Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 949

Search results for: Lead

949 Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes

Authors: F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Freundlich-like equation, sequential extraction, soil lead contamination.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 528
948 Risk Assessment of Lead in Egyptian Vegetables and Fruits from Different Environments

Authors: A. A. K. Abou-Arab, M. A. Abou Donia, Sherif R. Mohamed, A. K. Enab

Abstract:

Lead being a toxic heavy metal that mankind is exposed to the highest levels of this metal. There are different sources of environmental pollution with lead as lead alkyl additives in petrol and manufacturing processes. The contaminated atmosphere in urban and industrial areas by lead in Egypt may lead to the contamination of foods beside the other different sources. The present investigation studied the risk assessment of lead in some Egyptian edible vegetables and fruits collected from different environments in Greater Cairo Governorate, i.e. industrial, heavy traffic and rural areas. A total of 325 leafy and fruity vegetables and fruits samples belonging to 11, 6 and 4 different species, respectively were randomly collected from markets of the three main models. Data indicated the variation of lead levels in different three areas. The highest levels of lead were detected in the samples collected from industrial and traffic areas. However, the lowest levels were found in the rural areas. It could be concluded that determination of lead levels in foods from different localities and environments at regularly is very important.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Lead, Vegetables, Fruits, Environments.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1718
947 Analysis of Lead Time Delays in Supply Chain: A Case Study

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed, Nermeen Coutry

Abstract:

Lead time is a critical measure of a supply chain's performance. It impacts both the customer satisfactions as well as the total cost of inventory. This paper presents the result of a study on the analysis of the customer order lead-time for a multinational company. In the study, the lead time was divided into three stages respectively: order entry, order fulfillment, and order delivery. A sample of size 2,425 order lines was extracted from the company's records to use for this study. The sample data entails information regarding customer orders from the time of order entry until order delivery. Data regarding the lead time of each stage for different orders were also provided. Summary statistics on lead time data reveals that about 30% of the orders were delivered later than the scheduled due date. The result of the multiple linear regression analysis technique revealed that component type, logistics parameter, order size and the customer type have significant impacts on lead time. Data analysis on the stages of lead time indicates that stage 2 consumed over 50% of the lead time. Pareto analysis was made to study the reasons for the customer order delay in each stage. Recommendation was given to resolve the problem.

Keywords: Lead time reduction, customer satisfaction, service quality, statistical analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5725
946 Analyzing and Formulation of Product Lead Time

Authors: B. Fahimnia, L.H.S. Luong, B. Motevallian, R. M. Marian, M. M. Esmaeil

Abstract:

Product Lead Time (PLT) is the period of time from receiving a customer's order to delivering the final product. PLT is an indicator of the manufacturing controllability, efficiency and performance. Due to the explosion in the rate of technological innovations and the rapid changes in the nature of manufacturing processes, manufacturing firms can bring the new products to market quicker only if they can reduce their PLT and speed up the rate at which they can design, plan, control, and manufacture. Although there is a substantial body of research on manufacturing relating to cost and quality issues, there is no much specific research conducted in relation to the formulation of PLT, despite its significance and importance. This paper analyzes and formulates PLT which can be used as a guideline for achieving the shorter PLT. Further more this paper identifies the causes of delay and factors that contributes to the increased product lead-time.

Keywords: Manufacturing Control, Manufacturing Lead Time, Manufacturing Planning, Product Design, and Product Lead Time.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1475
945 Risk Assessment of Lead in Meat from Different Environments of Egypt

Authors: A. A. K. Abou-Arab, M. A. Abou Donia, A. K. Enab

Abstract:

Lead is among the heavy metals and it is one of the highly toxic metals, recognized in most countries. This metal accumulates in animal organs as liver and kidney. The present investigation provides the concentrations of lead in cow's meat and different animal organs collected from three Egyptian environments. The results revealed that lead levels in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and heart in industrial areas were higher than those detected in the same organs of other two areas (heavy traffic and rural), which recorded mean values of 3.0091, 1.7070, 1.8609, 0.6401 and 0.5332 mg/kg, respectively, followed by traffic areas, 2.9166, 1.4443, 1.6967, 0.4042 and 0.4103 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding values of rural areas were 1.8895, 0.9550, 0.9117, 0.3215 and 0.2856 mg/kg, in the same order. It could be recommended that monitoring and evaluation of lead levels in meat at regular intervals are very important.

Keywords: Heavy metals, lead, meats, organs, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, environments.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 625
944 Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Changes after Twenty Years of Phasing Out Leaded Gasoline

Authors: M. A. Abou Donia, A. A. K. Abou-Arab, Nevin E. Sharaf, A. K. Enab, Sherif R. Mohamed

Abstract:

Lead (Pb) poisoning is one of the most common and preventable environmental health problems. There are different sources of environmental pollution with lead as lead alkyl additives in petrol and manufacturing processes. Pb in the atmosphere can be deposited in urban soils, and may then be re-suspended to re-enter the atmosphere. This could increase human exposure to Pb and cause long-term health effects. Thus, monitoring Pb pollution is considered one of the major tasks in controlling pollution. Scalp hair can be utilized for the determination of lead (Pb) concentration. It provides a lasting record of metal intakes of weeks or even months, and for most metals, their accumulation in hair reflects their accumulation in the whole body. This work was conducted to investigate the concentration of lead in male scalp hair of Cairo (residential-traffic and residential-industrial) and rural residents after twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline. Results indicated that the mean concentration of lead in hair of residential-traffic (9.7552 μg/g ±0.71) and residential-industrial (12.3288 μg/g ±1.13) was significantly higher than that in rural residents (4.7327 μg/g ±0.67). The mean concentration of lead in hair of resident’s industrial areas was the highest among Cairo residents and not the traffic areas as it was before phasing out of leaded gasoline. Twenty years of phasing out of leaded gasoline in Cairo has greatly improved the lead pollution among residents of traffic areas, but industrial areas residents were still suffering from lead pollution, which needs more efforts to control the sources of lead pollution.

Keywords: Heavy metals, lead, hair, biological sample, urban pollution, rural pollution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1561
943 The Effect on Lead Times When Normalizing a Supply Chain Process

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli

Abstract:

Organizations are living in a very competitive and dynamic environment which is constantly changing. In order to achieve a high level of service, the products and processes of these organizations need to be flexible and evolvable. If the supply chains are not modular and well designed, changes can bring combinatorial effects to most areas of a company from its management, financial, documentation, logistics and its information structure. Applying the normalized system’s concept to segments of the supply chain may help in reducing those ripple effects, but it may also increase lead times. Lead times are important and can become a decisive element in gaining customers. Industries are always under the pressure in providing good quality products, at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them. Most of the time, the customers want their orders now, if not yesterday. The above concept will be proven by examining lead times in a manufacturing example before and after applying normalized systems concept to that segment of the chain. We will then show that although we can minimize the combinatorial effects when changes occur, the lead times will be increased.

Keywords: Supply chain, lead time, normalization, modular.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 242
942 Study of Soil Contaminated with Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead in Ancient Tailings in Zacatecas, México

Authors: J. Ramírez-Ortiz, J. Núñez Monreal

Abstract:

Due to the growth of the urban area towards lands contaminated with ancient tails, in this work we evaluated if the leaching with calcium thiosulfate (CaS2O3) for the recovery of silver, gold and mercury from this soil, also dissolves arsenic, cadmium and lead; for this, we determined their quantity per each fraction of size of particle of the soil before and after the dissolution. Half of the soil samples were leached in the plant Beneficiadora de Jales del Centro, S. A. de C.V. and the rest of them remained in the laboratory. The ICP-OES technique was used to determine the amounts of arsenic, cadmium and lead, in the samples of both lots. The soil samples were collected in a neighboring area at El Lampotal, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, México, with an extension of 600 m2 at 22º52' 37.69'' N, 102º25' 11.73'' W. The amount of arsenic, cadmium and lead found in nonleached soil and for a particle size of 47 μm was 203.72±3.73, 33.63±1.31 and 3480.99±20.4 mg/kg respectively.

Keywords: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Soil, Tails.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3750
941 Changes in Behavior and Learning Ability of Rats Intoxicated with Lead

Authors: Amira, A. Goma, U. E. Mahrous

Abstract:

Measuring the effect of perinatal lead exposure on learning ability of offspring is considered as a sensitive and selective index for providing an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by this toxic metal. A total of 35 Sprague-Dawley adult rats were used to investigate the effect of lead acetate toxicity on behavioral patterns of adult female rats and learning ability of offspring. Rats were allotted into 4 groups, group one received 1g/l lead acetate (n=10), group two received 1.5g/l lead acetate (n=10), group three received 2g/l lead acetate in drinking water (n=10) and control group did not receive lead acetate (n=5) from 8th day of pregnancy till weaning of pups.

The obtained results revealed a dose dependent increase in the feeding time, drinking frequency, licking frequency, scratching frequency, licking litters, nest building and retrieving frequencies, while standing time increased significantly in rats treated with 1.5g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control, on contrary lying time decreased gradually in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, movement activities were higher in rats treated with 1g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control. Furthermore, time spent in closed arms was significantly lower in rats given 2g/l lead acetate than other treated groups, while, they spent significantly much time spent in open arms than other treated groups which could be attributed to occurrence of adaptation. Furthermore, number of entries in open arms was dose dependent. However, the ratio between open/closed arms revealed a significant decrease in rats treated with 2g/l lead acetate than control group.

Keywords: Lead toxicity, rats, learning ability, behavior.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2441
940 Measurement of Lead Pollution in the Air of Babylon Governorate/Iraq during Year 2010

Authors: Khalid Safaa Hashim Al Khalidy, Ali Jalil Abdul Kareem Chabuk, Majid Mohammed Ali Kadhim

Abstract:

This research aims to study the lead pollution in the air of Babylon governorate that resulted generally from vehicles exhausts in addition to industrial and human activities.Vehicles number in Babylon governorate increased significantly after year 2003 that resulted with increase in lead emissions into the air.Measurement of lead emissions was done in seven stations distributed randomly in Babylon governorate. These stations where located in Industrial (Al-Sena'ay) Quarter, 60 street (near to Babylon sewer directorate), 40 Street (near to the first intersection), Al-Hashmia city, Al-Mahaweel city, , Al- Musayab city in addition to another station in Sayd Idris village belong to Abugharaq district (Agricultural station for comparison). The measured concentrations in these stations were compared with the standard limits of Environmental Protection Agency EPA (2 μg /m3). The results of this study showed that the average of lead concentrations ,in Babylon governorate during year 2010, was (3.13 μg/m3) which was greater than standard limits (2 μg/m3). The maximum concentration of lead was (6.41 μg / m3) recorded in the Industrial (Al-Sena'ay) Quarter during April month, while the minimum concentrations was (0.36 μg / m3) recorded in the agricultural station (Abugharaq) during December month.

Keywords: Lead, pollution, lead concentration

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1486
939 Treatment of Wastewater from Wet Scrubbers in Secondary Lead Smelters for Recycling and Lead Recovery

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah

Abstract:

The present study shows a method to recover lead metal from wastewater of wet scrubber in secondary lead smelter. The wastewater is loaded with 42,000 ppm of insoluble lead compounds (TSP) submicron in diameter. The technical background benefits the use of cationic polyfloc solution to flocculate these colloidal solids before press filtration. The polymer solution is injected in the wastewater stream in a countercurrent flow design. The study demonstrates the effect of polymer dose, temperature, pH, flow velocity of the wastewater and different filtration media on the filtration extent. Results indicated that filtration rate (¦r), quality of purified water, purifying efficiency (¦e) and floc diameter decrease regularly with increase in mass flow rate and velocity up to turbulence of 0.5 m.sec-1. Laminar flow is in favor of flocculation. Polyfloc concentration of 0.75 – 1.25 g/m3 wastewater is convenient. Increasing temperature of the wastewater and pneumatic pressure of filtration enhances ¦r. High pH value deforms floc formation and assists degradation of the filtration fabric. The overall efficiency of the method amounts to 93.2 %. Lead metal was recovered from the filtrate cake using carbon as a reducing agent at 900°C.

Keywords: Wastewater, wet scrubbers, filtration, secondary lead.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3186
938 Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Sewage Sludge from the Middle Region (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah Cities) of Libya

Authors: J. A. Mayouf, Q. A. Najim, H. S. Al-Bayati

Abstract:

The concentrations of cadmium and lead in sewage sludge samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method. Samples of sewage sludge were obtained from three sewage treatment plants localised in Middle Region of Libya (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah cities). The results shows that, the mean levels of Cadmium for all regions are ranges from 81 to 123.4 ppm and these values are higher than the limitations for the international standard which are not registered more than 50 ppm (dry weight) in USA, Egypt and the EU countries. While, the lead concentrations are ranged from 8.0 to 189.2 ppm and all values are within the standard limits which graduated between (275–613) ppm.

Keywords: Cadmium, Lead, Sewage, Spectrometry.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4178
937 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: Blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorption.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 616
936 Atrial Fibrillation Analysis Based on Blind Source Separation in 12-lead ECG

Authors: Pei-Chann Chang, Jui-Chien Hsieh, Jyun-Jie Lin, Feng-Ming Yeh

Abstract:

Atrial Fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered by clinicians. Because of the invisible waveform of atrial fibrillation in atrial activation for human, it is necessary to develop an automatic diagnosis system. 12-Lead ECG now is available in hospital and is appropriate for using Independent Component Analysis to estimate the AA period. In this research, we also adopt a second-order blind identification approach to transform the sources extracted by ICA to more precise signal and then we use frequency domain algorithm to do the classification. In experiment, we gather a significant result of clinical data.

Keywords: 12-Lead ECG, Atrial Fibrillation, Blind SourceSeparation, Kurtosis

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1582
935 The Adsorption of Lead from Aqueous Solutions Using Coal Fly Ash : Effect of Crystallinity

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of some oxides having high crystallinity, like quartz and mullite. In this study, the effect of CFA crystallinity toward lead adsorption capacity was investigated. To get solid with various crystallinity, the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of 1-7 M was used to treat CFA at various temperature and reflux time. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of NaOH-treated CFA with respect to adsorption capacity, the treated CFA were examine as adsorbent for removing lead in the solution. The result shows that using NaOH to treat CFA causes crystallinity of quartz and mullite decrease. At higher NaOH concentration (>3M), in addition the damage of quartz and mullite crystallinity is followed by crystal formation called hydroxysodalite. The lower crystalllinity, the higher adsorption capacity.

Keywords: Coal fly ash, crystallinity, lead, adsorption capacity

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1860
934 Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption on Pomegranate Skin: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics

Authors: Y. Laidani, G. Henini, S. Hanini, A. Labbaci, F. Souahi

Abstract:

In this study, pomegranate skin, a material suitable for the conditions in Algeria, was chosen as adsorbent material for removal of lead in an aqueous solution. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, the initial concentration of metal, and temperature. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g, 0.035 mg/g; 1.25 g, 0.096 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at pH value of 8 for the lead. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of metal in solution (Co = 4 mg/L, qt = 1.2 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.995) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g for lead. The adsorption of the lead was exothermic in nature (ΔH° = -17.833 kJ/mol for Pb (II). The reaction was accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS° = -0.056 kJ/K. mol). The Gibbs energy (ΔG°) increased from -1.458 to -0.305 kJ/mol, respectively for Pb (II) when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K.

Keywords: Biosorption, Pb(II), pomegranate skin, wastewater.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 978
933 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda

Abstract:

The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected form the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L Alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56% respectively.

Keywords: Industrial wastewater, Activated sludge, BOD5, Lead, Alum salt.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2247
932 Phytotoxicity of Lead on the Physiological Parameters of Two Varieties of Broad Bean (Vicia faba)

Authors: El H. Bouziani, H. A. Reguieg Yssaad

Abstract:

The phytotoxicity of heavy metals can be expressed on roots and visible part of plants and is characterized by molecular and metabolic answers at various levels of organization of the whole plant. The present study was undertaken on two varieties of broad bean Vicia faba (Sidi Aïch and Super Aguadulce). The device was mounted on a substrate prepared by mixing sand, soil and compost, the substrate was artificially contaminated with three doses of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] 0, 500 and 1000 ppm. Our objective is to follow the behavior of plant opposite the stress by evaluating the physiological parameters. The results reveal a reduction in the parameters of the productivity (chlorophyll and proteins production) with an increase in the osmoregulators (soluble sugars and proline).These results show that the production of broad bean is strongly modified by the disturbance of its internal physiology under lead exposure.

Keywords: Broad bean, lead, stress, physiological parameters, phytotoxicity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1271
931 Optimization of Lead Bioremediation by Marine Halomonas sp. ES015 Using Statistical Experimental Methods

Authors: Aliaa M. El-Borai, Ehab A. Beltagy, Eman E. Gadallah, Samy A. ElAssar

Abstract:

Bioremediation technology is now used for treatment instead of traditional metal removal methods. A strain was isolated from Marsa Alam, Red sea, Egypt showed high resistance to high lead concentration and was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique as Halomonas sp. ES015. Medium optimization was carried out using Plackett-Burman design, and the most significant factors were yeast extract, casamino acid and inoculums size. The optimized media obtained by the statistical design raised the removal efficiency from 84% to 99% from initial concentration 250 ppm of lead. Moreover, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the relationship between yeast extract concentration, casamino acid concentration and inoculums size. The optimized medium increased removal efficiency to 97% from initial concentration 500 ppm of lead. Immobilized Halomonas sp. ES015 cells on sponge cubes, using optimized medium in loop bioremediation column, showed relatively constant lead removal efficiency when reused six successive cycles over the range of time interval. Also metal removal efficiency was not affected by flow rate changes. Finally, the results of this research refer to the possibility of lead bioremediation by free or immobilized cells of Halomonas sp. ES015. Also, bioremediation can be done in batch cultures and semicontinuous cultures using column technology.

Keywords: Bioremediation, lead, Box–Behnken, Halomonas sp. ES015, loop bioremediation, Plackett-Burman.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 689
930 Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Characteristics and Seasonal Variation of Lead Pollution in Egypt

Authors: A. A. K. Abou-Arab, M. A. Abou Donia, Nevin E. Sharaf, Sherif R. Mohamed, A. K. Enab

Abstract:

Lead being a toxic heavy metal that mankind is exposed to the highest levels of this metal from environmental pollutants. A total of 180 Male scalp hair samples were collected from different environments in Greater Cairo (GC), i.e. industrial, heavy traffic and rural areas (60 samples from each) having different activities during the period of, 1/5/2010 to 1/11/2012. Hair samples were collected during five stages. Data proved that the concentration of lead in male industrial areas of Cairo ranged between 6.2847 to 19.0432 μg/g, with mean value of 12.3288 μg/g. On the other hand, lead content of hair samples of residential-traffic areas ranged between 2.8634 to 16.3311 μg/g with mean value of 9.7552 μg/g. While lead concentration on the hair of the male residents living in rural area ranged between 1.0499-9.0402μg/g with mean value of 4.7327 μg/g. The Pb concentration in scalp hair of Cairo residents of residential-traffic and rural traffic areas was observed to follow the same pattern. The pattern was that of decrease concentration of summer and its increase in winter. Then, there was a marked increase in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this increase was significant. These were obviously seen for the residential-traffic and rural areas residents. Pb pollution in residents of industrial areas showed the same seasonal pattern, but there was marked to decrease in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this decrease was significant. Lead pollution in residents of GC was serious. It is worth noting that the atmosphere is still contaminated by lead despite a decade of using unleaded gasoline. Strong seasonal variation in higher Pb concentration on winter than in summer was found. Major contributions to the pollution with Pb could include industry emissions, motor vehicle emissions and long transported dust from outside Cairo. More attention should be paid to the reduction of Pb content of the urban aerosol and to the Pb pollution health.

Keywords: Hair, lead, environmental exposure, seasonal variations, Egypt.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1432
929 Effect of Electric Field Amplitude on Electrical Fatigue Behavior of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramic

Authors: S. Kampoosiri, S. Pojprapai, R. Yimnirunand, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

Fatigue behaviors of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics under different amplitude of bipolar electrical loads have been investigated. Fatigue behavior is represented by the change of hysteresis loops and remnant polarization. Three levels of electrical load amplitudes (1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kV /mm) were applied in this experimental. It was found that the remnant polarization decreased significantly with the number of loading cycles. The degree of fatigue degradation depends on the amplitude of electric field. The higher amplitude exhibits the greater fatigue degradation.

Keywords: Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), hysteresis loop, Sawyer-Tower circuit, fatigue, polarization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1689
928 Selective Separation of Lead and Mercury Ions from Synthetic Produced Water via a Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane

Authors: S. Suren, U. Pancharoen

Abstract:

A double module hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was applied to selectively separate lead and mercury ions from dilute synthetic produced water. The experiments were investigated on several variables: types of extractants (D2EHPA, Cyanex 471, Aliquat 336, and TOA), concentration of the selected extractant and operating time. The results clearly showed that the double module HFSLM could selectively separate Pb(II) and Hg(II) in feed solution at a very low concentration to less than the regulatory discharge limit of 0.2 and 0.005 mg/L issued by the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Natural Resource Environment, Thailand. The highest extractions of lead and mercury ions from synthetic produced water were 96% and 100% using 0.03 M D2EHPA and 0.06 M Aliquat 336 as the extractant for the first and second modules.

Keywords: Hollow fiber, Lead ions, Liquid membrane, Mercury ions, Selective separation

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2109
927 Tuning a Fractional Order PID Controller with Lead Compensator in Frequency Domain

Authors: Tahmine. V. Moghaddam, N. Bigdeli, K. Afshar

Abstract:

To achieve the desired specifications of gain and phase margins for plants with time-delay that stabilized with FO-PID controller a lead compensator is designed. At first the range of controlled system stability based on stability boundary criteria is determined. Using stability boundary locus method in frequency domain the fractional order controller parameters are tuned and then with drawing bode diagram in frequency domain accessing to desired gain and phase margin are shown. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the shapes of the stabilizing region and to show the design procedure.

Keywords: Fractional controller, Lead compensator, Stabilityregions, Stability boundary locus

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2328
926 Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Tolerant to Lead and Cadmium Toxicity

Authors: Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou Donia, Mohamed Fadel, Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to select the best strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to resist lead and cadmium. Ten strains were screened on the basis of their resistance at different concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 ppm for Pb and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm for Cd. The properties of baker's yeast quality were decreased by the increase of Pb or Cd in growth medium. The slope values of yield, total viable cells and gassing power of produced baker's yeast were investigated as an indicator of metal resistant. In addition, concentrations of Pb and Cd in produced baker's yeast were determined. The strain of S. cerevisiae FH-620 had the highest resistance against Pb and Cd and had the minimum levels of both two investigated metals in produced baker's yeast.

Keywords: Cadmium, lead, S. cerevisiae, tolerant.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2199
925 Effect of Isfahan Refinery, Power Plant and Petrochemical on Borkhar District Soil

Authors: A. Gandomkar

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate regional soil Borkhar of the metals Lead has been made. In this field study fires visits to the regions. The limit of this study located in the East refineries, petrochemical and power plant to 20 km was selected. The 41 soil samples from depths of 0 to 10 cm in area and were randomized. Soil samples were transported to the laboratory and by air was dry and passed through 2-mil thickness sieve. In the laboratory of physical and chemical characteristics and concentrations of total absorption was measured. The results showed that the amount of lead in soil in many parts of the range higher than the standard limit. Survey maps show that the lead spatial distribution of the region does not special pattern.

Keywords: Soil Pollution, Heavy Metals, Borkhar District, Soil Sampling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 928
924 Health Risk Assessment in Lead Battery Smelter Factory: A Bayesian Belief Network Method

Authors: Kevin Fong-Rey Liu, Ken Yeh, Cheng-Wu Chen, Han-Hsi Liang

Abstract:

This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBN) as a higher level of health risk assessment for a dumping site of lead battery smelter factory. On the basis of the epidemiological studies, the actual hospital attendance records and expert experiences, the BBN is capable of capturing the probabilistic relationships between the hazardous substances and their adverse health effects, and accordingly inferring the morbidity of the adverse health effects. The provision of the morbidity rates of the related diseases is more informative and can alleviate the drawbacks of conventional methods.

Keywords: Bayesian belief networks, lead battery smelter factory, health risk assessment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
923 Incorporation Mechanism of Stabilizing Simulated Lead-Laden Sludge in Aluminum-Rich Ceramics

Authors: Xingwen Lu, Kaimin Shih

Abstract:

This study investigated a strategy of blending lead-laden sludge and Al-rich precursors to reduce the release of metals from the stabilized products. Using PbO as the simulated lead-laden sludge to sinter with γ-Al2O3 by Pb:Al molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:12, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 were formed as final products during the sintering process, respectively. By firing the PbO + γ-Al2O3 mixtures with different Pb/Al molar ratios at 600 to 1000 °C, the lead transformation was determined through X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. In Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/2 system, the formation of PbAl2O4 is initiated at 700 °C, but an effective formation was observed above 750 °C. An intermediate phase, Pb9Al8O21, was detected in the temperature range of 800-900 °C. However, different incorporation behavior for sintering PbO with Al-rich precursors at a Pb/Al molar ratio of 1/12 was observed during the formation of PbAl12O19 in this system. In the sintering process, both temperature and time effect on the formation of PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases were estimated. Finally, a prolonged leaching test modified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-s toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the durability of PbO, Pb9Al8O21, PbAl2O4 and PbAl12O19 phases. Comparison for the leaching results of the four phases demonstrated the higher intrinsic resistance of PbAl12O19 against acid attack.

Keywords: Sludge, Lead, Stabilization, Leaching behavior

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1666
922 Ligandless Extraction and Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead in Pomegranate, Zucchini and Lettuce Samples after Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction with Ultrasonic Bath and Optimization of Extraction Condition with RSM Design

Authors: Fariba Tadayon, Elmira Hassanlou, Hasan Bagheri, Mostafa Jafarian

Abstract:

Heavy metals are released into water, plants, soil, and food by natural and human activities. Lead has toxic roles in the human body and may cause serious problems even in low concentrations, since it may have several adverse effects on human. Therefore, determination of lead in different samples is an important procedure in the studies of environmental pollution. In this work, an ultrasonic assisted-ionic liquid based-liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-IL-DLLME) procedure for the determination of lead in zucchini, pomegranate, and lettuce has been established and developed by using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). For UA-IL-DLLME procedure, 10 mL of the sample solution containing Pb2+ was adjusted to pH=5 in a glass test tube with a conical bottom; then, 120 μL of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro phosphate (CMIM)(PF6) was rapidly injected into the sample solution with a microsyringe. After that, the resulting cloudy mixture was treated by ultrasonic for 5 min, then the separation of two phases was obtained by centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 rpm and IL-phase diluted with 1 cc ethanol, and the analytes were determined by FAAS. The effect of different experimental parameters in the extraction step including: ionic liquid volume, sonication time and pH was studied and optimized simultaneously by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) employing a central composite design (CCD). The optimal conditions were determined to be an ionic liquid volume of 120 μL, sonication time of 5 min, and pH=5. The linear ranges of the calibration curve for the determination by FAAS of lead were 0.1-4 ppm with R2=0.992. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for lead was 0.062 μg.mL-1, the enrichment factor (EF) was 93, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for lead was calculated as 2.29%. The levels of lead for pomegranate, zucchini, and lettuce were calculated as 2.88 μg.g-1, 1.54 μg.g-1, 2.18 μg.g-1, respectively. Therefore, this method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the content of lead in different food samples by FAAS.

Keywords: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, Central composite design, Food samples, Flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1006
921 Ferroelectric Relaxor Behaviour in Some Lead- Free Compositions and their Potential Applications as Photocatalyst to Hydrogen Production

Authors: A. Kerfah, K. Taïbi, S. Omeiri, M. Trari.

Abstract:

New lead-free ferroelectric relaxor ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state synthesis in the BaTiO3-Bi2O3- Y2O3 systems. Some of these ceramics present a ferroelectric relaxor with transition temperature close to room temperature. These new materials are very interesting for applications and can replace leadbased ceramic to prevent the toxic pollutions during the preparation state. In the other hand, the energy band diagram shows the potentiality of these compounds for the solar energy conversion. Thus, some compositions have been tested successfully for H2 production upon visible light. The best activity occurs in alkaline media with a rate evolution of about 0.15 mL g-1 mn-1 and a quantum yield of 1% under polychromatic light.

Keywords: Ferroelectric, Hydrogen production, Lead-free, Photocatalysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1507
920 Promising Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead inside Ca-rich Glass-ceramics

Authors: A. Karnis, L. Gautron

Abstract:

Considering toxicity of heavy metals and their accumulation in domestic wastes, immobilization of lead and cadmium is envisaged inside glass-ceramics. We particularly focused this work on calcium-rich phases embedded in a glassy matrix. Glass-ceramics were synthesized from glasses doped with 12 wt% and 16 wt% of PbO or CdO. They were observed and analyzed by Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) and Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). Structural characterization of the samples was performed by powder XRay Diffraction. Diopside crystals of CaMgSi2O6 composition are shown to incorporate significant amounts of cadmium (up to 9 wt% of CdO). Two new crystalline phases are observed with very high Cd or Pb contents: about 40 wt% CdO for the cadmiumrich phase and near 60 wt% PbO for the lead-rich phase. We present complete chemical and structural characterization of these phases. They represent a promising way for the immobilization of toxic elements like Cd or Pb since glass ceramics are known to propose a “double barrier" protection (metal-rich crystals embedded in a glass matrix) against metal release in the environment.

Keywords: Cadmium, Calcium-rich phases, Diopside, Domesticwastes, Fly ashes, Glass-ceramics, Lead, Municipal Solid WasteIncineration.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1421