Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Abhijit Mitra

36 Recognition of Isolated Speech Signals using Simplified Statistical Parameters

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Bhargav Kumar Mitra, Biswajoy Chatterjee

Abstract:

We present a novel scheme to recognize isolated speech signals using certain statistical parameters derived from those signals. The determination of the statistical estimates is based on extracted signal information rather than the original signal information in order to reduce the computational complexity. Subtle details of these estimates, after extracting the speech signal from ambience noise, are first exploited to segregate the polysyllabic words from the monosyllabic ones. Precise recognition of each distinct word is then carried out by analyzing the histogram, obtained from these information.

Keywords: Isolated speech signals, Block overlapping technique, Positive peaks, Histogram analysis.

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35 On the Construction of m-Sequences via Primitive Polynomials with a Fast Identification Method

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

The paper provides an in-depth tutorial of mathematical construction of maximal length sequences (m-sequences) via primitive polynomials and how to map the same when implemented in shift registers. It is equally important to check whether a polynomial is primitive or not so as to get proper m-sequences. A fast method to identify primitive polynomials over binary fields is proposed where the complexity is considerably less in comparison with the standard procedures for the same purpose.

Keywords: Finite field, irreducible polynomial, primitive polynomial, maximal length sequence, additive shift register, multiplicative shift register.

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34 Efficient Realization of an ADFE with a New Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: N. Praveen Kumar, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Decision feedback equalizers are commonly employed to reduce the error caused by intersymbol interference. Here, an adaptive decision feedback equalizer is presented with a new adaptation algorithm. The algorithm follows a block-based approach of normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm with set-membership filtering and achieves a significantly less computational complexity over its conventional NLMS counterpart with set-membership filtering. It is shown in the results that the proposed algorithm yields similar type of bit error rate performance over a reasonable signal to noise ratio in comparison with the latter one.

Keywords: Decision feedback equalizer, Adaptive algorithm, Block based computation, Set membership filtering.

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33 Evaluating Sinusoidal Functions by a Low Complexity Cubic Spline Interpolator with Error Optimization

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Harpreet Singh Dhillon

Abstract:

We present a novel scheme to evaluate sinusoidal functions with low complexity and high precision using cubic spline interpolation. To this end, two different approaches are proposed to find the interpolating polynomial of sin(x) within the range [- π , π]. The first one deals with only a single data point while the other with two to keep the realization cost as low as possible. An approximation error optimization technique for cubic spline interpolation is introduced next and is shown to increase the interpolator accuracy without increasing complexity of the associated hardware. The architectures for the proposed approaches are also developed, which exhibit flexibility of implementation with low power requirement.

Keywords: Arithmetic, spline interpolator, hardware design, erroranalysis, optimization methods.

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32 On the Properties of Pseudo Noise Sequences with a Simple Proposal of Randomness Test

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Maximal length sequences (m-sequences) are also known as pseudo random sequences or pseudo noise sequences for closely following Golomb-s popular randomness properties: (P1) balance, (P2) run, and (P3) ideal autocorrelation. Apart from these, there also exist certain other less known properties of such sequences all of which are discussed in this tutorial paper. Comprehensive proofs to each of these properties are provided towards better understanding of such sequences. A simple test is also proposed at the end of the paper in order to distinguish pseudo noise sequences from truly random sequences such as Bernoulli sequences.

Keywords: Maximal length sequence, pseudo noise sequence, punctured de Bruijn sequence, auto-correlation, Bernoulli sequence, randomness tests.

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31 Restoration of Noisy Document Images with an Efficient Bi-Level Adaptive Thresholding

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

An effective approach for extracting document images from a noisy background is introduced. The entire scheme is divided into three sub- stechniques – the initial preprocessing operations for noise cluster tightening, introduction of a new thresholding method by maximizing the ratio of stan- dard deviations of the combined effect on the image to the sum of weighted classes and finally the image restoration phase by image binarization utiliz- ing the proposed optimum threshold level. The proposed method is found to be efficient compared to the existing schemes in terms of computational complexity as well as speed with better noise rejection.

Keywords: Document image extraction, Preprocessing, Ratio of stan-dard deviations, Bi-level adaptive thresholding.

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30 On Finite Wordlength Properties of Block-Floating-Point Arithmetic

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

A special case of floating point data representation is block floating point format where a block of operands are forced to have a joint exponent term. This paper deals with the finite wordlength properties of this data format. The theoretical errors associated with the error model for block floating point quantization process is investigated with the help of error distribution functions. A fast and easy approximation formula for calculating signal-to-noise ratio in quantization to block floating point format is derived. This representation is found to be a useful compromise between fixed point and floating point format due to its acceptable numerical error properties over a wide dynamic range.

Keywords: Block floating point, Roundoff error, Block exponent dis-tribution fuction, Signal factor.

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29 A New Block-based NLMS Algorithm and Its Realization in Block Floating Point Format

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

we propose a new normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm, which gives satisfactory performance in certain applications in comaprison with con-ventional NLMS recursion. This new algorithm can be treated as a block based simplification of NLMS algorithm with significantly reduced number of multi¬ply and accumulate as well as division operations. It is also shown that such a recursion can be easily implemented in block floating point (BFP) arithmetic, treating the implementational issues much efficiently. In particular, the core challenges of a BFP realization to such adaptive filters are mainly considered in this regard. A global upper bound on the step size control parameter of the new algorithm due to BFP implementation is also proposed to prevent overflow in filtering as well as weight updating operations jointly.

Keywords: Adaptive algorithm, Block floating point arithmetic, Implementation issues, Normalized least mean square methods

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28 Automatic Authentication of Handwritten Documents via Low Density Pixel Measurements

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Pranab Kumar Banerjee, C. Ardil

Abstract:

We introduce an effective approach for automatic offline au- thentication of handwritten samples where the forgeries are skillfully done, i.e., the true and forgery sample appearances are almost alike. Subtle details of temporal information used in online verification are not available offline and are also hard to recover robustly. Thus the spatial dynamic information like the pen-tip pressure characteristics are considered, emphasizing on the extraction of low density pixels. The points result from the ballistic rhythm of a genuine signature which a forgery, however skillful that may be, always lacks. Ten effective features, including these low density points and den- sity ratio, are proposed to make the distinction between a true and a forgery sample. An adaptive decision criteria is also derived for better verification judgements.

Keywords: Handwritten document verification, Skilled forgeries, Low density pixels, Adaptive decision boundary.

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27 On the Effectivity of Different Pseudo-Noise and Orthogonal Sequences for Speech Encryption from Correlation Properties

Authors: V. Anil Kumar, Abhijit Mitra, S. R. Mahadeva Prasanna

Abstract:

We analyze the effectivity of different pseudo noise (PN) and orthogonal sequences for encrypting speech signals in terms of perceptual intelligence. Speech signal can be viewed as sequence of correlated samples and each sample as sequence of bits. The residual intelligibility of the speech signal can be reduced by removing the correlation among the speech samples. PN sequences have random like properties that help in reducing the correlation among speech samples. The mean square aperiodic auto-correlation (MSAAC) and the mean square aperiodic cross-correlation (MSACC) measures are used to test the randomness of the PN sequences. Results of the investigation show the effectivity of large Kasami sequences for this purpose among many PN sequences.

Keywords: Speech encryption, pseudo-noise codes, maximallength, Gold, Barker, Kasami, Walsh-Hadamard, autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, figure of merit.

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26 On Pseudo-Random and Orthogonal Binary Spreading Sequences

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Different pseudo-random or pseudo-noise (PN) as well as orthogonal sequences that can be used as spreading codes for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks or can be used for encrypting speech signals to reduce the residual intelligence are investigated. We briefly review the theoretical background for direct sequence CDMA systems and describe the main characteristics of the maximal length, Gold, Barker, and Kasami sequences. We also discuss about variable- and fixed-length orthogonal codes like Walsh- Hadamard codes. The equivalence of PN and orthogonal codes are also derived. Finally, a new PN sequence is proposed which is shown to have certain better properties than the existing codes.

Keywords: Code division multiple access, pseudo-noise codes, maximal length, Gold, Barker, Kasami, Walsh-Hadamard, autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, figure of merit.

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25 An Investigation on Efficient Spreading Codes for Transmitter Based Techniques to Mitigate MAI and ISI in TDD/CDMA Downlink

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

We investigate efficient spreading codes for transmitter based techniques of code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. The channel is considered to be known at the transmitter which is usual in a time division duplex (TDD) system where the channel is assumed to be the same on uplink and downlink. For such a TDD/CDMA system, both bitwise and blockwise multiuser transmission schemes are taken up where complexity is transferred to the transmitter side so that the receiver has minimum complexity. Different spreading codes are considered at the transmitter to spread the signal efficiently over the entire spectrum. The bit error rate (BER) curves portray the efficiency of the codes in presence of multiple access interference (MAI) as well as inter symbol interference (ISI).

Keywords: Code division multiple access, time division duplex, transmitter technique, precoding, pre-rake, rake, spreading code.

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24 A Reduced-Bit Multiplication Algorithm for Digital Arithmetic

Authors: Harpreet Singh Dhillon, Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

A reduced-bit multiplication algorithm based on the ancient Vedic multiplication formulae is proposed in this paper. Both the Vedic multiplication formulae, Urdhva tiryakbhyam and Nikhilam, are first discussed in detail. Urdhva tiryakbhyam, being a general multiplication formula, is equally applicable to all cases of multiplication. It is applied to the digital arithmetic and is shown to yield a multiplier architecture which is very similar to the popular array multiplier. Due to its structure, it leads to a high carry propagation delay in case of multiplication of large numbers. Nikhilam Sutra, on the other hand, is more efficient in the multiplication of large numbers as it reduces the multiplication of two large numbers to that of two smaller numbers. The framework of the proposed algorithm is taken from this Sutra and is further optimized by use of some general arithmetic operations such as expansion and bit-shifting to take advantage of bit-reduction in multiplication. We illustrate the proposed algorithm by reducing a general 4x4-bit multiplication to a single 2 x 2-bit multiplication operation.

Keywords: Multiplication, algorithm, Vedic mathematics, digital arithmetic, reduced-bit.

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23 A Fast Adaptive Tomlinson-Harashima Precoder for Indoor Wireless Communications

Authors: M. Naresh Kumar, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

A fast adaptive Tomlinson Harashima (T-H) precoder structure is presented for indoor wireless communications, where the channel may vary due to rotation and small movement of the mobile terminal. A frequency-selective slow fading channel which is time-invariant over a frame is assumed. In this adaptive T-H precoder, feedback coefficients are updated at the end of every uplink frame by using system identification technique for channel estimation in contrary with the conventional T-H precoding concept where the channel is estimated during the starting of the uplink frame via Wiener solution. In conventional T-H precoder it is assumed the channel is time-invariant in both uplink and downlink frames. However assuming the channel is time-invariant over only one frame instead of two, the proposed adaptive T-H precoder yields better performance than conventional T-H precoder if the channel is varied in uplink after receiving the training sequence.

Keywords: Tomlinson-Harashima precoder, Adaptive channel estimation, Indoor wireless communication, Bit error rate.

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22 A Simplified Single Correlator Rake Receiver for CDMA Communications

Authors: K. Murali Krishna, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents a single correlator RAKE receiver for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems. In conventional RAKE receivers, multiple correlators are used to despread the multipath signals and then to align and combine those signals in a later stage before making a bit decision. The simplified receiver structure presented here uses a single correlator and single code sequence generator to recover the multipaths. Modified Walsh- Hadamard codes are used here for data spreading that provides better uncorrelation properties for the multipath signals. The main advantage of this receiver structure is that it requires only a single correlator and a code generator in contrary to the conventional RAKE receiver concept with multiple correlators. It is shown in results that the proposed receiver achieves better bit error rates in comparison with the conventional one for more than one multipaths.

Keywords: RAKE receiver, Code division multiple access, ModifiedWalsh-Hadamard codes, Single correlator.

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21 A New Digital Transceiver Circuit for Asynchronous Communication

Authors: Aakash Subramanian, Vansh Pal Singh Makh, Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

A new digital transceiver circuit for asynchronous frame detection is proposed where both the transmitter and receiver contain all digital components, thereby avoiding possible use of conventional devices like monostable multivibrators with unstable external components such as resistances and capacitances. The proposed receiver circuit, in particular, uses a combinational logic block yielding an output which changes its state as soon as the start bit of a new frame is detected. This, in turn, helps in generating an efficient receiver sampling clock. A data latching circuit is also used in the receiver to latch the recovered data bits in any new frame. The proposed receiver structure is also extended from 4- bit information to any general n data bits within a frame with a common expression for the output of the combinational logic block. Performance of the proposed hardware design is evaluated in terms of time delay, reliability and robustness in comparison with the standard schemes using monostable multivibrators. It is observed from hardware implementation that the proposed circuit achieves almost 33 percent speed up over any conventional circuit.

Keywords: Asynchronous Communication, Digital Detector, Combinational logic output, Sampling clock generator, Hardwareimplementation.

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20 A Finite Precision Block Floating Point Treatment to Direct Form, Cascaded and Parallel FIR Digital Filters

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient finite precision block floating point (BFP) treatment to the fixed coefficient finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. The treatment includes effective implementation of all the three forms of the conventional FIR filters, namely, direct form, cascaded and par- allel, and a roundoff error analysis of them in the BFP format. An effective block formatting algorithm together with an adaptive scaling factor is pro- posed to make the realizations more simple from hardware view point. To this end, a generic relation between the tap weight vector length and the input block length is deduced. The implementation scheme also emphasises on a simple block exponent update technique to prevent overflow even during the block to block transition phase. The roundoff noise is also investigated along the analogous lines, taking into consideration these implementational issues. The simulation results show that the BFP roundoff errors depend on the sig- nal level almost in the same way as floating point roundoff noise, resulting in approximately constant signal to noise ratio over a relatively large dynamic range.

Keywords: Finite impulse response digital filters, Cascade structure, Parallel structure, Block floating point arithmetic, Roundoff error.

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19 Sonic Localization Cues for Classrooms: A Structural Model Proposal

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

We investigate sonic cues for binaural sound localization within classrooms and present a structural model for the same. Two of the primary cues for localization, interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) created between the two ears by sounds from a particular point in space, are used. Although these cues do not lend any information about the elevation of a sound source, the torso, head, and outer ear carry out elevation dependent spectral filtering of sounds before they reach the inner ear. This effect is commonly captured in head related transfer function (HRTF) which aids in resolving the ambiguity from the ITDs and ILDs alone and helps localize sounds in free space. The proposed structural model of HRTF produces well controlled horizontal as well as vertical effects. The implemented HRTF is a signal processing model which tries to mimic the physical effects of the sounds interacting with different parts of the body. The effectiveness of the method is tested by synthesizing spatial audio, in MATLAB, for use in listening tests with human subjects and is found to yield satisfactory results in comparison with existing models.

Keywords: Auditory localization, Binaural sound, Head related impulse response, Head related transfer function, Interaural level difference, Interaural time difference, Localization cues.

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18 Detecting Subsurface Circular Objects from Low Contrast Noisy Images: Applications in Microscope Image Enhancement

Authors: Soham De, Nupur Biswas, Abhijit Sanyal, Pulak Ray, Alokmay Datta

Abstract:

Particle detection in very noisy and low contrast images is an active field of research in image processing. In this article, a method is proposed for the efficient detection and sizing of subsurface spherical particles, which is used for the processing of softly fused Au nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy is used for imaging the nanoparticles, and the proposed algorithm has been tested with the two-dimensional projected TEM images obtained. Results are compared with the data obtained by transmission optical spectroscopy, as well as with conventional circular object detection algorithms.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Circular Hough Transform, Au Nanoparticles, Median Filter, Laplacian Sharpening Filter, Canny Edge Detection

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17 Detection of Power Quality Disturbances using Wavelet Transform

Authors: Sudipta Nath, Arindam Dey, Abhijit Chakrabarti

Abstract:

This paper presents features that characterize power quality disturbances from recorded voltage waveforms using wavelet transform. The discrete wavelet transform has been used to detect and analyze power quality disturbances. The disturbances of interest include sag, swell, outage and transient. A power system network has been simulated by Electromagnetic Transients Program. Voltage waveforms at strategic points have been obtained for analysis, which includes different power quality disturbances. Then wavelet has been chosen to perform feature extraction. The outputs of the feature extraction are the wavelet coefficients representing the power quality disturbance signal. Wavelet coefficients at different levels reveal the time localizing information about the variation of the signal.

Keywords: Power quality, detection of disturbance, wavelet transform, multiresolution signal decomposition.

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16 Supremacy of Differential Evolution Algorithm in Designing Multiplier-Less Low-Pass FIR Filter

Authors: Abhijit Chandra, Sudipta Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

In this communication, we have made an attempt to design multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of various mutation strategies of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Impulse response coefficient of the designed FIR filter has been represented as sums or differences of powers of two. Performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated in terms of its frequency response and associated hardware cost. Supremacy of our approach has been substantiated by comparing our result with many of the existing multiplier-less filter design algorithms of recent interest. It has also been demonstrated that DE-optimized filter outperforms Genetic Algorithm (GA) based design by a large margin.  Hardware efficiency of our algorithm has further been validated by implementing those filters on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip.

Keywords: Convergence speed, Differential Evolution (DE), error histogram, finite impulse response (FIR) filter, total power of two (TPT), zero-valued filter coefficient (ZFC).

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15 On Preprocessing of Speech Signals

Authors: Ayaz Keerio, Bhargav Kumar Mitra, Philip Birch, Rupert Young, Chris Chatwin

Abstract:

Preprocessing of speech signals is considered a crucial step in the development of a robust and efficient speech or speaker recognition system. In this paper, we present some popular statistical outlier-detection based strategies to segregate the silence/unvoiced part of the speech signal from the voiced portion. The proposed methods are based on the utilization of the 3 σ edit rule, and the Hampel Identifier which are compared with the conventional techniques: (i) short-time energy (STE) based methods, and (ii) distribution based methods. The results obtained after applying the proposed strategies on some test voice signals are encouraging.

Keywords: STE based methods, Mahalanobis distance, 3 edit σ rule, Hampel Identifier.

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14 Mathematical Determination of Tall Square Building Height under Peak Wind Loads

Authors: Debojyoti Mitra

Abstract:

The present study concentrates on solving the along wind oscillation problem of a tall square building from first principles and across wind oscillation problem of the same from empirical relations obtained by experiments. The criterion for human comfort at the worst condition at the top floor of the building is being considered and a limiting value of height of a building for a given cross section is predicted. Numerical integrations are carried out as and when required. The results show severeness of across wind oscillations in comparison to along wind oscillation. The comfort criterion is combined with across wind oscillation results to determine the maximum allowable height of a building for a given square cross-section.

Keywords: Tall Building, Along-wind Response, Across-wind Response, Human Comfort.

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13 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So

Abstract:

Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: Formaldehyde, indoor air quality, passive panel, removal efficiency, sorption.

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12 Design and Analysis of a Low Power High Speed 1 Bit Full Adder Cell Based On TSPC Logic with Multi-Threshold CMOS

Authors: Ankit Mitra

Abstract:

An adder is one of the most integral component of a digital system like a digital signal processor or a microprocessor. Being an extremely computationally intensive part of a system, the optimization for speed and power consumption of the adder is of prime importance. In this paper we have designed a 1 bit full adder cell based on dynamic TSPC logic to achieve high speed operation. A high threshold voltage sleep transistor is used to reduce the static power dissipation in standby mode. The circuit is designed and simulated in TSPICE using TSMC 180nm CMOS process. Average power consumption, delay and power-delay product is measured which showed considerable improvement in performance over the existing full adder designs.

Keywords: CMOS, TSPC, MTCMOS, ALU, Clock gating, power gating, pipelining.

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11 Renewal Plan for the Old Part of Chittagong: A Case Study of Firingi Bazar

Authors: A. T. M. Shahjahan, M. D. Kamrul Islam, Saikat Mitra, Kutub Uddin Chisty

Abstract:

Due to rapid pressured of population growth, city has started to lose its old tradition. City becomes congested with uncomfortably living. Urban renewal refers orderly development of settlements as well as land redevelopment. For this paper Chittagong city has been selected as study area. It had a great tradition but it has been losing its concord. Land use pattern of this place is also haphazard due to lack of planning intervention. Renewal plan is needed to ascertain suitable redevelopment and to recommend on preservation of city heritage structure. The goal of this study is to prepare a renewal plan using local planning approach. Social impact methods have been used to achieve this goal. Both primary and secondary data are used to achieve the goal. This study may find out a complete solution for healthy living in old Part of city. This study will help to preserve its tradition and makes urban lives more livable.

Keywords: Renewal Plan, Social Impact.

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10 A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques

Authors: A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao, S. R. M. Prasanna

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach for image encryption using a combination of different permutation techniques. The main idea behind the present work is that an image can be viewed as an arrangement of bits, pixels and blocks. The intelligible information present in an image is due to the correlations among the bits, pixels and blocks in a given arrangement. This perceivable information can be reduced by decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques. This paper presents an approach for a random combination of the aforementioned permutations for image encryption. From the results, it is observed that the permutation of bits is effective in significantly reducing the correlation thereby decreasing the perceptual information, whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher level security compared to bit permutation. A random combination method employing all the three techniques thus is observed to be useful for tactical security applications, where protection is needed only against a casual observer.

Keywords: Encryption, Permutation, Good key, Combinationalpermutation, Pseudo random index generator.

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9 Design and Analysis of an 8T Read Decoupled Dual Port SRAM Cell for Low Power High Speed Applications

Authors: Ankit Mitra

Abstract:

Speed, power consumption and area, are some of the most important factors of concern in modern day memory design. As we move towards Deep Sub-Micron Technologies, the problems of leakage current, noise and cell stability due to physical parameter variation becomes more pronounced. In this paper we have designed an 8T Read Decoupled Dual Port SRAM Cell with Dual Threshold Voltage and characterized it in terms of read and write delay, read and write noise margins, Data Retention Voltage and Leakage Current. Read Decoupling improves the Read Noise Margin and static power dissipation is reduced by using Dual-Vt transistors. The results obtained are compared with existing 6T, 8T, 9T SRAM Cells, which shows the superiority of the proposed design. The Cell is designed and simulated in TSPICE using 90nm CMOS process.

Keywords: CMOS, Dual-Port, Data Retention Voltage, 8T SRAM, Leakage Current, Noise Margin, Loop-cutting, Single-ended.

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8 A Simplified Adaptive Decision Feedback Equalization Technique for π/4-DQPSK Signals

Authors: V. Prapulla, A. Mitra, R. Bhattacharjee, S. Nandi

Abstract:

We present a simplified equalization technique for a π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying ( π/4 -DQPSK) modulated signal in a multipath fading environment. The proposed equalizer is realized as a fractionally spaced adaptive decision feedback equalizer (FS-ADFE), employing exponential step-size least mean square (LMS) algorithm as the adaptation technique. The main advantage of the scheme stems from the usage of exponential step-size LMS algorithm in the equalizer, which achieves similar convergence behavior as that of a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with significantly reduced computational complexity. To investigate the finite-precision performance of the proposed equalizer along with the π/4 -DQPSK modem, the entire system is evaluated on a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor (DSP) environment. The proposed scheme is found to be attractive even for those cases where equalization is to be performed within a restricted number of training samples.

Keywords: Adaptive decision feedback equalizer, Fractionally spaced equalizer, π/4 DQPSK signal, Digital signal processor.

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7 Experimental Determination of Reactions of Wind-Resistant Support of Circular Stacks in Various Configurations

Authors: Debojyoti Mitra

Abstract:

Higher capacities of power plants together with increased awareness on environmental considerations have led to taller height of stacks. It is seen that strong wind can result in falling of stacks. So, aerodynamic consideration of stacks is very important in order to save the falling of stacks. One stack is not enough in industries and power sectors and two or three stacks are required for proper operation of the unit. It is very important to arrange the stacks in proper way to resist their downfall. The present experimental study concentrates on the mutual effect of three nearby stacks on each other at three different arrangements, viz. linear, side-by-side and triangular. The experiments find out the directions of resultant forces acting on the stacks in different configurations so that proper arrangement of supports can be made with respect to the wind directionality obtained from local meteorological data. One can also easily ascertain which stack is more vulnerable to wind in comparison to the others for a particular configuration. Thus, this study is important in studying the effect of wind force on three stacks in different arrangements and is very helpful in placing the supports in proper places in order to avoid failing of stack-like structures due to wind.

Keywords: Stacks, relative positioning, drag and lift forces, resultant forces and supports.

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