. Dimensions of single crystals were 10 mm in diameter and 120 mm in length. Hardness and compression tests were conducted and the results revealed that hardness and the strength strongly depended on the orientation. The closer to basal one the orientation was, the higher hardness and compressive strength were. The effect of alloying was not higher than that of orientation. After compressive deformation of single crystals, the orientation of the crystals was found to rotate and to be parallel to the basal orientation.
Keywords: Compressive strength, Hardness, Mg alloys, Modified Bridgman method, Orientation, Pole figure, Single crystal.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1784
234 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han
In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed and verified throughout a series of experimental works.
Keywords: Underwater Concrete, Rebound Hardness, Schmidt hammer, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Ultrasonic Sensor, Artificial Neural Networks, ANN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3423
233 Influence of Deep Cold Rolling and Low Plasticity Burnishing on Surface Hardness and Surface Roughness of AISI 4140 Steel
Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma
Deep cold rolling (DCR) and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) process are cold working processes, which easily produce a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. The present study focuses on the surface roughness and surface hardness aspects of AISI 4140 work material, using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in order to identify the predominant factors amongst the selected parameters. They were then categorized in order of significance followed by setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. In the present work, the influence of main process parameters (force, feed rate, number of tool passes/overruns, initial roughness of the work piece, ball material, ball diameter and lubricant used) on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied for both LPB and DCR process and the results are compared. It was observed that by using LPB process surface hardness has been improved by 167% and in DCR process surface hardness has been improved by 442%. It was also found that the force, ball diameter, number of tool passes and initial roughness of the workpiece are the most pronounced parameters, which has a significant effect on the work piece-s surface during deep cold rolling and low plasticity burnishing process.
Keywords: Deep cold rolling, burnishing, surface roughness, surface hardness, design of experiments, AISI4140 steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3614
232 Mechanical Properties of D2 Tool Steel Cryogenically Treated Using Controllable Cooling
Authors: A. Rabin, G. Mazor, I. Ladizhenski, R. Z. Shneck
The hardness and hardenability of AISI D2 cold work tool steel with conventional quenching (CQ), deep cryogenic quenching (DCQ) and rapid deep cryogenic quenching heat treatments caused by temporary porous coating based on magnesium sulfate was investigated. Each of the cooling processes was examined from the perspective of the full process efficiency, heat flux in the austenite-martensite transformation range followed by characterization of the temporary porous layer made of magnesium sulfate using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), surface and core hardness and hardenability using Vickers hardness technique. The results show that the cooling rate (CR) at the austenite-martensite transformation range has a high influence on the hardness of the studied steel.
Keywords: AISI D2, controllable cooling, magnesium sulfate coating, rapid cryogenic heat treatment, temporary porous layer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 93
231 Influence of Proteolysis and Soluble Calcium Levels on Textural Changes in the Interior and Exterior of Iranian UF White Cheese during Ripening
Authors: I. Fathollahi, J. Hesari, S. Azadmard, S. Oustan
Abstract:The relationships between Proteolysis and soluble calcium levels with hardness of cheese texture were investigated in Iranian UF white cheese during 90 d ripening. Cheeses were sampled in interior and exterior. Results showed that levels of proteolysis, soluble calcium and hardness of cheese texture changed significantly (p< 0.05) over ripening. Levels of proteolysis and hardness were significantly (p< 0.05) different in interior and exterior zones of cheeses. External zones of cheeses became softer and had higher levels of proteolysis compared to internal zones during ripening. The highest correlation coefficient (r2= 0.979; p<0.01) was observed between hardness and levels of pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen in exterior zones of cheese. These result showed that proteolysis can contribute to textural softening during ripening of Iranian UF white cheese.
Keywords: Calcium, Proteolysis, Softening, Ultrafiltration, White cheese.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2318
230 Effect of Spray Stand-off on Hardness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings
Authors: M.Jalali Azizpour, S.Norouzi, H.Mohammadi Majd
Abstract:The mechanical and tribological properties in WC-Co coatings are strongly affected by hardness and elasticity specifications. The results revealed the effect of spraying distance on microhardness and elasticity modulus of coatings. The metallurgical studies have been made on coated samples using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Keywords: HVOF, Micro-indentation, Thermal spray, WC-Co.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2226
229 Characterization Study of Aluminium 6061 Hybrid Composite
Authors: U. Achutha Kini, S. S. Sharma, K. Jagannath, P. R. Prabhu, Gowri Shankar M. C.
Abstract:Aluminium matrix composites with alumina reinforcements give superior mechanical & physical properties. Their applications in several fields like automobile, aerospace, defense, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purposes are becoming essential for the last several decades. In the present work, fabrication of hybrid composite was done by Stir casting technique using Al 6061 as a matrix with alumina and silicon carbide (SiC) as reinforcement materials. The weight percentage of alumina is varied from 2 to 4% and the silicon carbide weight percentage is maintained constant at 2%. Hardness and wear tests are performed in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Age hardening treatment was performed on the specimen with solutionizing at 550°C, aging at two temperatures (150 and 200°C) for different time durations. Hardness distribution curves are drawn and peak hardness values are recorded. Hardness increase was very sensitive with respect to the decrease in aging temperature. There was an improvement in wear resistance of the peak aged material when aged at lower temperature. Also increase in weight percent of alumina, increases wear resistance at lower temperature but opposite behavior was seen when aged at higher temperature.
Keywords: Hybrid composite, hardness test, wear test, heat treatment, pin on disc wear testing machine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2614
228 An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Deep cold Rolling Parameters on Surface Roughness and Hardness of AISI 4140 Steel
Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma
Deep cold rolling (DCR) is a cold working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present study, the influence of main deep cold rolling process parameters on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied by using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in terms of identifying the predominant factor amongst the selected parameters, their order of significance and setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. It was found that the ball diameter, rolling force, initial surface roughness and number of tool passes are the most pronounced parameters, which have great effects on the work piece-s surface during the deep cold rolling process. A simple, inexpensive and newly developed DCR tool, with interchangeable collet for using different ball diameters, was used throughout the experimental work presented in this paper.
Keywords: Deep cold rolling, design of experiments, surface hardness, surface roughnessProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2044