Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 258

Search results for: Blast furnace sludge

258 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: Blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorption.

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257 Effect of Blast Furnace Iron Slag on the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

Authors: Ayman M. Othman, Hassan Y. Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effect of using blast furnace iron slag as a part of fine aggregate on the mechanical performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The mechanical performance was evaluated based on various mechanical properties that include; Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The effect of iron slag content on the mechanical properties of the mixtures was also investigated. Four HMA with various iron slag contents, namely; 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of total mixture were studied. Laboratory testing has revealed an enhancement in the compressive strength of HMA when iron slag was used. Within the tested range of iron slag content, a considerable increase in the compressive strength of the mixtures was observed with the increase of slag content. No significant improvement on Marshall/stiffness and indirect tensile strength of the mixtures was observed when slag was used. Even so, blast furnace iron slag can still be used in asphalt paving for environmental advantages.

Keywords: Blast furnace iron slag, HMA, Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength, compressive strength.

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256 Early-Age Structural and Thermal Performance of GGBS Concrete

Authors: Kangkang Tang

Abstract:

A large amount of blast furnace slag is generated in China. Most ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) however ends up in low-grade applications. Blast furnace slag, ground to an appropriate fineness, can be used as a partial replacement of cementitious material in concrete. The potential for using GGBS in structural concrete, e.g. concrete beams and columns is investigated at Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (XJTLU). With 50% of CEM I cement replaced with GGBS, peak hydration temperatures determined in a suspended concrete slab reduced by 20%. This beneficiary effect has not been further improved with 70% of CEM I replaced with GGBS. Partial replacement of CEM I with GGBS has a retardation effect on the early-age strength of concrete. More GGBS concrete mixes will be conducted to identify an ‘optimum’ replacement level which will lead to a reduced thermal loading, without significantly compromising the early-age strength of concrete.

Keywords: GGBS, thermal effect, sustainable construction, CEM I.

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255 Evaluation of Low-Reducible Sinter in Blast Furnace Technology by Mathematical Model Developed at Centre ENET, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava

Authors: S. Jursová, P. Pustějovská, S. Brožová, J. Bilík

Abstract:

The paper deals with possibilities of interpretation of iron ore reducibility tests. It presents a mathematical model developed at Centre ENET, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic for an evaluation of metallurgical material of blast furnace feedstock such as iron ore, sinter or pellets. According to the data from the test, the model predicts its usage in blast furnace technology and its effects on production parameters of shaft aggregate. At the beginning, the paper sums up the general concept and experience in mathematical modelling of iron ore reduction. It presents basic equation for the calculation and the main parts of the developed model. In the experimental part, there is an example of usage of the mathematical model. The paper describes the usage of data for some predictive calculation. There are presented material, method of carried test of iron ore reducibility. Then there are graphically interpreted effects of used material on carbon consumption, rate of direct reduction and the whole reduction process.

Keywords: Blast furnace technology, iron ore reduction, mathematical model, prediction of iron ore reduction.

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254 Characteristic on Compressive Strength of Blast Slag and Fly Ash Hybrid Geopolymer Mortar

Authors: G. S. Ryu, K. T. Koh, H. Y. Kim, G. H. An, D. W. Seo

Abstract:

Geopolymer mortar is produced by alkaline activation of pozzolanic materials such as fly ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA). Its unique reaction pathway facilitates rapid strength development in comparison with hydration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Geopolymer can be fabricated using various types and dosages of alkali-activator, which effectively gives a wider control over the performance of the final product. The present study investigates the effect of types of precursors and curing conditions on the fresh state and strength development characteristics of geopolymers, thereby comparatively exploring the effect of precursors from various sources of origin. The obtained result showed that the setting time and strength development of the specimens with the identical mix proportion but different precursors displayed significant variations.

Keywords: Alkali-activated material, blast furnace slag, fly ash, Flowability, strength development.

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253 Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Concretes with BFSA

Authors: Alena Sicakova

Abstract:

Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag Aggregate (BFSA) is usually referred to as a material providing for unique properties of concrete. On the other hand, negative influences are also presented in many aspects. The freeze-thaw resistance of concrete is dependent on many factors, including regional specifics and when a concrete mix is specified it is still difficult to tell its exact freeze-thaw resistance due to the different components affecting it. An important consideration in working with BFSA is the granularity and whether slag is sorted or not. The experimental part of the article represents a comparative testing of concrete using both the sorted and unsorted BFSA through the freeze-thaw resistance as an indicator of durability. Unsorted BFSA is able to be successfully used for concretes as they are specified for exposure class XF4 with providing that the type of cement is precisely selected.

Keywords: Blast furnace slag aggregate, concrete, freeze-thaw resistance.

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252 Effect of Carbon-Free Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag on Compressive Strength of Mortar under Different Curing Conditions

Authors: Abdul Khaliq Amiri, Shigeyuki Date

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of using carbon-free fly ash (CfFA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) on the compressive strength of mortar. The CfFA used in this investigation is high-quality fly ash and the carbon content is 1.0% or less. In this study, three types of blends with a 30% water-binder ratio (w/b) were prepared: control, binary and ternary blends. The Control blend contained only Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), in binary and ternary blends OPC was partially replaced with CfFA and GGBFS at different substitution rates. Mortar specimens were cured for 1 day, 7 days and 28 days under two curing conditions: steam curing and water curing. The steam cured specimens were exposed to two different pre-curing times (1.5 h and 2.5 h) and one steam curing duration (6 h) at 45 °C. The test results showed that water cured specimens revealed higher compressive strength than steam cured specimens at later ages. An increase in CfFA and GGBFS contents caused a decrease in the compressive strength of mortar. Ternary mixes exhibited better compressive strength than binary mixes containing CfFA with the same replacement ratio of mineral admixtures.

Keywords: Carbon-free fly ash, compressive strength, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, steam curing, water curing.

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251 In-situ LDH Formation of Sodium Aluminate Activated Slag

Authors: Tao Liu, Qingliang Yu, H. J. H. Brouwers

Abstract:

Among the reaction products in the alkali activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (AAS), the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have a remarkable capacity of chloride and heavy metal ions absorption. The promotion of LDH phases in the AAS matrix can increase chloride resistance. The objective of this study is that using the different dosages of sodium aluminate to activate slag, consequently, promoting the formation of in-situ LDH. The hydration kinetics of the sodium aluminate activated slag (SAAS) was tested by the isothermal calorimetry. Meanwhile, the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sodium hydroxide activated slag is selected as the reference. The results of XRD, TGA, and FTIR showed that the formation of LDH in SAAS is governed by the aluminate dosages.

Keywords: ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium aluminate activated slag, in-situ LDH formation, chloride absorption

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250 Evaluation of Optimal Residence Time in a Hot Rolled Reheating Furnace

Authors: Dong-Eun Lee

Abstract:

To calculate the temperature distribution of the slab in a hot rolled reheating furnace a mathematical model has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the furnace and transient conduction in the slab. The furnace is modeled as radiating medium with spatially varying temperature. Radiative heat flux within the furnace including the effect of furnace walls, combustion gases, skid beams and buttons is calculated using the FVM and is applied as the boundary condition of the transient conduction equation of the slab. After determining the slab emissivity by comparison between simulation and experimental work, variation of heating characteristics in the slab is investigated in the case of changing furnace temperature with various time and the slab residence time is optimized with this evaluation.

Keywords: Reheating Furnace, Thermal Radiation, ResidenceTime, FVM for Radiation

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249 Sewage Sludge Management in Egypt: Current Status and Perspectives towards a Sustainable Agricultural Use

Authors: M. Ghazy, T. Dockhorn, N. Dichtl

Abstract:

The present disposal routes of sewage sludge represent a critical environmental issue in Egypt. Recently, there has been an increasing concern about sewage sludge management due to the environmental risks, which resulted from the fast expansion of wastewater treatment plants without equal attention in dealing with the produced sludge. This paper discusses the current situation of sewage sludge management in Egypt presenting a brief overview of the existing wastewater treatment plants, sludge production and characteristics as well as options of beneficial use and potential demand of sewage sludge under Egyptian conditions. The characteristics of sewage sludge are discussed considering the results of own sampling and analysis as well as previous studies. Furthermore, alternative treatment scenarios for sewage sludge, which have been recently developed in Egypt, are discussed and perspectives for a sustainable agricultural use are outlined.

Keywords: Beneficial use, Egypt, Monetary value, Stabilization processes, Sewage sludge, Sludge management

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248 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: Fired Clay Brick, Sludge waste, Compressive strength, Shrinkage, Water absorption.

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247 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Iron oxide wastes, reduction, coke, recycling.

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246 On the Thermal Behavior of the Slab in a Reheating Furnace with Radiation

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace has been developed by considering the nongray thermal radiation with given furnace environments. The furnace is modeled as radiating nongray medium with carbon dioxide and water with five-zoned gas temperature and the furnace wall is considered as a constant temperature lower than furnace gas one. The slabs are moving with constant velocity depending on the residence time through the non-firing, charging, preheating, heating, and final soaking zones. Radiative heat flux obtained by considering the radiative heat exchange inside the furnace as well as convective one from the surrounding hot gases are introduced as boundary condition of the transient heat conduction within the slab. After validating thermal radiation model adopted in this work, thermal fields in both model and real reheating furnace are investigated in terms of radiative heat flux in the furnace and temperature inside the slab. The results show that the slab in the furnace can be more heated with higher slab emissivity and residence time.

Keywords: Reheating Furnace, Steel Slab, Radiative Heat Transfer, WSGGM, Emissivity, Residence Time.

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245 Possibilities of Sewage Sludge Application in the Conditions of Slovak Republic

Authors: Peter Takáč, Dana Šimová, Terézia Szabová, Tomáš Bakalár

Abstract:

The direct sewage sludge application is a relative cheap method for their liquidation. In the past heavy metal contents increase in soils treated with sewage sludge was observed. In 2003 there was acceptance on act n.188/2003 about sewage sludge application on soils. The basic philosophy of act is a safety of the environmental proof of sludge application on soils. The samples of soils from wastewater treatment plant (WTP) Poprad (35) and WTP Michalovce (33 samples) were analyzed which were chosen for sludge application on soils. According to the results only 14 areas for Poprad and 25 areas for Michalovce are suitable for sludge application according to act No. 188/2003. The application dose of sludge was calculated 50 t.ha-1 or 75 t. ha-1 once in 5 years to ensure that heavy metal contents in treated soils will be kept.

Keywords: Environmental safety, heavy metals in soils, sewagesludge application.

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244 The Effects of Sewage Sludge Usage and Manure on Some Heavy Metals Uptake in Savory (Satureja hortensis L.)

Authors: A. Hani

Abstract:

In recent decades with the development of technology and lack of food sources, sewage sludge in production of human foods is inevitable. Various sources of municipal and industrial sewage sludge that is produced can provide the requirement of plant nutrients. Soils in arid, semi-arid climate of central Iran that most affected by water drainage, iron and zinc deficiencies, using of sewage sludge is helpful. Therefore, the aim of this study is investigation of sewage sludge and manure application on Ni, Pb and Cd uptake by Savory. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Sewage sludge treatments consisted of four levels, control, 15, 30, 80 tons per hectares; the manure was used in four levels of control, 20, 40 and 80 tons per hectare. Results showed that the wet and dry weights was not affected by sewage sludge using, while, manure has significant effect on them. The effect of sewage sludge on the cadmium and lead concentrations were significant. Interactions of sewage sludge and manure on dry weight values were not significant. Compare mean analysis showed that increasing the amount of sewage sludge had no significant effect on cadmium concentration and it reduced when sewage sludge usage increased. This is probably due to increased plant growth and reduced concentrations of these elements in the plant.

Keywords: Savory, lead, cadmium, sewage sludge, manure.

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243 Vermicomposting of Textile Industries’ Dyeing Sludge by Using Eisenia foetida

Authors: Kunwar D. Yadav, Dayanand Sharma

Abstract:

Surat City in India is famous for textile and dyeing industries which generate textile sludge in huge quantity. Textile sludge contains harmful chemicals which are poisonous and carcinogenic. The safe disposal and reuse of textile dyeing sludge are challenging for owner of textile industries and government of the state. The aim of present study was the vermicomposting of textile industries dyeing sludge with cow dung and Eisenia foetida as earthworm spices. The vermicompost reactor of 0.3 m3 capacity was used for vermicomposting. Textile dyeing sludge was mixed with cow dung in different proportion, i.e., 0:100 (C1), 10:90 (C2), 20:80 (C3), 30:70 (C4). Vermicomposting duration was 120 days. All the combinations of the feed mixture, the pH was increased to a range 7.45-7.78, percentage of total organic carbon was decreased to a range of 31-33.3%, total nitrogen was decreased to a range of 1.15-1.32%, total phosphorus was increased in the range of 6.2-7.9 (g/kg).

Keywords: Cow dung, Eisenia foetida, textile sludge, vermicompost.

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242 The Occurrence of Fungi in Activated Sludge from MBRs

Authors: Mohamed F. Awad, M. Kraume

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of fungi in aerobic and anoxic activated sludge from membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Thirty-six samples of both aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from 2 MBR treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of eight months 2 samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungi. The obtained data show that, sixty species belonging to 27 genera were collected from activated sludge samples under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Regarding to the fungi definition, under aerobic condition the Geotrichum was found at (8.8%) followed by Penicillium (75.0%), Yeasts (65.7%) and Trichoderma (55.5%), while Yeasts (77.1%) Geotrichum candidumand Penicillium (61.1%) species were the most prevalent in anoxic activated sludge. The results indicate that activated sludge is habitat for growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.

Keywords: Aerobic conditions, Anoxic conditions, Activated sludge, Membrane bioreactor, Fungi.

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241 Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer

Authors: K. V. Kalinichenko, G. N. Nikovskaya

Abstract:

The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage  sludge in bioleaching processes with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic  (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in  distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared.  The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varies  from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and follows the order: Zn > Mn > Cu  > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process  at heterotrophic metabolism were shown. A new process for  bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle  temperatures after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This  process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic  microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis  of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess  the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which  provide the enhancement of sludge flocks sedimentation. The process  results in biomineral fertilizer of prolonged action with immobilized  sludge bioelements. The fertilizer satisfies the EU limits for the  sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the  biomineral fertilizer obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation  experiments.

 

Keywords: Fertilizer, heavy metals, leaching, sewage sludge.

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240 Changes in Selected Fuel Properties of Sewage Sludge as a Result of its Storage

Authors: Michal M. Koziol

Abstract:

The article presents test results on the changes occurring in sewage sludge during the process of its storage. Tests were conducted on mechanically dehydrated sewage sludge derived from large municipal sewage treatment plants equipped with biological sewage treatment systems. In testing presented in the paper the focus was on the basic fuel properties of sewage sludge: moisture content, heat of combustion, carbon share. In the first part of the article the overview of the issues concerning the sewage sludge management is presented and the genesis of tests is explained. Further in the paper, selected results of conducted tests are discussed. Changes in tested parameters were determined in the period of a 10- month sewage storage.

Keywords: fuel properties, laboratory tests, sewage sludge, storage

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239 Assessing the Effect of Freezing and Thawing of Coverzone of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Concrete

Authors: Abdulkarim Mohammed Iliyasu, Mahmud Abba Tahir

Abstract:

Freezing and thawing are considered to be one of the major causes of concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This study aimed at assessing the freezing and thawing of concrete within the cover zone by monitoring the formation of ice and melting at different temperatures using electrical measurement technique. A multi-electrode array system was used to obtain the resistivity of ice formation and melting at discrete depths within the cover zone of the concrete. A total number of four concrete specimens (250 mm x 250 mm x 150 mm) made of ordinary Portland cement concrete and ordinary Portland cement replaced by 65% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is investigated. Water/binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.65 were produced and ponded with water to ensure full saturation and then subjected to freezing and thawing process in a refrigerator within a temperature range of -30 0C and 20 0C over a period of time 24 hours. The data were collected and analysed. The obtained results show that the addition of GGBS changed the pore structure of the concrete which resulted in the decrease in conductance. It was recommended among others that, the surface of the concrete structure should be protected as this will help to prevent the instantaneous propagation of ice trough the rebar and to avoid corrosion and subsequent damage.

Keywords: Concrete, conductance, deterioration, freezing and thawing, ordinary Portland cement.

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238 Bioremediation of Sewage Sludge Contaminated with Fluorene Using a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant

Authors: X. Vecino, J. M. Cruz, A. Moldes

Abstract:

The disposal and the treatment of sewage sludge is an expensive and environmentally complex problem. In this work, a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor was used as ecofriendly and cost-competitive alternative for the mobilization and bioremediation of fluorene in sewage sludge. Results have demonstrated that this biosurfactant has the capability to mobilize fluorene to the aqueous phase, reducing the amount of fluorene in the sewage sludge from 484.4 mg/Kg up to 413.7 mg/Kg and 196.0 mg/Kg after 1 and 27 days respectively. Furthermore, once the fluorene was extracted the lipopeptide biosurfactant contained in the aqueous phase allowed the biodegradation, up to 40.5% of the initial concentration of this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Keywords: Fluorene, lipopeptide biosurfactant, mobilization, sewage sludge.

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237 Mechanical Properties and Chloride Diffusion of Ceramic Waste Aggregate Mortar Containing Ground Granulated Blast–Furnace Slag

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sappakittipakorn, M. Mizukoshi, O. Takahashi

Abstract:

Ceramic Waste Aggregates (CWAs) were made from electric porcelain insulator wastes supplied from an electric power company, which were crushed and ground to fine aggregate sizes. In this study, to develop the CWA mortar as an eco–efficient, ground granulated blast–furnace slag (GGBS) as a Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) was incorporated. The water–to–binder ratio (W/B) of the CWA mortars was varied at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The cement of the CWA mortar was replaced by GGBS at 20 and 40% by volume (at about 18 and 37% by weight). Mechanical properties of compressive and splitting tensile strengths, and elastic modulus were evaluated at the age of 7, 28, and 91 days. Moreover, the chloride ingress test was carried out on the CWA mortars in a 5.0% NaCl solution for 48 weeks. The chloride diffusion was assessed by using an electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). To consider the relation of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and the pore size, the pore size distribution test was also performed using a mercury intrusion porosimetry at the same time with the EPMA. The compressive strength of the CWA mortars with the GGBS was higher than that without the GGBS at the age of 28 and 91 days. The resistance to the chloride ingress of the CWA mortar was effective in proportion to the GGBS replacement level.

Keywords: Ceramic waste aggregate, Chloride diffusion, GGBS, Pore size distribution.

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236 A Prospective Study on Alkali Activated Bottom Ash-GGBS Blend in Paver Blocks

Authors: V. Revathi, J. Thaarrini, M. Venkob Rao

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on use of alkali activated bottom ash (BA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) blend in paver blocks. A preliminary effort on alkali-activated bottom ash, blast furnace slag based geopolymer (BA-GGBS-GP) mortar with river sand was carried out to identify the suitable mix for paver block. Several mixes were proposed based on the combination of BA-GGBS. The percentage ratio of BA: GGBS was selected as 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 for the source material. Sodium based alkaline activators were used for activation. The molarity of NaOH was considered as 8M. The molar ratio of SiO2 to Na2O was varied from 1 to 4. Two curing mode such as ambient and steam curing 60°C for 24 hours were selected. The properties of paver block such as compressive strength split tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption were evaluated as per IS15658:2006. Based on the preliminary study on BA-GGBS-GP mortar, the combinations of 25% BA with 75% GGBS mix for M30 and 75% BA with 25% GGBS mix for M35 grade were identified for paver block. Test results shows that the combination of BA-GGBS geopolymer paver blocks attained remarkable compressive strength under steam curing as well as in ambient mode at 3 days. It is noteworthy to know BA-GGBS-GP has promising future in the construction industry.

Keywords: Bottom ash, GGBS, alkali activation, paver block.

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235 Conditioning Process of Fresh Activated Sludge

Authors: Salam K Al-Dawery, Mustafa S Nasser

Abstract:

The effect of polyelectrolytes; cationic and anionic charges and coagulants have been investigated for fresh activated sludge at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have a significant effluence on the sludge characteristic, degree of flocculation and water quality such as turbidity and SVI. The results show that the cationic CPAM-80 is the most effective polyelectrolyte used corresponding to turbidity and SVI despite of the variations in feed properties of the fresh activated sludge.

Keywords: Coagulant, Polyelectrolyte, Settling volume index, Turbidity.

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234 Simulation of Heat Transfer in the Multi-Layer Door of the Furnace

Authors: U. Prasopchingchana

Abstract:

The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rates through a multi-layer door of a furnace were investigated. The inside of the door was in contact with hot air and the other side of the door was in contact with room air. Radiation heat transfer from the walls of the furnace to the door and the door to the surrounding area was included in the problem. This work is a two dimensional steady state problem. The Churchill and Chu correlation was used to find local convection heat transfer coefficients at the surfaces of the furnace door. The thermophysical properties of air were the functions of the temperatures. Polynomial curve fitting for the fluid properties were carried out. Finite difference method was used to discretize for conduction heat transfer within the furnace door. The Gauss-Seidel Iteration was employed to compute the temperature distribution in the door. The temperature distribution in the horizontal mid plane of the furnace door in a two dimensional problem agrees with the one dimensional problem. The local convection heat transfer coefficients at the inside and outside surfaces of the furnace door are exhibited.

Keywords: Conduction, heat transfer, multi-layer door, natural convection

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233 Production of Pre-Reduction of Iron Ore Nuggets with Lesser Sulphur Intake by Devolatisation of Boiler Grade Coal

Authors: Chanchal Biswas, Anrin Bhattacharyya, Gopes Chandra Das, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey

Abstract:

Boiler coals with low fixed carbon and higher ash content have always challenged the metallurgists to develop a suitable method for their utilization. In the present study, an attempt is made to establish an energy effective method for the reduction of iron ore fines in the form of nuggets by using ‘Syngas’. By devolatisation (expulsion of volatile matter by applying heat) of boiler coal, gaseous product (enriched with reducing agents like CO, CO2, H2, and CH4 gases) is generated. Iron ore nuggets are reduced by this syngas. For that reason, there is no direct contact between iron ore nuggets and coal ash. It helps to control the minimization of the sulphur intake of the reduced nuggets. A laboratory scale devolatisation furnace designed with reduction facility is evaluated after in-depth studies and exhaustive experimentations including thermo-gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis to find out the volatile fraction present in boiler grade coal, gas chromatography (GC) to find out syngas composition in different temperature and furnace temperature gradient measurements to minimize the furnace cost by applying one heating coil. The nuggets are reduced in the devolatisation furnace at three different temperatures and three different times. The pre-reduced nuggets are subjected to analytical weight loss calculations to evaluate the extent of reduction. The phase and surface morphology analysis of pre-reduced samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon sulphur analyzer and chemical analysis method. Degree of metallization of the reduced nuggets is 78.9% by using boiler grade coal. The pre-reduced nuggets with lesser sulphur content could be used in the blast furnace as raw materials or coolant which would reduce the high quality of coke rate of the furnace due to its pre-reduced character. These can be used in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) as coolant also.

Keywords: Alternative ironmaking, coal devolatisation, extent of reduction, nugget making, syngas based DRI, solid state reduction.

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232 Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC)

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, A. Shyzleen, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, S. Ahmad

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) lack in thermal resistance under elevated temperatures in the event of fire. This phenomenon led to the lining of strengthened concrete with thin high performance cementitious composites (THPCC) to protect the substrate against elevated temperature. Elevated temperature effects on THPCC, based on different cementitious materials have been studied in the past but high-alumina cement (HAC)-based THPCC have not been well characterized. This research study will focus on the THPCC based on HAC replaced by 60%, 70%, 80% and 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Samples were evaluated by the measurement of their mechanical strength (28 & 56 days of curing) after exposed to 400°C, 600°C and 28°C of room temperature for comparison and corroborated by their microstructure study. Results showed that among all mixtures, the mix containing only HAC showed the highest compressive strength after exposed to 600°C as compared to other mixtures. However, the tensile strength of THPCC made of HAC and 60% GGBS content was comparable to the THPCC with HAC only after exposed to 600°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of THPCC accompanying Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis revealed that the microstructure deteriorated considerably after exposure to elevated temperatures which led to the decrease in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Ground granulated blast furnace slag, high aluminacement, microstructure at elevated temperature and residual strength.

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231 Heating and Cooling Scenario of Blended Concrete Subjected to 780 Degrees Celsius

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies

Abstract:

In this study, the Compressive strength of concretes made with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) after they were exposed 7800C (exposure duration of around 60 minutes) and then allowed to cool down gradually in the furnace for about 280 minutes at water binder ratio of 0.50 was investigated. GGBS, PFA, RHA and WGP were used to replace up to 20% Portland cement in the control concrete. Test for the determination of workability, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength of the concretes were carried out and the results were compared with control concrete. The test results showed that the compressive strength decreased by an average of around 30% after the concretes were exposed to the heating and cooling scenario.

Keywords: Pulverised Fuel Ash, Rice Husk Ash, heating and cooling, concrete.

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230 The Evaluation of Costs and Greenhouse Gas Reduction Using Technologies for Energy from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Futoshi Kakuta, Takashi Ishida

Abstract:

Sewage sludge is a biomass resource that can create a solid fuel and electricity. Utilizing sewage sludge as a renewable energy can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases. In Japan, the "National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization" and the “Priority Plan for Social Infrastructure Development" were approved at cabinet meetings in December 2010 and August 2012, respectively, to promote the energy utilization of sewage sludge. This study investigated costs and greenhouse gas emission in different sewage sludge treatments with technologies for energy from sewage sludge. Expenses were estimated based on capital costs and O&M costs including energy consumption of solid fuel plants and biogas power generation plants for sewage sludge. Results showed that the cost of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was 8% lower than landfill disposal. The greenhouse gas emission of sludge digestion treatment with solid fuel technologies was also 6,390t as CO2 smaller than landfill disposal. Biogas power generation reduced the electricity of a wastewater treatment plant by 30% and the cost by 5%.

Keywords: Global warming counter measure, energy technology, solid fuel production, biogas.

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229 Aerobic Treatment of Oily Wastewater: Effect of Aeration and Sludge Concentration to Pollutant Reduction and PHB Accumulation

Authors: Budhi Primasari, Shaliza Ibrahim, M Suffian M Annuar, Lim Xung Ian Remmie

Abstract:

This study is aimed to investigate feasibility of the aerobic biological process to treat oily wastewater from palm oil food industry. Effect of aeration and sludge concentrations are studied. Raw sludge and raw wastewater was mixed and acclimatized for five days in a stirred tank reactor. The aeration rate (no aeration, low; 1.5L/min and high rate; 2L/min) and sludge concentration (3675, 7350, and 11025mg/L of VSS) were varied. Responses of process were pH, COD, oil and grease, VSS, and PHB content. It was found that the treatment can remove 85.1 to 97.1 % of COD and remove 12.9 to 54.8% of oil & grease. The PHB yield was found to be within 0.15% to 2.4% as PHB/VSS ratio and 0.01% to 0.12% as PHB/COD removed. The higher aeration results a high COD removal and oil & grease removal, while experiment without aeration gives better PHB yield. Higher sludge concentrations (11025mg/L VSS) give higher removal of oil & grease while moderate sludge concentration (7350mg/L VSS) give better result in COD removal. Higher PHB yield is obtained in low sludge concentration (3675mg/L).

Keywords: oily wastewater, COD, PHB, oil and grease

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