Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 299

Search results for: walking workers.

299 The Application of Rhizophora Wood to Design: A Walking Stick for Elderly

Authors: Noppadon Sangwalpetch

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to use Rhizophora wood to design a walking stick for elderly. The research was conducted by studying the behavior and the type of walking sticks used by 70 elderly aged between 60-80 years in Pragnamdaeng Sub-District, Samudsongkram Province. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were calculated to find percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results are as follows: 1) most elderly use walking sticks due to the Osteoarthritis of the knees. 2) Most elderly need to use walking sticks because the walking sticks help to balance their positioning and prevent from stumble. 3) Most elderly agree that Rhizophora wood is suitable to make a walking stick because of its strength and toughness. 4) The design of the walking stick should be fine and practical with comfortable handle and the tip of the stick must not be slippery.

Keywords: Elderly, Product design, Rhizophora wood, Walking Stick.

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298 Analysis of Production Loss on a Linear Walking Worker Line

Authors: Qian Wang, Sylvain Lassalle, Antony R. Mileham, Geraint W. Owen

Abstract:

This paper mathematically analyses the varying magnitude of production loss, which may occur due to idle time (inprocess waiting time and traveling time) on a linear walking worker assembly line. Within this flexible and reconfigurable assembly system, each worker travels down the line carrying out each assembly task at each station; and each worker accomplishes the assembly of a unit from start to finish and then travels back to the first station to start the assembly of a new product. This strategy of system design attempts to combine the flexibility of the U-shaped moving worker assembly cell with the efficiency of the conventional fixed worker assembly line. The paper aims to evaluate the effect of idle time that may offset the labor efficiency of each walking worker providing an insight into the mechanism of such a flexible and reconfigurable assembly system.

Keywords: Production lines, manufacturing systems, assemblysystems, walking workers.

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297 Walking and Sustainable Urban Transportation

Authors: Khashayar Kashani Jou

Abstract:

Walking as a type of non-motorized transportation has various social, economical and environmental privileges. Also, today different aspects of sustainable development have been emphasized and promotion of sustainable transportation modes has been considered according to this approach. Therefore, the objective of this research is exploring the circumstance of relationship between walking and sustainable urban transportation.For writing this article, the most important resources related to the traits of walking have been surveyed via a documentary method and after explaining the concept of sustainable transportation and its indicators, benefiting from the viewpoints of transportation experts of Tehran, as the capital and greatest city of Iran, different modes of urban transportation have been compared in proportion to each criterion and to each other and have been analyzed according to AHP method. The results of this study indicate that walking is the most sustainable mode of inner city transportation.

Keywords: Walking, Non-motorized transportation, Sustainable transportation, AHP

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296 Human Walking Vertical Force and Vertical Vibration of Pedestrian Bridge Induced by Its Higher Components

Authors: M. Yoneda

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify human walking vertical force by using FFT power spectrum density from the experimental acceleration data of the human body. An experiment on human walking is carried out on a stationary floor especially paying attention to higher components of dynamic vertical walking force. Based on measured acceleration data of the human lumbar part, not only in-phase component with frequency of 2fw, 3fw, but also in-opposite-phase component with frequency of 0.5 fw, 1.5 fw, 2.5 fw where fw is the walking rate is observed. The vertical vibration of pedestrian bridge induced by higher components of human walking vertical force is also discussed in this paper. A full scale measurement for the existing pedestrian bridge with center span length of 33 m is carried out focusing on the resonance phenomenon due to higher components of human walking vertical force. Dynamic response characteristics excited by these vertical higher components of human walking are revealed from the dynamic design viewpoint of pedestrian bridge.

Keywords: Simplified method, Human walking vertical force, Higher component, Pedestrian bridge vibration.

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295 Design and Trajectory Planning of Bipedal Walking Robot with Minimum Sufficient Actuation System

Authors: H. Siswoyo Jo, N. Mir-Nasiri, E. Jayamani

Abstract:

This paper presents a new type of mechanism and trajectory planning strategy for bipedal walking robot. The newly designed mechanism is able to improve the performance of bipedal walking robot in terms of energy efficiency and weight reduction by utilizing minimum number of actuators. The usage of parallelogram mechanism eliminates the needs of having an extra actuator at the knee joint. This mechanism works together with the joint space trajectory planning in order to realize straight legged walking which cannot be achieved by conventional inverse kinematics trajectory planning due to the singularity. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is confirmed by computer simulation results.

Keywords: Bipedal robot, Energy efficiency, Straight legged walking, Trajectory planning.

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294 Target Trajectory Design of Parametrically Excited Inverted Pendulum for Efficient Bipedal Walking

Authors: Toyoyuki Honjo, Takeshi Hayashi, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo

Abstract:

For stable bipedal gait generation on the level floor, efficient restoring of mechanical energy lost by heel collision at the ground is necessary. Parametric excitation principle is one of the solutions. We dealt with the robot-s total center of mass as an inverted pendulum to consider the total dynamics of the robot. Parametrically excited walking requires the use of continuous target trajectory that is close to discontinuous optimal trajectory. In this paper, we proposed the new target trajectory based on a position in the walking direction. We surveyed relations between walking performance and the parameters that form the target trajectory via numerical simulations. As a result, it was found that our target trajectory has the similar characteristics of a parametrically excited inverted pendulum.

Keywords: Dynamic Bipedal Walking, Parametric Excitation, Target Trajectory Design.

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293 Reactive Neural Control for Phototaxis and Obstacle Avoidance Behavior of Walking Machines

Authors: Poramate Manoonpong, Frank Pasemann, Florentin Wörgötter

Abstract:

This paper describes reactive neural control used to generate phototaxis and obstacle avoidance behavior of walking machines. It utilizes discrete-time neurodynamics and consists of two main neural modules: neural preprocessing and modular neural control. The neural preprocessing network acts as a sensory fusion unit. It filters sensory noise and shapes sensory data to drive the corresponding reactive behavior. On the other hand, modular neural control based on a central pattern generator is applied for locomotion of walking machines. It coordinates leg movements and can generate omnidirectional walking. As a result, through a sensorimotor loop this reactive neural controller enables the machines to explore a dynamic environment by avoiding obstacles, turn toward a light source, and then stop near to it.

Keywords: Recurrent neural networks, Walking robots, Modular neural control, Phototaxis, Obstacle avoidance behavior.

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292 Factors Affecting the Wages of Native Workers in Thailand's Construction Industry

Authors: C. Noknoi, W. Boripunt, K. Boomid, S. Suwitphanwong

Abstract:

This research studies the factors influencing the wages of native workers in Thailand's construction industry. The sample used comprised some 156 native construction workers from Songkhla Province, Thailand. The utilized research instrument was a questionnaire, with the data being analyzed according to frequency, percentage, and regression analysis. The results revealed that in general, native Thai construction workers are generally married males aged between 26 and 37 years old. They typically have four to six years of education, are employed as laborers with an average salary of 4,000–9,200 baht per month, and have fewer than five years of work experience. Most Thai workers work five days a week. Each establishment typically has 10–30 employees, with fewer than 10 of these being migrant workers in general. Most Thai workers are at a 20% to 40% risk from work, and they have never changed employer. The average wage of Thai workers was found to be 10,843.03 baht per month with a standard deviation of 4,898.31 baht per month. Hypothesis testing revealed that position, work experience, and the number of times they had switched employer were the factors most affecting the wages of native Thai construction workers. These three factors alone explain the salaries of Thai construction workers at 51.9%.  

Keywords: Construction industry, native workers, Thailand, wages.

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291 Human Induced Dynamic Loading on Stairs

Authors: L. Gaile, I. Radinsh

Abstract:

Based on experimental data using accelerometry technology there was developed an analytical model that approximates human induced ground reaction forces in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions ascending and descending the stairs. Proposed dynamic loading factors and corresponding phase shifts for the first five harmonics of continuous walking force history in case of stair ascend and descend. Into account is taken imperfectness of individual footfall forcing functions, differences between continuous walking force histories among individuals. There is proposed mean synthetic continuous walking force history that can be used in numerical simulations of human movement on the stairs.

Keywords: footfall, ground reaction forces, human loads, serviceability, stair vibration, walking

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290 Managing a Manufacturing System with Integration of Walking Worker and Lean Thinking

Authors: Said Rabah Azzam, Laura Carolina Arias, Shikun Zhou

Abstract:

A product goes through various processes in a production flow which is also known as assembly line in manufacturing process management. Toyota created a new concept which is known as lean concept in manufacturing industry. Today it is the leading model in manufacturing plants through the globe. The linear walking worker assembly line is a flexible assembly system where each worker travels down the line carrying out each assembly task at each station; and each worker accomplishes the assembly of a unit from start to finish. This paper attempts to combine the flexibility of the walking worker and lean in order to quantify the benefits from applying the shop floor principles of lean management.

Keywords: Toyota Production System, TPS, LeanManufacturing, Walking Worker, Lean Management, Management, Linear Assembly Lines, U-shaped Assembly Lines, Shop FloorManagement

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289 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate.

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288 Injury Prevention among Construction Workers: A Case Study on Iranian Steel Bar Bending Workers

Authors: S. Behnam Asl, H. Sadeghi Naeini, L. Sadat Ensaniat, R. Khorshidian, S. Alipour, S. Behnam Asl

Abstract:

Nowadays the construction industry is growing specially among developing counties. Iran also has a critical role in these industries in terms of workers disorders. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) assign 7% of the whole diseases in the society, which make some limitations. One of the main factors, which are ended to WMSDs, is awkward posture. Steel bar bending is considered as one of the prominent performance among construction workers. In this case study we conducted to find the major tasks of bar benders and the most important related risk factors. This study was carried out among twenty workers (18-45 years) as our volunteer samples in some construction sites with less than 6 floors in two regions of Tehran municipality. The data was gathered through in depth observation, interview and questionnaire. Also postural analysis was done by OWAS. In another part of study we used NMQ for gathering some data about psychosocial effects of work related disorders. Our findings show that 64% of workers were not aware of work risks, also about 59% of workers had troubles in their wrists, hands, and especially among workers who worked in steel bar bending. In 46% cases low back pain were prevalence. Considering with gathered data and results, awkward postures and long term tasks and its duration are known as the main risk factors in WMSDs among construction workers, so work-rest schedule and also tools design should be considered to make an ergonomic condition for the mentioned workers.

Keywords: Bar benders, construction workers, musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), OWAS method.

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287 A Systematic Approach for Design a Low-Cost Mobility Assistive Device for Elderly People

Authors: Omar Salah, Ahmed A. Ramadan, Salvatore Sessa, Ahmed A. Abo-Ismail

Abstract:

Walking and sit to stand are activities carried out by all the people many times during the day, but physical disabilities due to age and diseases create needs of assistive devices to help elderly people during their daily life. This study aims to study the different types and mechanisms of the assistive devices. We will analyze the limitations and the challenges faced by the researchers in this field. We will introduce the Assistive Device developed at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, named E-JUST Assistive Device (EJAD). EJAD will be a low cost intelligent assistive device to help elders in walking and sit-to-stand activities.

Keywords: Active walker, Assistive robotics, Standing Assistance, Walking Assistance

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286 Life Experiences are Important Factors of Making Stronger SOC (Sense of Coherence) on the Workers in Tsukuba Research Park City (TRPC)

Authors: Shinichiro Sasahara, Yusuke Tomotsune, Yuichi Ohi, Shun Suzuki, Akihiro Seki, Junko Sakano, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Ichiyo Matsuzaki

Abstract:

Via a large scale cross-sectional study among Japanese white color workers, the authors aimed to elucidate: (1) the distributions of Sense of Coherence (SOC), which reflect stress coping abilities, (2) the distributions of Life experience; (3) and the association between SOC and Life experience. Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were sent to 15,891 in 2001 and 21,922 in 2011 employees at educational and research institutions in Tsukuba Research Park City. A total of 5,868 (36.9%) and 9,528 (43.5%) respectively workers completed and returned the questionnaire; 5,715 and 9,515 respectively workers without missing data were analyzed. SOC scale scores differed by gender, age, and other demographic features in both study years. Among the life experiences, workers who have got over parenting or management position were higher SOC scale scores adjusted by gender and age. The life experiences that workers have got over could develop their stronger SOC in their life course.

Keywords: field study, life experience, mental health, SOC (sense of coherence)

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285 Consequential Influences of Work-Induced Emotions on the Work-Induced Happiness of Frontline Workers in Finance-Oriented Firms

Authors: Mohammed-Aminu Sanda, Emmanuel K. Mawuena

Abstract:

Frontline workers performing client service duties in finance-oriented firms in most sub-Saharan African countries, such as Ghana, are known to be challenged in the conduct of their activities. The challenge is attributed to clients’ continued demand for real-time services from such workers, despite the introduction of technological interventions to offset the situation. This has caused such frontline workers to experience increases in their work-induced emotions with consequential effects on their work-induced happiness. This study, therefore, explored the effect of frontline workers’ work-induced emotions on their worked-induced happiness when providing tellering services to clients. A cross-sectional design and quantitative technique were used. Data were collected from a sample of 280 frontline workers using questionnaire. Based on the analysis, it was found that an increase in the frontline workers’ work-induced emotions, caused by their feelings of strain, burnout, frustration, and hard work, had consequential effect on their work-induced happiness. This consequential effect was also found to be aggravated by the workers’ senses of being stretched beyond limit, being emotionally drained, and being used up by their work activities. It is concluded that frontline workers in finance-oriented firms can provide quality real-time services to clients without increases in their work-induced emotions, but with enhanced work-induced happiness, when the psychological and physiological emotional factors associated with the challenged work activities are understood and remedied. Management of the firms can use such understanding to redesign the activities of their frontline workers and improve the quality of their service delivery interactivity with clients.

Keywords: Client-service activity, finance industrial sector, frontline workers, work-induced emotion, work-induced happiness.

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284 Pedestrian Areas and Sustainable Development

Authors: Khashayar Kashani Jou

Abstract:

Transportation is one of the most fundamental challenges of urban development in contemporary world. On the other hand, sustainable urban development has received tremendous public attention in the last few years. This trend in addition to other factors such as energy cost, environmental concerns, traffic congestion and the feeling of lack of belonging have contributed to the development of pedestrian areas. The purpose of this paper is to study the role of walkable streets in sustainable development of cities. Accordingly, a documentary research through valid sources has been utilized to substantiate this study. The findings demonstrate that walking can lead to sustainable urban development from physical, social, environmental, cultural, economic and political aspects. Also, pedestrian areas –which are the main context of walking- act as focal points of development in cities and have a great effect on modifying and stimulating of their adjacent urban spaces.

Keywords: Pedestrian area, Sustainable urban development, Walking, Woonerf

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283 Rehabilitation Robot in Primary Walking Pattern Training for SCI Patient at Home

Authors: Taisuke Sakaki, Toshihiko Shimokawa, Nobuhiro Ushimi, Koji Murakami, Yong-Kwun Lee, Kazuhiro Tsuruta, Kanta Aoki, Kaoru Fujiie, Ryuji Katamoto, Atsushi Sugyo

Abstract:

Recently attention has been focused on incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI) to the central spine caused by pressure on parts of the white matter conduction pathway, such as the pyramidal tract. In this paper, we focus on a training robot designed to assist with primary walking-pattern training. The target patient for this training robot is relearning the basic functions of the usual walking pattern; it is meant especially for those with incomplete-type SCI to the central spine, who are capable of standing by themselves but not of performing walking motions. From the perspective of human engineering, we monitored the operator’s actions to the robot and investigated the movement of joints of the lower extremities, the circumference of the lower extremities, and exercise intensity with the machine. The concept of the device was to provide mild training without any sudden changes in heart rate or blood pressure, which will be particularly useful for the elderly and disabled. The mechanism of the robot is modified to be simple and lightweight with the expectation that it will be used at home.

Keywords: Training, rehabilitation, SCI patient, welfare, robot.

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282 Study on Influencing Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area

Authors: Yang Wenjuan, Xu Yilun

Abstract:

Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.

Keywords: Rail transit station area, walkability, evaluation, influence factors.

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281 Design and Implementation of a Control System for a Walking Robot with Color Sensing and Line Following Using PIC and ATMEL Microcontrollers

Authors: Ibraheem K. Ibraheem

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design and implement line-tracking mobile robot. The robot must follow a line drawn on the floor with different color, avoids hitting moving object like another moving robot or walking people and achieves color sensing. The control system reacts by controlling each of the motors to keep the tracking sensor over the middle of the line. Proximity sensors used to avoid hitting moving objects that may pass in front of the robot. The programs have been written using micro c instructions, then converted into PIC16F887 ATmega48/88/168 microcontrollers counterparts. Practical simulations show that the walking robot accurately achieves line following action and exactly recognizes the colors and avoids any obstacle in front of it.

Keywords: Color sensing, H-bridge, line following, mobile robot, PIC microcontroller, obstacle avoidance, phototransistor.

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280 Incidence of Gastrointestinal Parasites among Workers in Major Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: L. B. Gboeloh, K. Elele

Abstract:

Gastrointestinal parasitic infections are common health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross- sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among workers in major abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. These abattoirs are located in Trans-Amadi, Rumuodumaya, Mile III and Easter-by-Pass. Formol-ether concentration technique was used to isolate the ova and cysts from faecal samples. Out of 201 workers (herdsmen, butchers, and cleaners) investigated for the presence of these parasites, 89 (44.2%) were infected with one or more parasites. The prevalence of the parasites among herdsmen and cleaners was significantly (P<0.05) higher. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in relation to age. Parasites identified included Ascaris lumbricoide (33.3%), tapeworm (4.97%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.47%), hookworms (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (9.95%), Gardia lamblia (3.48%), and Schistosoma mansoni (1.9%). The frequency of A. lumbricoide was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other parasites. Many workers (65.2%) had single infection than double (23.6%) and triple infection (11.2%). Sanitary improvements, increased level of personal hygiene, routine surveillance by public health practitioners and veterinary experts as well as hygienic operation using modern technologies to process meat at these abattoirs will go a long way to control occupational gastrointestinal parasites among workers.

Keywords: Abattoirs, Gastrointestinal parasites, Port Harcourt, Workers.

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279 Walking Hexapod Robot in Disaster Recovery: Developing Algorithm for Terrain Negotiation and Navigation

Authors: Md. Masum Billah, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Soheli Farhana

Abstract:

In modern day disaster recovery mission has become one of the top priorities in any natural disaster management regime. Smart autonomous robots may play a significant role in such missions, including search for life under earth quake hit rubbles, Tsunami hit islands, de-mining in war affected areas and many other such situations. In this paper current state of many walking robots are compared and advantages of hexapod systems against wheeled robots are described. In our research we have selected a hexapod spider robot; we are developing focusing mainly on efficient navigation method in different terrain using apposite gait of locomotion, which will make it faster and at the same time energy efficient to navigate and negotiate difficult terrain. This paper describes the method of terrain negotiation navigation in a hazardous field.

Keywords: Walking robots, locomotion, hexapod robot, gait, hazardous field.

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278 Exoskeleton for Hemiplegic Patients: Mechatronic Approach to Move One Disabled Lower Limb

Authors: Alaoui Hamza, Moutacalli Mohamed Tarik, Chebak Ahmed

Abstract:

The number of people suffering from hemiplegia is growing each year. This lower limb disability affects all the aspects of their lives by taking away their autonomy. This implicates their close relatives, as well as the health system to provide the necessary care they need. The integration of exoskeletons in the medical field became a promising solution to resolve this issue. This paper presents an exoskeleton designed to help hemiplegic people get back the sensation and ability of normal walking. For this purpose, three step models have been created. The first step allows a simple forward movement of the leg. The second method is designed to overcome some obstacles in the patient path, and finally the third step model gives the patient total control over the device. Each of the control methods was designed to offer a solution to the challenges that the patients may face during the walking process.

Keywords: Ability of normal walking, exoskeleton, hemiplegic patients, lower limb motion, mechatronics.

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277 Effect of Twelve Weeks Brisk Walking on Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Anthropometric Circumference of Obese Males

Authors: Kaukab Azeem

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity is a major health risk issue in the present day of life for one and all globally. Obesity is one of the major concerns for public health according to recent increasing trends in obesity-related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. ( Kazuya, 1994).and hyperlipidemia, (Sakata,1990) .which are more prevalent in Japanese adults with body mass index (BMI) values Z25 kg/m2.( Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare,1997). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of twelve weeks of brisk walking on blood pressure and body mass index, anthropometric measurements of obese males. Method: Thirty obese (BMI= above 30) males, aged 18 to 22 years, were selected from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia. The subject-s height (cm) was measured using a stadiometer and body mass (kg) was measured with a electronic weighing machine. BMI was subsequently calculated (kg/m2). The blood pressure was measured with standardized sphygmomanometer in mm of Hg. All the measurements were taken twice before and twice after the experimental period. The pre and post anthropometric measurements of waist and hip circumference were measured with the steel tape in cm. The subjects underwent walking schedule two times in a week for 12 weeks. The 45 minute sessions of brisk walking were undertaken at an average intensity of 65% to 85% of maximum HR (HRmax; calculated as 220-age). Results & Discussion: Statistical findings revealed significant changes from pre test to post test in case of both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in the walking group. Results also showed significant decrease in their body mass index and anthropometric measurements i.e. (waist & hip circumference). Conclusion: It was concluded that twelve weeks brisk walking is beneficial for lowering of blood pressure, body mass index, and anthropometric circumference of obese males.

Keywords: Anthropometric, Blood pressure, Body mass index

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276 Radiation Workers’ Occupational Doses: Are We Really Careful or Overconscious

Authors: Sajjad A. Memon, Sadaf T. Qureshi, Naeem A. Laghari, Noor M. Khuhro

Abstract:

The present study represents the occupational radiation doses received by selected workers of Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA) Jamshoro Pakistan and conducted to discuss about how we be careful and try to avoid make ourselves overconscious. Film badges with unique identification number were issued to radiation worker to detect occupational radiation doses. In this study, only 08 workers with high radiation doses were assessed amongst 35 radiation workers during the period of January 2012 to December 2012. The selected radiation workers’ occupational doses were according to designated work areas and in the range of 1.21 to 7.78 mSv (mili Sieveret) out of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. By the comparison of different studies and earth’s HNBR (High Natural Background Radiation) locations’ doses, it is concluded that the worker’s high doses are of magnitude of HNBR Regions and were in the acceptable range of National and International regulatory bodies so we must not to show any type of overconsciousness but be careful in handling the radioactive sources.

Keywords: Natural background radiation, Occupational dose, Overconscious, Personal monitoring.

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275 Radiation Dose Distribution for Workers in South Korean Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: B. I. Lee, S. I. Kim, D. H. Suh, J. I. Kim, Y. K. Lim

Abstract:

A total of 33,680 nuclear power plants (NPPs) workers were monitored and recorded from 1990 to 2007. According to the record, the average individual radiation dose has been decreasing continually from it 3.20 mSv/man in 1990 to 1.12 mSv/man at the end of 2007. After the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60 recommendation was generalized in South Korea, no nuclear power plant workers received above 20 mSv radiation, and the numbers of relatively highly exposed workers have been decreasing continuously. The age distribution of radiation workers in nuclear power plants was composed of mainly 20-30- year-olds (83%) for 1990 ~ 1994 and 30-40-year-olds (75%) for 2003 ~ 2007. The difference in individual average dose by age was not significant. Most (77%) of NPP radiation exposures from 1990 to 2007 occurred mostly during the refueling period. With regard to exposure type, the majority of exposures were external exposures, representing 95% of the total exposures, while internal exposures represented only 5%. External effective dose was affected mainly by gamma radiation exposure, with an insignificant amount of neutron exposure. As for internal effective dose, tritium (3H) in the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) was the biggest cause of exposure.

Keywords: Dose distribution, External exposure, Nuclear powerplant, Occupational radiation dose

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274 Sustainability Policies and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Ergonomics Contribution Regarding Work in Companies

Authors: I. Bolis, S. N. Morioka, L. I. Sznelwar

Abstract:

The growing importance of sustainability in corporate policies represents a great opportunity for workers to gain more consideration, with great benefits to their well being. Sustainable work is believed to be one which improves the organization-s performance and fosters professional development as well as workers- health. In a multiple case study based on document research, information was sought about work activities and their sustainability or corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies, as disseminated by corporations. All the companies devoted attention to work activities and delivered a good amount of information about them. Nevertheless, the information presented was generic; all the actions developed were top-down and there was no information about the impact of changes aimed at sustainability on the workers- activities. It was found that the companies seemed to be at an early stage. In the future, they need to show more commitment through concrete goals: they must be aware that workers contribute directly to the corporations- sustainability. This would allow room for Ergonomics and Work Psychodynamics to be incorporated and to be useful for both companies and society, so as to promote and ensure work sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, ergonomics, work psychodynamics, multinational companies.

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273 Digital Social Networks: Examining the Knowledge Characteristics

Authors: Nurul Aini M. Nordan, Ahmad I. Z. Abidin, Ahmad K. Mahmood, Noreen I. Arshad

Abstract:

In today-s information age, numbers of organizations are still arguing on capitalizing the values of Information Technology (IT) and Knowledge Management (KM) to which individuals can benefit from and effective communication among the individuals can be established. IT exists in enabling positive improvement for communication among knowledge workers (k-workers) with a number of social network technology domains at workplace. The acceptance of digital discourse in sharing of knowledge and facilitating the knowledge and information flows at most of the organizations indeed impose the culture of knowledge sharing in Digital Social Networks (DSN). Therefore, this study examines whether the k-workers with IT background would confer an effect on the three knowledge characteristics -- conceptual, contextual, and operational. Derived from these three knowledge characteristics, five potential factors will be examined on the effects of knowledge exchange via e-mail domain as the chosen query. It is expected, that the results could provide such a parameter in exploring how DSN contributes in supporting the k-workers- virtues, performance and qualities as well as revealing the mutual point between IT and KM.

Keywords: Digital social networks, e-mail, knowledge management, knowledge worker.

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272 A Promising Approach to Supporting Knowledge-Intensive Business Processes: Business Case Management

Authors: Zeljko Panian

Abstract:

Through the course of this paper we define Business Case Management and its characteristics, and highlight its link to knowledge workers. Business Case Management combines knowledge and process effectively, supporting the ad hoc and unpredictable nature of cases, and coordinate a range of other technologies to appropriately support knowledge-intensive processes. We emphasize the growing importance of knowledge workers and the current poor support for knowledge work automation. We also discuss the challenges in supporting this kind of knowledge work and propose a novel approach to overcome these challenges.

Keywords: Knowledge management, knowledge workers, business process management, business case management, automation.

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271 Blue-Collar Workers’ Accidents and Close Call Situations Connected to the Use of Cell Phones among Finns Aged 18–65

Authors: L. Korpinen, R. Pääkkönen, F. Gobba

Abstract:

There has been discussion if the use of mobile phones causes accidents. We studied workers’ accidents and near accidents related to the use of phones. This study is part of a large cross-sectional study that was carried out on 15,000 working-age Finns. We noticed that there were 4–5 times more close call situations than accidents connected to mobile phones and also work related accidents were fewer than leisure related. There are confusing parameters like the use of mobile phones at work, differences in work content between women and men.

Keywords: Blue-collar workers, accident, cell phone, close call situation.

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270 Design of Walking Beam Pendle Axle Suspension System

Authors: K. Arunachalam, P. Mannar Jawahar

Abstract:

This paper deals with design of walking beam pendel axle suspension system. This axles and suspension systems are mainly required for transportation of heavy duty and Over Dimension Consignment (ODC) cargo, which is exceeding legal limit in terms of length, width and height. Presently, in Indian transportation industry, ODC movement growth rate has increased in transportation of bridge sections (pre-cast beams), transformers, heavy machineries, boilers, gas turbines, windmill blades etc. However, current Indian standard road transport vehicles are facing lot of service and maintenance issues due to non availability of suitable axle and suspension to carry the ODC cargoes. This in turn will lead to increased number of road accidents, bridge collapse and delayed deliveries, which finally result in higher operating cost. Understanding these requirements, this work was carried out. These axles and suspensions are designed for optimum self – weight with maximum payload carrying capacity with better road stability.

Keywords: Heavy duty trailer, Off–highway trucks, Over dimension cargo, Walking beam pendel axle suspension.

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