Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Bioremediation

18 Optimization of Lead Bioremediation by Marine Halomonas sp. ES015 Using Statistical Experimental Methods

Authors: Aliaa M. El-Borai, Ehab A. Beltagy, Eman E. Gadallah, Samy A. ElAssar

Abstract:

Bioremediation technology is now used for treatment instead of traditional metal removal methods. A strain was isolated from Marsa Alam, Red sea, Egypt showed high resistance to high lead concentration and was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique as Halomonas sp. ES015. Medium optimization was carried out using Plackett-Burman design, and the most significant factors were yeast extract, casamino acid and inoculums size. The optimized media obtained by the statistical design raised the removal efficiency from 84% to 99% from initial concentration 250 ppm of lead. Moreover, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the relationship between yeast extract concentration, casamino acid concentration and inoculums size. The optimized medium increased removal efficiency to 97% from initial concentration 500 ppm of lead. Immobilized Halomonas sp. ES015 cells on sponge cubes, using optimized medium in loop bioremediation column, showed relatively constant lead removal efficiency when reused six successive cycles over the range of time interval. Also metal removal efficiency was not affected by flow rate changes. Finally, the results of this research refer to the possibility of lead bioremediation by free or immobilized cells of Halomonas sp. ES015. Also, bioremediation can be done in batch cultures and semicontinuous cultures using column technology.

Keywords: Bioremediation, lead, Box–Behnken, Halomonas sp. ES015, loop bioremediation, Plackett-Burman.

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17 Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon and Some Heavy Metal Polluted Wastewater Effluent of a Typical Refinery

Authors: S. Abdulsalam, A. D. I. Suleiman, N. M. Musa, M. Yusuf

Abstract:

Environment free of pollutants should be the concern of every individual but with industrialization and urbanization it is difficult to achieve. In view of achieving a pollution limited environment at low cost, a study was conducted on the use of bioremediation technology to remediate hydrocarbons and three heavy metals namely; copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) from a typical petroleum refinery wastewater in a closed system. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics on the wastewater sample revealed that it was polluted with the aforementioned pollutants. Isolation and identification of microorganisms present in the wastewater sample revealed the presence of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bioremediation experiments carried out on five batch reactors with different compositions but at same environmental conditions revealed that treatment T5 (boosted with the association of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus) gave the best result in terms of oil and grease content removal (i.e. 67% in 63 days). In addition, these microorganisms were able of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in the sample. Treatments T5, T3 (boosted with Bacillus subtilis only) and T4 (boosted with Micrococcus luteus only) gave optimum percentage uptakes of 65, 75 and 25 for Cu, Zn and Fe respectively.

Keywords: Boosted, bioremediation, closed system, aeration, uptake, wastewater.

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16 Bioremediation of Oil-Polluted Soil of Western Kazakhstan

Authors: S. A. Aytkeldiyeva, A. K. Sadanov, E. R. Faizulina, A. A. Kurmanbayev

Abstract:

15 strains of oil-destructing microorganisms were isolated from oil polluted soil of Western Kazakhstan. Strains 2-A and 41-3 with the highest oil-destructing activities were chosen from them. It was shown that these strains oxidized n-alkanes very well, but isoalkanes, isoparaffin, cycloparaffin and heavy aromatic compounds were destructed very slowly. These both strains were tested as preparations for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in model and field experiments. The degree of utilizing of soil oil by this preparation was 79-84 % in field experiments.

Keywords: Bioremediation, n-alkanes, oil-polluted soil, oiloxidizingmicroorganisms.

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15 Oily Sludge Bioremediation Pilot Plant Project, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John

Abstract:

Brass terminal, one of the several crude oil and petroleum products storage/handling facilities in the Niger Delta was built in the 1980s. Activities at this site, over the years, released crude oil into this 3 m-deep, 1500 m-long canal lying adjacent to the terminal with oil floating on it and its sediment heavily polluted. To ensure effective clean-up, three major activities were planned: site characterization, bioremediation pilot plant construction and testing and full-scale bioremediation of contaminated sediment / bank soil by land farming. The canal was delineated into 12 lots and each characterized, with reference to the floating oily phase, contaminated sediment and canal bank soil. As a result of site characterization, a pilot plant for on-site bioremediation was designed and a treatment basin constructed for carrying out pilot bioremediation test. Following a designed sampling protocol, samples from this pilot plant were collected for analysis at two laboratories as a quality assurance / quality control check. Results showed that Brass Canal upstream is contaminated with dark, thick and viscous oily film with characteristic hydrocarbon smell while downstream, thin oily film interspersed with water was observed. Sediments were observed to be dark with mixture of brownish sandy soil with TPH ranging from 17,800 mg/kg in Lot 1 to 88,500 mg/kg in Lot 12 samples. Brass Canal bank soil was observed to be sandy from ground surface to 3m, below ground surface (bgs) it was silty-sandy and brownish while subsurface soil (4-10m bgs) was sandy-clayey and whitish/grayish with typical hydrocarbon smell. Preliminary results obtained so far have been very promising but were proprietary. This project is considered, to the best of technical literature knowledge, the first large-scale on-site bioremediation project in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Contaminated sediment, Land farming, Oily sludge, Oil Terminal.

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14 Potential of Agro-Waste Extracts as Supplements for the Continuous Bioremediation of Free Cyanide Contaminated Wastewater

Authors: Seteno K. O. Ntwampe, Bruno A. Q. Santos

Abstract:

Different agricultural waste peels were assessed for their suitability to be used as primary substrates for the bioremediation of free cyanide (CN-) by a cyanide-degrading fungus Aspergillus awamori isolated from cyanide containing wastewater. The bioremediated CN- concentration were in the range of 36 to 110 mg CN-/L, with Orange (C. sinensis) > Carrot (D. carota) > Onion (A. cepa) > Apple (M. pumila), being chosen as suitable substrates for large scale CN- degradation processes due to: 1) the high concentration of bioremediated CN-, 2) total reduced sugars released into solution to sustain the biocatalyst, and 3) minimal residual NH4- N concentration after fermentation. The bioremediation rate constants (k) were 0.017h-1 (0h < t < 24h), with improved bioremediation rates (0.02189h-1) observed after 24h. The averaged nitrilase activity was ~10 U/L.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Bioremediation, Cyanide, Wastewater.

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13 Optimization of a Bioremediation Strategy for an Urban Stream of Matanza-Riachuelo Basin

Authors: María D. Groppa, Andrea Trentini, Myriam Zawoznik, Roxana Bigi, Carlos Nadra, Patricia L. Marconi

Abstract:

In the present work, a remediation bioprocess based on the use of a local isolate of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in alginate beads is proposed. This process was shown to be effective for the reduction of several chemical and microbial contaminants present in Cildáñez stream, a water course that is part of the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The bioprocess, involving the culture of the microalga in autotrophic conditions in a stirred-tank bioreactor supplied with a marine propeller for 6 days, allowed a significant reduction of Escherichia coli and total coliform numbers (over 95%), as well as of ammoniacal nitrogen (96%), nitrates (86%), nitrites (98%), and total phosphorus (53%) contents. Pb content was also significantly diminished after the bioprocess (95%). Standardized cytotoxicity tests using Allium cepa seeds and Cildáñez water pre- and post-remediation were also performed. Germination rate and mitotic index of onion seeds imbibed in Cildáñez water subjected to the bioprocess was similar to that observed in seeds imbibed in distilled water and significantly superior to that registered when untreated Cildáñez water was used for imbibition. Our results demonstrate the potential of this simple and cost-effective technology to remove urban-water contaminants, offering as an additional advantage the possibility of an easy biomass recovery, which may become a source of alternative energy.

Keywords: Bioreactor, bioremediation, Chlorella vulgaris, Matanza-Riachuelo basin, microalgae.

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12 Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Spore-Forming Bacteria from Oman: Potential Applications in Bioremediation

Authors: Saif N. Al-Bahry, Yahya M. Al-Wahaibi, Abdulkadir E. Elshafie, Ali S. Al-Bemani, Sanket J. Joshi

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is a global problem and best possible solution is identifying and utilizing native microorganisms. One possible application of microbial product -biosurfactant is in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We have screened forty two different petroleum contaminated sites from Oman, for biosurfactant producing spore-forming bacterial isolates. Initial screening showed that out of 42 soil samples, three showed reduction in surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) within 24h of incubation at 40°C. Out of those 3 soil samples, one was further selected for isolation of bacteria and 14 different bacteria were isolated in pure form. Of those 14 spore-forming, rod shaped bacteria, two showed highest reduction in ST and IFT in the range of 70mN/m to <35mN/m and 26.69mN/m to <9mN/m, respectively within 24h. These bacterial biosurfactants may be utilized for bioremediation of oil-spills.

Keywords: Bioremediation, biosurfactant, hydrocarbon pollution, spore-forming bacteria.

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11 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong

Abstract:

Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: Bioremediation, dyes, fermentation, laccase.

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10 Bioremediation of Phenanthrene by Monocultures and Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil

Authors: A. Fazilah, I. Darah, I. Noraznawati

Abstract:

Three different bacteria capable of degrading phenanthrene were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated site. In this study, the phenanthrene-degrading activity by defined monoculture was determined and mixed culture was identified as Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a and Pseudomonas sp. P6. All bacteria were able to grow in a minimal salt medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenanthrene degradation efficiencies by different combinations (consortia) of these bacteria were investigated and their phenanthrene degradation was evaluated by gas chromatography. Among the monocultures, Pseudomonas sp. P6 exhibited 58.71% activity compared to Acinetobacter sp. P3d and Bacillus sp. P4a which were 56.97% and 53.05%, respectively after 28 days of cultivation. All consortia showed high phenanthrene elimination which were 95.64, 79.37, 87.19, 79.21% for Consortia A, B, C and D, respectively. The results indicate that all of the bacteria isolated may effectively degrade target chemical and have a promising application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil purposes.

Keywords: Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a, consortia, phenanthrene, Pseudomonas sp. P6.

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9 Bioremediation Potential in Recalcitrant Areas of PCE in Alluvial Fan Deposits

Authors: J. Herrero, D. Puigserver, I. Nijenhuis, K. Kuntze, J. M. Carmona

Abstract:

In the transition zone between aquifers and basal aquitards, the perchloroethene (PCE)-pools are more recalcitrant than those elsewhere in the aquifer. Although biodegradation of chloroethenes occur in this zone, it is a slow process and a remediation strategy is needed. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that combined strategy of biostimulation and in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is more efficient than the two separated strategies. Four different microcosm experiments with sediment and groundwater of a selected field site where an aged pool exists at the bottom of a transition zone were designed under i) natural conditions, ii) biostimulation with lactic acid, iii) ISCR with zero-value iron (ZVI) and under iv) a combined strategy with lactic acid and ZVI. Biotic and abiotic dehalogenation, terminal electron acceptor processes and evolution of microbial communities were determined for each experiment. The main results were: i) reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools occurs under sulfate-reducing conditions; ii) biostimulation with lactic acid supports more pronounced reductive dehalogenation of PCE and trichloroethene (TCE), but results in an accumulation of 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE); iii) ISCR with ZVI produces a sustained dehalogenation of PCE and its metabolites iv) combined strategy of biostimulation and ISCR results in a fast dehalogenation of PCE and TCE and a sustained dehalogenation of cisDCE. These findings suggest that biostimulation and ISCR with ZVI are the most suitable strategies for a complete reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools in the transition zone and further to enable the dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids.

Keywords: Aged PCE-pool, anaerobic microcosm experiment, biostimulation, in situ chemical reduction, natural attenuation.

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8 Characterization of Novel Atrazine-Degrading Klebsiella sp. isolated from Thai Agricultural Soil

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

Abstract:

Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in sugarcane and corn production, is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. An atrazine-degrading bacterium, strain KB02, was obtained from long-term atrazine-treated sugarcane field soils in Kanchanaburi province of Thailand. Strain KB02 had a rod-to-coccus morphological cycle during growth. Sequence analysis of the PCR product indicated that the 16S rRNA gene in strain KB02 was ranging from 97-98% identical to the same region in Klebsiella sp. Based on biochemical, physiological analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of one representative isolate, strain KB02, the isolates belong to the genus Klebsiella in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly that the various primers for atzA, B and C failed to amplify genomic DNA of strain KB02. Whereas the expected PCR product of atzA, B and C were obtained from the reference strain, Arthrobacter sp. strain KU001.

Keywords: Atrazine, atz gene, Biodegradation, bioremediation, Klebsiella

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7 Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina

Authors: N. Porzionato, M. Mantiñan, E. Bussi, S. Grinberg, R. Gutierrez, G. Curutchet

Abstract:

This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped; their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure. The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in the José León Suárez section of General San Martín county, Buenos Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream, in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water processing plants for the metropolis. This project has studied the different organic-load polluting contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.

Keywords: Bioremediation, pollutants, sediments, urban streams.

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6 Phylogenetic Characterization of Atrazine-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

Abstract:

In this study sugarcane field soils with a long history of atrazine application in Chachoengsao and Chonburi provinces have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. For the atrazine degrading bacteria isolation, the soils used in this study named ACS and ACB were inoculated in MS-medium containing atrazine. Six short rod and gram-negative bacterial isolates, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated and named as ACS1, ACB1, ACB3, ACB4, ACB5 and ACB6. From the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolated bacteria ACS1 and ACB4 were identified as Rhizobium sp. with 89.1-98.7% nucleotide identity, ACB1 and ACB5 were identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. with 91.0-92.8% nucleotide identity, whereas ACB3 and ACB6 were Klebsiella sp. with 97.4-97.8% nucleotide identity.

Keywords: Atrazine-degrading bacteria, bioremediation, Thai isolate bacteria.

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5 Bioremediation of MEG, DEG, and TEG: Potential of Burhead Plant and Soil Microorganisms

Authors: Pattrarat Teamkao, Paitip Thiravetyan

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of soil microorganisms and the burhead plant, as well as the combination of soil microorganisms and plants to remediate monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) in synthetic wastewater. The result showed that a system containing both burhead plant and soil microorganisms had the highest efficiency in EGs removal. Around 100% of MEG and DEG and 85% of TEG were removed within 15 days of the experiments. However, the burhead plant had higher removal efficiency than soil microorganisms for MEG and DEG but the same for TEG in the study systems. The removal rate of EGs in the study system related to the molecular weight of the compounds and MEG, the smallest glycol, was removed faster than DEG and TEG by both the burhead plant and soil microorganisms in the study system.

Keywords: Ethylene glycol, burhead plant, soil microorganisms, phytoremediation

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4 Integrating Bioremediation and Phytoremediation to Clean up Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contaminated Soils

Authors: Petruzzelli G., Pedron F., Rosellini I., Tassi E., Gorini F., Barbafieri M.

Abstract:

This work involved the use of phytoremediation to remediate an aged soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). At microcosm scale, tests were prepared using soil samples that have been collected in an industrial area with a total PCBs concentration of about 250 μg kg-1. Medicago sativa and Lolium italicum were the species selected in this study that is used as “feasibility test" for full scale remediation. The experiment was carried out with the addition of a mixture of randomly methylatedbeta- cyclodextrins (RAMEB). At the end of the experiment analysis of soil samples showed that in general the presence of plants has led to a higher degradation of most congeners with respect to not vegetated soil. The two plant species efficiencies were comparable and improved by RAMEB addition with a final reduction of total PCBs near to 50%. With increasing the chlorination of the congeners the removal percentage of PCBs progressively decreased.

Keywords: contaminated soil, feasibility test, phytoremediation, polychlorinated biphenyls

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3 Soil Remediation Technologies towards Green Remediation Strategies

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

As a result of diverse industrial activities, pollution from numerous contaminant affects both groundwater and soils. Many contaminated sites have been discovered in industrialized countries and their remediation is a priority in environmental legislations. The aim of this paper is to provide the evolution of remediation from consolidated invasive technologies to environmental friendly green strategies. Many clean-up technologies have been used. Nowadays the technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but the aim of remediation includes also the recovery of soil quality. “Green remediation”, a strategy based on “soft technologies”, appears the key to tackle the issue of remediation of contaminated sites with the greatest attention to environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality.

Keywords: Bioremediation, green remediation, phytoremediation, remediation technologies, soil.

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2 Utilization of Laser-Ablation Based Analytical Methods for Obtaining Complete Chemical Information of Algae

Authors: Pavel Pořízka, David Prochazka, Karel Novotný, Ota Samek, ZdeněkPilát, Klára Procházková, and Jozef Kaiser

Abstract:

Themain goal of this article is to find efficient methods for elemental and molecular analysis of living microorganisms (algae) under defined environmental conditions and cultivation processes. The overall knowledge of chemical composition is obtained utilizing laser-based techniques, Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for acquiring information about elemental composition and Raman Spectroscopy for gaining molecular information, respectively. Algal cells were suspended in liquid media and characterized using their spectra. Results obtained employing LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy techniques will help to elucidate algae biology (nutrition dynamics depending on cultivation conditions) and to identify algal strains, which have the potential for applications in metal-ion absorption (bioremediation) and biofuel industry. Moreover, bioremediation can be readily combined with production of 3rd generation biofuels. In order to use algae for efficient fuel production, the optimal cultivation parameters have to be determinedleading to high production of oil in selected cellswithout significant inhibition of the photosynthetic activity and the culture growth rate, e.g. it is necessary to distinguish conditions for algal strain containing high amount of higher unsaturated fatty acids. Measurements employing LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy were utilized in order to give information about alga Trachydiscusminutus with emphasis on the amount of the lipid content inside the algal cell and the ability of algae to withdraw nutrients from its environment and bioremediation (elemental composition), respectively. This article can serve as the reference for further efforts in describing complete chemical composition of algal samples employing laserablation techniques.

Keywords: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Algae, Algal strains, Bioremediation, Biofuels.

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1 Bioremediation of Sewage Sludge Contaminated with Fluorene Using a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant

Authors: X. Vecino, J. M. Cruz, A. Moldes

Abstract:

The disposal and the treatment of sewage sludge is an expensive and environmentally complex problem. In this work, a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor was used as ecofriendly and cost-competitive alternative for the mobilization and bioremediation of fluorene in sewage sludge. Results have demonstrated that this biosurfactant has the capability to mobilize fluorene to the aqueous phase, reducing the amount of fluorene in the sewage sludge from 484.4 mg/Kg up to 413.7 mg/Kg and 196.0 mg/Kg after 1 and 27 days respectively. Furthermore, once the fluorene was extracted the lipopeptide biosurfactant contained in the aqueous phase allowed the biodegradation, up to 40.5% of the initial concentration of this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Keywords: Fluorene, lipopeptide biosurfactant, mobilization, sewage sludge.

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