Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 783

Search results for: Cyclic loading

783 Kinematic Behavior of Geogrid Reinforcements during Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim

Abstract:

Reinforced earth structures are generally subjected to cyclic loading generated from earthquakes. This paper presents a summary of the results and analyses of a testing program carried out in a large-scale multi-function geosynthetic testing apparatus that accommodates soil samples up to 1.0 m3. This apparatus performs different shear and pullout tests under both static and cyclic loading. The testing program was carried out to investigate the controlling factors affecting soil/geogrid interaction under cyclic loading. The extensibility of the geogrids, the applied normal stresses, the characteristics of the cyclic loading (frequency, and amplitude), and initial static load within the geogrid sheet were considered in the testing program. Based on the findings of the testing program, the effect of these parameters on the pullout resistance of geogrids, as well as the displacement mobility under cyclic loading were evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations for the design of reinforced earth walls under cyclic loading are presented.

Keywords: Geogrid, Soil, Interface, Cyclic Loading, Pullout, and Large scale Testing.

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782 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing.

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781 Mechanical Model of Gypsum Board Anchors Subjected Cyclic Shear Loading

Authors: Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Fumiya Ikedo

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical model of various anchors embedded in gypsum board subjected cyclic shear loading were investigated. Shear tests for anchors embedded in 200 mm square size gypsum board were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The strength of the gypsum board was changed for three conditions and 12 kinds of anchors were selected which were ordinary used for gypsum board anchoring. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a cyclic loading controlled by a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to achieve accurate measurement. The fracture energy for each of the anchors was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the strength of gypsum board and the types of anchors on the shear properties of gypsum board anchors was cleared. A numerical model to predict the load-unload curve of shear deformation of gypsum board anchors caused by such as the earthquake load was proposed and the validity on the model was proved.

Keywords: Gypsum board, anchor, shear test, cyclic loading, load-unload curve.

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780 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based On Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi

Abstract:

In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: Cyclic Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Prager Kinematic Hardening Model, Torsion of shaft.

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779 Application of Mapping and Superimposing Rule for Solution of Parabolic PDE in Porous Medium under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Mohammad M. Toufigh, Ahad Ouria

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical method to solve governing consolidation parabolic partial differential equation (PDE) for inelastic porous Medium (soil) with consideration of variation of equation coefficient under cyclic loading. Since under cyclic loads, soil skeleton parameters change, this would introduce variable coefficient of parabolic PDE. Classical theory would not rationalize consolidation phenomenon in such condition. In this research, a method based on time space mapping to a virtual time space along with superimposing rule is employed to solve consolidation of inelastic soils in cyclic condition. Changes of consolidation coefficient applied in solution by modification of loading and unloading duration by introducing virtual time. Mapping function is calculated based on consolidation partial differential equation results. Based on superimposing rule a set of continuous static loads in specified times used instead of cyclic load. A set of laboratory consolidation tests under cyclic load along with numerical calculations were performed in order to verify the presented method. Numerical solution and laboratory tests results showed accuracy of presented method.

Keywords: Mapping, Consolidation, Inelastic porous medium, Cyclic loading, Superimposing rule.

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778 Performance Analysis of Ferrocement Retrofitted Masonry Wall Units under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Md. Mahir Asif, Md. Zahidul Alam

Abstract:

A huge portion of old masonry buildings in Bangladesh are vulnerable to earthquake. In most of the cases these buildings contain unreinforced masonry wall which are most likely to be subjected to earthquake damages. Due to deterioration of mortar joint and aging, shear resistance of these unreinforced masonry walls dwindle. So, retrofitting of these old buildings has become an important issue. Among many researched and experimented techniques, ferrocement retrofitting can be a low cost technique in context of the economic condition of Bangladesh. This study aims at investigating the behavior of ferrocement retrofitted unconfined URM walls under different types of cyclic loading. Four 725 mm × 725 mm masonry wall units were prepared with bricks jointed by stretcher bond with 12.5 mm mortar between two adjacent layers of bricks. To compare the effectiveness of ferrocement retrofitting a particular type wire mesh was used in this experiment which is 20 gauge woven wire mesh with 12.5 mm × 12.5 mm square opening. After retrofitting with ferrocement these wall units were tested by applying cyclic deformation along the diagonals of the specimens. Then a comparative study was performed between the retrofitted specimens and control specimens for both partially reversed cyclic load condition and cyclic compression load condition. The experiment results show that ultimate load carrying capacities of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 35% and 27% greater than the control specimen under partially reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. And before failure the deformations of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 43% and 33% greater than the control specimen under reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. Therefore, the test results show that the ultimate load carrying capacity and ductility of ferrocement retrofitted specimens have improved.

Keywords: Cyclic compression, ferrocement, masonry wall, partially reversed cyclic load, retrofitting.

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777 Simulation of Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Nickel-Based Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Harish Ramesh Babu, Marco Böcker, Mario Raddatz, Sebastian Henkel, Horst Biermann, Uwe Gampe

Abstract:

Thermal power machines are subjected to cyclic loading conditions under elevated temperatures. At these extreme conditions, the durability of the components has a significant influence. The material mechanical behaviour has to be known in detail for a failsafe construction. For this study a nickel-based alloy is considered, the deformation and fatigue behaviour of the material is analysed under cyclic loading. A viscoplastic model is used for calculating the deformation behaviour as well as to simulate the rate-dependent and cyclic plasticity effects. Finally, the cyclic deformation results of the finite element simulations are compared with low cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments.

Keywords: Complex low cycle fatigue, elevated temperatures, IN718, viscoplastic.

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776 A Discrete Element Method Centrifuge Model of Monopile under Cyclic Lateral Loads

Authors: Nuo Duan, Yi Pik Cheng

Abstract:

This paper presents the data of a series of two-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of a large-diameter rigid monopile subjected to cyclic loading under a high gravitational force. At present, monopile foundations are widely used to support the tall and heavy wind turbines, which are also subjected to significant from wind and wave actions. A safe design must address issues such as rotations and changes in soil stiffness subject to these loadings conditions. Design guidance on the issue is limited, so are the availability of laboratory and field test data. The interpretation of these results in sand, such as the relation between loading and displacement, relies mainly on empirical correlations to pile properties. Regarding numerical models, most data from Finite Element Method (FEM) can be found. They are not comprehensive, and most of the FEM results are sensitive to input parameters. The micro scale behaviour could change the mechanism of the soil-structure interaction. A DEM model was used in this paper to study the cyclic lateral loads behaviour. A non-dimensional framework is presented and applied to interpret the simulation results. The DEM data compares well with various set of published experimental centrifuge model test data in terms of lateral deflection. The accumulated permanent pile lateral displacements induced by the cyclic lateral loads were found to be dependent on the characteristics of the applied cyclic load, such as the extent of the loading magnitudes and directions.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, DEM, numerical modelling, sands.

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775 Numerical Study of Cyclic Behavior of Shallow Foundations on Sand Reinforced with Geogrid and Grid-Anchor

Authors: Alireza Hajiani Boushehrian, Nader Hataf, Arsalan Ghahramani

Abstract:

When the foundations of structures under cyclic loading with amplitudes less than their permissible load, the concern exists often for the amount of uniform and non-uniform settlement of such structures. Storage tank foundations with numerous filling and discharging and railways ballast course under repeating transportation loads are examples of such conditions. This paper deals with the effects of using the new generation of reinforcements, Grid-Anchor, for the purpose of reducing the permanent settlement of these foundations under the influence of different proportions of the ultimate load. Other items such as the type and the number of reinforcements as well as the number of loading cycles are studied numerically. Numerical models were made using the Plaxis3D Tunnel finite element code. The results show that by using gridanchor and increasing the number of their layers in the same proportion as that of the cyclic load being applied, the amount of permanent settlement decreases up to 42% relative to unreinforced condition depends on the number of reinforcement layers and percent of applied load and the number of loading cycles to reach a constant value of dimensionless settlement decreases up to 20% relative to unreinforced condition.

Keywords: Shallow foundation, Reinforced soil, Cyclic loading, Grid-Anchor, Numerical analysis.

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774 Calculating Strain Energy in Multi-Surface Models of Cyclic Plasticity

Authors: S. Shahrooi, I. H. Metselaar, Z. Huda

Abstract:

When considering the development of constitutive equations describing the behavior of materials under cyclic plastic strains, different kinds of formulations can be adopted. The primary intention of this study is to develop computer programming of plasticity models to accurately predict the life of engineering components. For this purpose, the energy or cyclic strain is computed in multi-surface plasticity models in non-proportional loading and to present their procedures and codes results.

Keywords: Strain energy, cyclic plasticity model, multi-surface model, codes result.

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773 An Experimental Study on Behavior of Transverse Connection Appropriate for Modular Girder Bridge

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Jin-Woong Choi, Hyeong-Yeol Kim, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

This study is to evaluate the behavior of integral and segmental specimens through static and cyclic tests. Integral specimens were made with the same size to be compared with segmental specimens that were made by connected precast members. To evaluate its bending performance and serviceability, 1 integral and 3 segmental specimens were tested under static load. And 1 integral and 2 segmental specimens were tested under cyclic load, respectively. Different load ranges were considered in the cyclic tests to evaluate the safety and serviceability. The test results showed that under static loading, segmental specimens had about 94% of the integral specimen's maximum moment, averagely. Under cyclic loading, the segmental specimens showed that had enough safety in the range of higher than service load and enough serviceability. In conclusion, the maximum crack width (0.16mm) satisfied the allowable crack width (0.30mm) in the range of service load.

Keywords: Modular bridge, Transverse connection, Precast concrete, Static and cyclic test.

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772 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq

Authors: Jing Li, Xiuli Li

Abstract:

This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.

Keywords: Skew cyclic code, gray map, automophism, cyclic code.

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771 The Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Based Dental Crowns from Cyclic Loading: A Function of Relative Wear Depth

Authors: T. Qasim, B. El Masoud, D. Ailabouni

Abstract:

This in vitro study focused on investigating the fatigue resistance of veneered zirconia molar crowns with different veneering ceramic thicknesses, simulating the relative wear depths under simulated cyclic loading. A mandibular first molar was prepared and then scanned using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to fabricate 32 zirconia copings of uniform 0.5 mm thickness. The manufactured copings then veneered with 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.0 mm representing 0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% relative wear of a normal ceramic thickness of 1.5 mm. All samples were thermally aged to 6000 thermo-cycles for 2 minutes with distilled water between 5 ˚C and 55 ˚C. The samples subjected to cyclic fatigue and fracture testing using SD Mechatronik chewing simulator. These samples are loaded up to 1.25x10⁶ cycles or until they fail. During fatigue, testing, extensive cracks were observed in samples with 0.5 mm veneering layer thickness. Veneering layer thickness 1.5-mm group and 1.0-mm group were not different in terms of resisting loads necessary to cause an initial crack or final failure. All ceramic zirconia-based crown restorations with varying occlusal veneering layer thicknesses appeared to be fatigue resistant. Fracture load measurement for all tested groups before and after fatigue loading exceeded the clinical chewing forces in the posterior region. In general, the fracture loads increased after fatigue loading and with the increase in the thickness of the occlusal layering ceramic.

Keywords: All ceramic, dental crowns, relative wear, chewing simulator, cyclic loading, thermally ageing.

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770 Finite Element Analysis of Flush End Plate Moment Connections under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Vahid Zeinoddini-Meimand, Mehdi Ghassemieh, Jalal Kiani

Abstract:

This paper explains the results of an investigation on the analysis of flush end plate steel connections by means of finite element method. Flush end plates are a highly indeterminate type of connection, which have a number of parameters that affect their behavior. Because of this, experimental investigations are complicated and very costly. Today, the finite element method provides an ideal method for analyzing complicated structures. Finite element models of these types of connections under monotonic loading have previously been investigated. A numerical model, which can predict the cyclic behavior of these connections, is of critical importance, as dynamic experiments are more costly. This paper summarizes a study to develop a three-dimensional finite element model that can accurately capture the cyclic behavior of flush end plate connections. Comparisons between FEM results and experimental results obtained from full-scale tests have been carried out, which confirms the accuracy of the finite element model. Consequently, design equations for this connection have been investigated and it is shown that these predictions are not precise in all cases. The effect of end plate thickness and bolt diameter on the overall behavior of this connection is discussed. This research demonstrates that using the appropriate configuration, this connection has the potential to form a plastic hinge in the beam--desirable in seismic behavior.

Keywords: Flush end plate connection, moment-rotation diagram, finite element method, moment frame, cyclic loading.

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769 Threshold Stress of the Soil Subgrade Evaluation for Highway Formations

Authors: Elsa Eka Putri, N.S.V Kameswara Rao, M. A. Mannan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate the threshold stress of the clay with sand subgrade soil. Threshold stress can be defined as the stress level above which cyclic loading leads to excessive deformation and eventual failure. The thickness determination of highways formations using the threshold stress approach is a more realistic assessment of the soil behaviour because it is subjected to repeated loadings from moving vehicles. Threshold stress can be evaluated by plastic strain criterion, which is based on the accumulated plastic strain behaviour during cyclic loadings [1]. Several conditions of the all-round pressure the subgrade soil namely, zero confinement, low all-round pressure and high all-round pressure are investigated. The threshold stresses of various soil conditions are determined. Threshold stress of the soil are 60%, 31% and 38.6% for unconfined partially saturated sample, low effective stress saturated sample, high effective stress saturated sample respectively.

Keywords: threshold stress, cyclic loading, pore water pressure.

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768 Probabilistic Simulation of Triaxial Undrained Cyclic Behavior of Soils

Authors: Arezoo Sadrinezhad, Kallol Sett, S. I. Hariharan

Abstract:

In this paper, a probabilistic framework based on Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) approach has been applied to simulate triaxial cyclic constitutive behavior of uncertain soils. The framework builds upon previous work of the writers, and it has been extended for cyclic probabilistic simulation of triaxial undrained behavior of soils. von Mises elastic-perfectly plastic material model is considered. It is shown that by using probabilistic framework, some of the most important aspects of soil behavior under cyclic loading can be captured even with a simple elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model.

Keywords: Elasto-plasticity, uncertainty, soils, Fokker-Planck equation, Fourier Spectral method, Finite Difference method.

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767 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova

Abstract:

Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: Shear walls, internal FRP reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation and seismic behaviour.

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766 The Small Strain Effects to the Shear Strength and Maximum Stiffness of Post-Cyclic Degradation of Hemic Peat Soil

Authors: Z. Adnan, M. M. Habib

Abstract:

The laboratory tests for measuring the effects of small strain to the shear strength and maximum stiffness development of post-cyclic degradation of hemic peat are reviewed in this paper. A series of laboratory testing has been conducted to fulfil the objective of this research to study the post-cyclic behaviour of peat soil and focuses on the small strain characteristics. For this purpose, a number of strain-controlled static, cyclic and post-cyclic triaxial tests were carried out in undrained condition on hemic peat soil. The shear strength and maximum stiffness of hemic peat are evaluated immediately after post-cyclic monotonic testing. There are two soil samples taken from West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil. Based on these laboratories and field testing data, it was found that the shear strength and maximum stiffness of peat soil decreased in post-cyclic monotonic loading than its initial shear strength and stiffness. In particular, degradation in shear strength and stiffness is more sensitive for peat soil due to fragile and uniform fibre structures. Shear strength of peat soil, τmax = 12.53 kPa (Beaufort peat, BFpt) and 36.61 kPa (Parit Nipah peat, PNpt) decreased than its initial 58.46 kPa and 91.67 kPa. The maximum stiffness, Gmax = 0.23 and 0.25 decreased markedly with post-cyclic, Gmax = 0.04 and 0.09. Simple correlations between the Gmax and the τmax effects due to small strain, ε = 0.1, the Gmax values for post-cyclic are relatively low compared to its initial Gmax. As a consequence, the reported values and patterns of both the West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil are generally the same.

Keywords: Post-cyclic, strain, shear strength, maximum stiffness.

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765 Evaluation and Comparison of Seismic Performance of Structural Trusses under Cyclic Loading with Finite Element Method

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

The structure is made using different members and combining them with each other. These members are basically based on technical and engineering principles and are combined in different ways and have their own unique effects on the building. Trusses are one of the most common and important members of the structure, accounting for a large percentage of the power transmission structure in the building. Different types of trusses are based on structural needs and evaluating and making complete comparisons between them is one of the most important engineering analyses. In the present study, four types of trusses have been studied; 1) Hawe truss, 2) Pratt truss, 3) k truss, and 4) warren truss, under cyclic loading for 80 seconds. The trusses are modeled in 3d using st37 steel. The results showed that Hawe trusses had higher values ​​than all other trusses (k, Pratt and Warren) in all the studied indicators. Indicators examined in the study include; 1) von Mises stresses, 2) displacement, 3) support force, 4) velocity, 5) acceleration, 6) capacity (hysteresis curve) and 7) energy diagram. Pratt truss in indicators; Mises stress, displacement, energy have the least amount compared to other trusses. K truss in indicators; support force, speed and acceleration are the lowest compared to other trusses.

Keywords: Hawe truss, Pratt truss, K truss, Warren truss, cyclic loading, finite element method.

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764 Limit State of Heterogeneous Smart Structures under Unknown Cyclic Loading

Authors: M. Chen, S-Q. Zhang, X. Wang, D. Tate

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical solution, namely limit and shakedown analysis, to predict the safety state of smart structures made of heterogeneous materials under unknown cyclic loadings, for instance, the flexure hinge in the micro-positioning stage driven by piezoelectric actuator. In combination of homogenization theory and finite-element method (FEM), the safety evaluation problem is converted to a large-scale nonlinear optimization programming for an acceptable bounded loading as the design reference. Furthermore, a general numerical scheme integrated with the FEM and interior-point-algorithm based optimization tool is developed, which makes the practical application possible.

Keywords: Limit state, shakedown analysis, homogenization, heterogeneous structure.

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763 Squaring Construction for Repeated-Root Cyclic Codes

Authors: O. P. Vinocha , J. S. Bhullar , Manish Gupta

Abstract:

We considered repeated-root cyclic codes whose block length is divisible by the characteristic of the underlying field. Cyclic self dual codes are also the repeated root cyclic codes. It is known about the one-level squaring construction for binary repeated root cyclic codes. In this correspondence, we introduced of two level squaring construction for binary repeated root cyclic codes of length 2a b , a > 0, b is odd.

Keywords: Squaring Construction, generator matrix, selfdual codes, cyclic codes, coset codes, repeated root cycliccodes.

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762 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behavior of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency, and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-toconcrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model.

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761 Investigations on the Seismic Performance of Hot-Finished Hollow Steel Sections

Authors: Paola Pannuzzo, Tak-Ming Chan

Abstract:

In seismic applications, hollow steel sections show, beyond undeniable esthetical appeal, promising structural advantages since, unlike open section counterparts, they are not susceptible to weak-axis and lateral-torsional buckling. In particular, hot-finished hollow steel sections have homogeneous material properties and favorable ductility but have been underutilized for cyclic bending. The main reason is that the parameters affecting their hysteretic behaviors are not yet well understood and, consequently, are not well exploited in existing codes of practice. Therefore, experimental investigations have been conducted on a wide range of hot-finished rectangular hollow section beams with the aim to providing basic knowledge for evaluating their seismic performance. The section geometry (width-to-thickness and depth-to-thickness ratios) and the type of loading (monotonic and cyclic) have been chosen as the key parameters to investigate the cyclic effect on the rotational capacity and to highlight the differences between monotonic and cyclic load conditions. The test results provide information on the parameters that affect the cyclic performance of hot-finished hollow steel beams and can be used to assess the design provisions stipulated in the current seismic codes of practice.

Keywords: Hot-finished steel, hollow sections, cyclic tests, bending.

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760 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: Deep beam, cyclic load, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

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759 The Effect of Cyclic Speed on the Wear Properties of Molybdenum Disulfide Greases under Extreme Pressure Loading Using 4 Balls Wear Tests

Authors: Gabi Nehme

Abstract:

The relationship between different types of Molybdenum disulfide greases under extreme pressure loading and different speed situations have been studied using Design of Experiment (DOE) under 1200rpm steady state rotational speed and cyclic frequencies between 2400 and 1200rpm using a Plint machine software to set up the different rotational speed situations.  Research described here is aimed at providing good friction and wear performance while optimizing cyclic frequencies and MoS2 concentration due to the recent concern about grease behavior in extreme pressure applications. Extreme load of 785 Newton was used in conjunction with different cyclic frequencies (2400rpm -3.75min, 1200rpm -7.5min, 2400rpm -3.75min, 1200rpm -7.5min), to examine lithium based grease with and without MoS2 for equal number of revolutions, and a total run of 36000 revolutions; then compared to 1200rpm steady speed for the same total number of revolutions. 4 Ball wear tester was utilized to run large number of experiments randomly selected by the DOE software. The grease was combined with fine grade MoS2 or technical grade then heated to 750C and the wear scar width was collected at the end of each test. DOE model validation results verify that the data were very significant and can be applied to a wide range of extreme pressure applications. Based on simulation results and Scanning Electron images (SEM), it has been found that wear was largely dependent on the cyclic frequency condition. It is believed that technical grade MoS2 greases under faster cyclic speeds perform better and provides antiwear film that can resist extreme pressure loadings. Figures showed reduced wear scars width and improved frictional values.

 

Keywords: MoS2 grease, wear, friction, extreme load, cyclic frequencies, aircraft grade bearing.

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758 Best Proximity Point Theorems for MT-K and MT-C Rational Cyclic Contractions in Metric Spaces

Authors: M. R. Yadav, A. K. Sharma, B. S. Thakur

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a best proximity point theorems through rational expression for a combination of contraction condition, Kannan and Chatterjea nonlinear cyclic contraction in what we call MT-K and MT-C rational cyclic contraction. Some best proximity point theorems for a mapping satisfy these conditions have been established in metric spaces. We also give some examples to support our work.

Keywords: Cyclic contraction, rational cyclic contraction, best proximity point and complete metric space.

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757 Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes

Authors: Rohit, S. Vishnuvardhan, P. Gandhi, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack growth continues to be an important component of research for several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context, studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.

Keywords: 304LN stainless steel, cyclic J-integral, Elastic- Plastic Fracture Mechanics, J-integral, Through-wall crack

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756 Fatigue Properties and Strength Degradation of Carbon Fibber Reinforced Composites

Authors: Pasquale Verde, Giuseppe Lamanna

Abstract:

A two-parameter fatigue model explicitly accounting for the cyclic as well as the mean stress was used to fit static and fatigue data available in literature concerning carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates subjected tension-tension fatigue. The model confirms the strength–life equal rank assumption and predicts reasonably the probability of failure under cyclic loading. The model parameters were found by best fitting procedures and required a minimum of experimental tests.

Keywords: Fatigue life, strength, composites, Weibull distribution.

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755 Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: H. Meddah, M. Berediaf-Bourahla, B. El-Djouzi, N. Bourahla

Abstract:

Shear walls made of cold formed steel are used as lateral force resisting components in residential and low-rise commercial and industrial constructions. The seismic design analysis of such structures is often complex due to the slenderness of members and their instability prevalence. In this context, a simplified modeling technique across the panel is proposed by using the finite element method. The approach is based on idealizing the whole panel by a nonlinear shear link element which reflects its shear behavior connected to rigid body elements which transmit the forces to the end elements (studs) that resist the tension and the compression. The numerical model of the shear wall panel was subjected to cyclic loads in order to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure in terms of lateral displacement and energy dissipation capacity. In order to validate this model, the numerical results were compared with those from literature tests. This modeling technique is particularly useful for the design of cold formed steel structures where the shear forces in each panel and the axial forces in the studs can be obtained using spectrum analysis.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, cyclic loading, modeling technique, nonlinear analysis, shear wall panel.

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754 Common Fixed Point Theorems for Co-Cyclic Weak Contractions in Compact Metric

Authors: Alemayehu Geremew Negash

Abstract:

In this paper, we prove some common fixed point theorems for co-cyclic weak contractions in compact metric spaces.

Keywords: Cyclic weak contraction, Co-cyclic weak contraction, Co-cyclic representation, Common fixed point.

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