Search results for: Rana Hamouda
37 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System
Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda
The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected form the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L Alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56% respectively.
Keywords: Industrial wastewater, Activated sludge, BOD5, Lead, Alum salt.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2384
36 Economic Impact of Rana Plaza Collapse
Authors: Md. Omar Bin Harun Khan
The collapse of the infamous Rana Plaza, a multi-storeyed commercial building in Savar, near Dhaka, Bangladesh has brought with it a plethora of positive and negative consequences. Bangladesh being a key player in the export of clothing, found itself amidst a wave of economic upheaval following this tragic incident that resulted in numerous Bangladeshis, most of whom were factory workers. This paper compares the consequences that the country’s Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector is facing now, two years into the incident. The paper presents a comparison of statistical data from study reports and brings forward perspectives from all dimensions of Labour, Employment and Industrial Relations in Bangladesh following the event. The paper brings across the viewpoint of donor organizations and donor countries, the impacts of several initiatives taken by foreign organizations like the International Labour Organization, and local entities like the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) in order to reinforce compliance and stabilize the shaky foundation that the RMG sector had found itself following the collapse. Focus of the paper remains on the stance taken by the suppliers in Bangladesh, with inputs from buying houses and factories, and also on the reaction of foreign brands. The paper also focuses on the horrific physical, mental and financial implications sustained by the victims and their families, and the consequent uproar from workers in general regarding compliance with work safety and workers’ welfare conditions. The purpose is to get across both sides of the scenario: the economic impact that suppliers / factories/ sellers/ buying houses/exporters have faced in Bangladesh as a result of complete loss of reliability on them regarding working standards; and also to cover the aftershock felt on the other end of the spectrum by the importers/ buyers, particularly the foreign entities, in terms of the sudden accountability of being affiliated with non- compliant factories. The collapse of Rana Plaza has received vast international attention and strong criticism. Nevertheless, the almost immediate strengthening of labourrights and the wholesale reform undertaken on all sides of the supply chain, evidence a move of all local and foreign stakeholders towards greater compliance and taking of precautionary steps for prevention of further disasters. The tragedy that Rana Plaza embodies served as a much-needed epiphany for the soaring RMG Sector of Bangladesh. Prompt co-operation on the part of all stakeholders and regulatory bodies now show a move towards sustainable development, which further ensures safeguarding against any future irregularities and pave the way for steady economic growth.
Keywords: Economy, employment standards, Ranaplaza, RMG.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4008
35 Chronic Consumer States Influencing Compulsive Consumption
Authors: K. Prakash Vel, Lif Miriam Hamouda
Abstract:Consumer behaviour analysis represents an important field of study in marketing. Particularly strategy development for marketing and communications will be more focused and effective when marketers have an understanding of the motivations, behaviour and psychology of consumers. While materialism has been found to be one of the important elements in consumer behaviour, compulsive consumption represents another aspect that has recently attracted more attention. This is because of the growing prevalence of dysfunctional buying that has raised concern in consumer societies. Present studies and analyses on origins and motivations of compulsive buying have mainly focused on either individual factors or groups of related factors and hence a need for a holistic view exists. This paper provides a comprehensive perspective on compulsive consumption and establishes relevant propositions keeping the family life cycle stages as a reference for the incidence of chronic consumer states and their influence on compulsive consumption.
Keywords: Chronic consumer states, compulsive consumption, family life cycleProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1285
34 Course Adoption of MS Technologies – Case Study
Authors: Lilac Al Safadi, Rana Abu Nafesa, Regina Garcia
Abstract:Motivated by Microsoft Co. Academic Program initiative, the department of Information Technology in King Saud University has adopted Microsoft products in three courses. The initiative aimed at enhancing the abilities of the university graduates and equipping them with skills that would help them in the job market. A number of methods of collecting assessment data were used to evaluate the course adoption initiative. Assessment data indicated that the goal of the course adoption is being achieved and that the students were much better prepared to design applications and administrate networks.
Keywords: course adoption, assessment, programming, technologiesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1175
33 A New Velocity Expression for Open Channel and its Application to Lyari River
Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor
Abstract:In this communication an expression for mean velocity of waste flow via an open channel is proposed which is an improvement over Manning formula. The discharges, storages and depths are computed at all locations of the Lyari river by utilizing proposed expression. The results attained through proposed expression are in good agreement with the observed data and better than those acquired using Manning formula.
Keywords: Comparison, Depth, Flow, Open Channel, Proposed Model, StorageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1399
32 The Identification of Anuran Glial Cells
Authors: Ibrahim M. S. Shnawa
Attempts were made to identify anuran glial cells. They were found as nervous tissue resident. Having stage dependent morphotype changes, whereby, appeared as an ovoid to oval in resting state and amoeboid mrophotypes in activated state, stained fairly with methylene blue and take up Pelikane blue 10% aqueous solution, as well as having the ability to phagocytize heat killed Staphylococcus aureus. They were delineated from the migrating peripheral monocytes by morphotypic and morphometeric differences. Such criteria were consistence with glial cells. Thus, the anuran glial cells are being identified in the frog Rana ridibunda Pallas 1771 and this animal can be of use as a simple model for the immunobiology of glial cells.
Keywords: Amoeboid cell, bacterial phagocytosis, Glial cells, Resting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1496
31 A Novel Digital Implementation of AC Voltage Controller for Speed Control of Induction Motor
Authors: Ali M. Eltamaly, A. I. Alolah, R. Hamouda, M. Y. Abdulghany
Abstract:In this paper a novel, simple and reliable digital firing scheme has been implemented for speed control of three-phase induction motor using ac voltage controller. The system consists of three-phase supply connected to the three-phase induction motor via three triacs and its control circuit. The ac voltage controller has three modes of operation depending on the shape of supply current. The performance of the induction motor differs in each mode where the speed is directly proportional with firing angle in two modes and inversely in the third one. So, the control system has to detect the current mode of operation to choose the correct firing angle of triacs. Three sensors are used to feed the line currents to control system to detect the mode of operation. The control strategy is implemented using a low cost Xilinx Spartan-3E field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Three PI-controllers are designed on FPGA to control the system in the three-modes. Simulation of the system is carried out using PSIM computer program. The simulation results show stable operation for different loading conditions especially in mode 2/3. The simulation results have been compared with the experimental results from laboratory prototype.
Keywords: FPGA, Induction motor, PSIM, triac, Voltage controller.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2790
30 Design and Layout of a X-Band MMIC Power Amplifier in a Phemt Technology
Authors: Renbin Dai, Rana Arslan Ali Khan
Abstract:The design of Class A and Class AB 2-stage X band Power Amplifier is described in this report. This power amplifier is part of a transceiver used in radar for monitoring iron characteristics in a blast furnace. The circuit was designed using foundry WIN Semiconductors. The specification requires 15dB gain in the linear region, VSWR nearly 1 at input as well as at the output, an output power of 10 dBm and good stable performance in the band 10.9-12.2 GHz. The design was implemented by using inter-stage configuration, the Class A amplifier was chosen for driver stage i.e. the first amplifier focusing on the gain and the output amplifier conducted at Class AB with more emphasis on output power.
Keywords: Power amplifier, Class AB, Class A, MMIC, 2-stage, X band.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2806
29 Mathematical Modeling of Current Harmonics Caused by Personal Computers
Authors: Rana Abdul Jabbar Khan, Muhammad Akmal
Abstract:Personal computers draw non-sinusoidal current with odd harmonics more significantly. Power Quality of distribution networks is severely affected due to the flow of these generated harmonics during the operation of electronic loads. In this paper, mathematical modeling of odd harmonics in current like 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th influencing the power quality has been presented. Live signals have been captured with the help of power quality analyzer for analysis purpose. The interesting feature is that Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in current decreases with the increase of nonlinear loads has been verified theoretically. The results obtained using mathematical expressions have been compared with the practical results and exciting results have been found.
Keywords: Harmonic Distortion, Mathematical Modeling, Power Quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2358
28 Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy
Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-Rubaye
Abstract:A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in – situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physicochemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray Analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550oC).
Keywords: FeCrAlloy, Zeolite ZSM-5. Zeolite coating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1735
27 Surveillance Video Summarization Based on Histogram Differencing and Sum Conditional Variance
Authors: Nada Jasim Habeeb, Rana Saad Mohammed, Muntaha Khudair Abbass
For more efficient and fast video summarization, this paper presents a surveillance video summarization method. The presented method works to improve video summarization technique. This method depends on temporal differencing to extract most important data from large video stream. This method uses histogram differencing and Sum Conditional Variance which is robust against to illumination variations in order to extract motion objects. The experimental results showed that the presented method gives better output compared with temporal differencing based summarization techniques.
Keywords: Temporal differencing, video summarization, histogram differencing, sum conditional variance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1450
26 Exact Solutions of Steady Plane Flows of an Incompressible Fluid of Variable Viscosity Using (ξ, ψ)- Or (η, ψ)- Coordinates
Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor, Waseem Ahmed Khan, Aurangzaib
The exact solutions of the equations describing the steady plane motion of an incompressible fluid of variable viscosity for an arbitrary state equation are determined in the (ξ,ψ) − or (η,ψ )- coordinates where ψ(x,y) is the stream function, ξ and η are the parts of the analytic function, ϖ =ξ( x,y )+iη( x,y ). Most of the solutions involve arbitrary function/ functions indicating that the flow equations possess an infinite set of solutions.
Keywords: Exact solutions, Fluid of variable viscosity, Navier-Stokes equations, Steady plane flowsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3328
25 Quantitative Estimation of Periodicities in Lyari River Flow Routing
Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor
Abstract:The hydrologic time series data display periodic structure and periodic autoregressive process receives considerable attention in modeling of such series. In this communication long term record of monthly waste flow of Lyari river is utilized to quantify by using PAR modeling technique. The parameters of model are estimated by using Frances & Paap methodology. This study shows that periodic autoregressive model of order 2 is the most parsimonious model for assessing periodicity in waste flow of the river. A careful statistical analysis of residuals of PAR (2) model is used for establishing goodness of fit. The forecast by using proposed model confirms significance and effectiveness of the model.
Keywords: Diagnostic checks, Lyari river, Model selection, Monthly waste flow, Periodicity, Periodic autoregressive model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1515
24 Quantification of Periodicities in Fugitive Emission of Gases from Lyari Waterway
Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor
Abstract:Periodicities in the environmetric time series can be idyllically assessed by utilizing periodic models. In this communication fugitive emission of gases from open sewer channel Lyari which follows periodic behaviour are approximated by employing periodic autoregressive model of order p. The orders of periodic model for each season are selected through the examination of periodic partial autocorrelation or information criteria. The parameters for the selected order of season are estimated individually for each emitted air toxin. Subsequently, adequacies of fitted models are established by examining the properties of the residual for each season. These models are beneficial for schemer and administrative bodies for the improvement of implemented policies to surmount future environmental problems.
Keywords: Exchange of Gases, Goodness of Fit, Open Sewer Channel, PAR(p) Models, Periodicities, Season Wise Models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1139
23 A VR Cybersecurity Training Knowledge-Based Ontology
Authors: Shaila Rana, Wasim Alhamdani
Effective cybersecurity learning relies on an engaging, interactive, and entertaining activity that fosters positive learning outcomes. VR cybersecurity training may provide a training format that is engaging, interactive, and entertaining. A methodological approach and framework are needed to allow trainers and educators to employ VR cybersecurity training methods to promote positive learning outcomes. Thus, this paper aims to create an approach that cybersecurity trainers can follow to create a VR cybersecurity training module. This methodology utilizes concepts from other cybersecurity training frameworks, such as NICE and CyTrONE. Other cybersecurity training frameworks do not incorporate the use of VR. VR training proposes unique challenges that cannot be addressed in current cybersecurity training frameworks. Subsequently, this ontology utilizes concepts to develop VR training to create a relevant methodology for creating VR cybersecurity training modules.
Keywords: Virtual reality cybersecurity training, VR cybersecurity training, traditional cybersecurity training, ontology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 242
22 Autism Spectrum Disorder: Main Problem Waiting for Solution in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by abnormalities in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Although various studies have been conducted in ASDs etiology across the world, it seems that they are still unknown in Middle East. Some scientific researches have been conducted on ASDs in Middle East (ME) especially in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A systematic literature review was performed to identify the ASDs studies in KSA. Accordingly, PubMed, ISI web of Science and Google were searched to find KSA and ME studies in ASDs. The main focus of this review work is to outline an improved understanding of the underpinnings of ASD in order to achieve therapeutic interventions and we will discuss the main problem we waiting for solution with reference with role of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to modulate cortical activity improve understanding ASD.
Keywords: Autism, Neurodevelopmental disorderProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3836
21 Refining Waste Spent Hydroprocessing Catalyst and Their Metal Recovery
Authors: Meena Marafi, Mohan S. Rana
Catalysts play an important role in producing valuable fuel products in petroleum refining; but, due to feedstock’s impurities catalyst gets deactivated with carbon and metal deposition. The disposal of spent catalyst falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste that requires strict agreement with environmental regulations. The spent hydroprocessing catalyst contains Mo, V and Ni at high concentrations that have been found to be economically significant for recovery. Metal recovery process includes deoiling, decoking, grinding, dissolving and treatment with complexing leaching agent such as ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The process conditions have been optimized as a function of time, temperature and EDTA concentration in presence of ultrasonic agitation. The results indicated that optimum condition established through this approach could recover 97%, 94% and 95% of the extracted Mo, V and Ni, respectively, while 95% EDTA was recovered after acid treatment.
Keywords: Spent catalyst, deactivation, hydrotreating, spent catalyst.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1150
20 Some Rotational Flows of an Incompressible Fluid of Variable Viscosity
Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Waseem Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Akhtar, Asif Mansoor
The Navier Stokes Equations (NSE) for an incompressible fluid of variable viscosity in the presence of an unknown external force in Von-Mises system x,\ are transformed, and some new exact solutions for a class of flows characterized by equation y f x a\b for an arbitrary state equation are determined, where f x is a function, \ the stream function, a z 0 and b are the arbitrary constants. In three, out of four cases, the function f x is arbitrary, and the solutions are the solutions of the flow equations for all the flows characterized by the equationy f x a\b. Streamline patterns for some forms of f x in unbounded and bounded regions are given.
Keywords: Bounded and unbounded region, Exact solution, Navier Stokes equations, Streamline pattern, Variable viscosity, Von- Mises systemProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1294
19 A Novel Approach for Scheduling Rescue Robot Mission Using Decision Analysis
Authors: Rana Soltani-Zarrin, Sohrab Khanmohammadi
In this paper, a new method for multi criteria decision making is represented whichspecifies a trajectory satisfying desired criteria including minimization of time. A rescue robot is defined to perform certain tasks before the arrival of rescue team, including evaluation of the probability of explosion in the area, detecting human-beings, and providing preliminary aidsin case of identifying signs of life, so that the security of the surroundings will have enhanced significantly for the individuals inside the disaster zone as well as the rescue team. The main idea behind our technique is using the Program Evaluation and Review Technique analysis along with Critical Path Method and use the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method to decidewhich set of activities must be performed first. Since the disastrous event in one area may be well contagious to others, it is one of the robot's priorities to evaluate the relative adversity of the situation, using the above methods and prioritize its mission.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1541
18 Impact of Behavioral Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila AL-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir
Cognitive symptoms and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We have measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological Battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASD and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and Motor aspects. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future researches should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, ritual routine adherence, and the use of different types of CANTAB tests.
Keywords: Autism, Cognitive ability, Motor Behavior, and Neuropsychological battery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2000
17 Students’ Perceptions of Mobile Learning: Case Study of Kuwait
Authors: Rana AlHajri, Salah Al-Sharhan, Ahmed Al-Hunaiyyan
Mobile learning is a new learning landscape that offers opportunity for collaborative, personal, informal, and students’ centered learning environment. In implementing any learning system such as a mobile learning environment, learners’ expectations should be taken into consideration. However, there is a lack of studies on this aspect, particularly in the context of Kuwait higher education (HE) institutions. This study focused on how students perceive the use of mobile devices in learning. Although m-learning is considered as an effective educational tool in developed countries, it is not yet fully utilized in Kuwait. The study reports on the results of a survey conducted on 623 HE students in Kuwait to a better understand students' perceptions and opinions about the effectiveness of using mobile learning systems. An analysis of quantitative survey data is presented. The findings indicated that Kuwait HE students are very familiar with mobile devices and its applications. The results also reveal that students have positive perceptions of m-learning, and believe that video-based social media applications enhance the teaching and learning process.
Keywords: Higher education, mobile learning, social media, students’ perceptions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3032
16 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method
Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana
Abstract:The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points, and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on magnitude velocity, shear stress, and pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases magnitude velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation, and reattachment points are strongly affected by Reynolds number.
Keywords: Approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1589
15 A Novel Source/Drain-to-Gate Non-overlap MOSFET to Reduce Gate Leakage Current in Nano Regime
Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor
Abstract:In this paper, gate leakage current has been mitigated by the use of novel nanoscale MOSFET with Source/Drain-to-Gate Non-overlapped and high-k spacer structure for the first time. A compact analytical model has been developed to study the gate leakage behaviour of proposed MOSFET structure. The result obtained has found good agreement with the Sentaurus Simulation. Fringing gate electric field through the dielectric spacer induces inversion layer in the non-overlap region to act as extended S/D region. It is found that optimal Source/Drain-to-Gate Non-overlapped and high-k spacer structure has reduced the gate leakage current to great extent as compared to those of an overlapped structure. Further, the proposed structure had improved off current, subthreshold slope and DIBL characteristic. It is concluded that this structure solves the problem of high leakage current without introducing the extra series resistance.
Keywords: Gate tunneling current, analytical model, spacer dielectrics, DIBL, subthreshold slope.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2461
14 Rotary Entrainment in Two Phase Stratified Gas-Liquid Layers: An Experimental Study
Authors: Yagya Sharma, Basanta K. Rana, Arup K. Das
Abstract:Rotary entrainment is a phenomenon in which the interface of two immiscible fluids are subjected to external flux by means of rotation. Present work reports the experimental study on rotary motion of a horizontal cylinder between the interface of air and water to observe the penetration of gas inside the liquid. Experiments have been performed to establish entrainment of air mass in water alongside the cylindrical surface. The movement of tracer and seeded particles has been tracked to calculate the speed and path of the entrained air inside water. Simplified particle image velocimetry technique has been used to trace the movement of particles/tracers at the moment they are injected inside the entrainment zone and suspended beads have been used to replicate the particle movement with respect to time in order to determine the flow dynamics of the fluid along the cylinder. Present paper establishes a thorough experimental analysis of the rotary entrainment phenomenon between air and water keeping in interest the extent to which we can intermix the two and also to study its entrainment trajectories.
Keywords: Entrainment, gas-liquid flow, particle image velocimetry, stratified layer mixing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1710
13 Trap Assisted Tunneling Model for Gate Current in Nano Scale MOSFET with High-K Gate Dielectrics
Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor
Abstract:This paper presents a new compact analytical model of the gate leakage current in high-k based nano scale MOSFET by assuming a two-step inelastic trap-assisted tunneling (ITAT) process as the conduction mechanism. This model is based on an inelastic trap-assisted tunneling (ITAT) mechanism combined with a semiempirical gate leakage current formulation in the BSIM 4 model. The gate tunneling currents have been calculated as a function of gate voltage for different gate dielectrics structures such as HfO2, Al2O3 and Si3N4 with EOT (equivalent oxide thickness) of 1.0 nm. The proposed model is compared and contrasted with santaurus simulation results to verify the accuracy of the model and excellent agreement is found between the analytical and simulated data. It is observed that proposed analytical model is suitable for different highk gate dielectrics simply by adjusting two fitting parameters. It was also shown that gate leakages reduced with the introduction of high-k gate dielectric in place of SiO2.
Keywords: Analytical model, High-k gate dielectrics, inelastic trap assisted tunneling, metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3137
12 Effect of Cooled EGR in Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection CI Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel Blend
Authors: Sankar Chandrasekar, Rana Niranchan V.S., Joseph Sidharth Leon
As the demand and prices of various petroleum products have been on the rise in recent years, there is a growing need for alternative fuels. Biodiesel, which consists of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils and animal fats, is considered as an alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel has comparable performance with that of diesel and has lower brake specific fuel consumption than diesel with significant reduction in emissions of CO, hydrocarbons (HC) and smoke with however, a slight increase in NOx emissions. This paper analyzes the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation in the combustion characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine using biodiesel blended fuel as opposed to the conventional system. The combustion parameters such as cylinder pressure, heat release rate, delay period and peak pressure were analyzed at various loads. The maximum cylinder pressure reduces as the fraction of biodiesel increases in the blend the maximum rate of pressure rise was found to be higher for diesel at higher engine loads.
Keywords: Cylinder pressure, delay period, EGR, heat release.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1631
11 Growing Zeolite Y on FeCrAlloy Metal
Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-Rubaye, Burcin Atilgan, Richard J. Holmes, Arthur A. Garforth
Abstract:Structured catalysts formed from the growth of zeolites on substrates is an area of increasing interest due to the increased efficiency of the catalytic process, and the ability to provide superior heat transfer and thermal conductivity for both exothermic and endothermic processes. However, the generation of structured catalysts represents a significant challenge when balancing the relationship variables between materials properties and catalytic performance, with the Na2O, H2O and Al2O3 gel composition paying a significant role in this dynamic, thereby affecting the both the type and range of application. The structured catalyst films generated as part of this investigation have been characterised using a range of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), with the transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces being demonstrated using both SEM and XRD. The robustness of the coatings has been ascertained by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550oC), with the results indicating that the synthesis time and gel compositions have a crucial effect on the quality of zeolite growth on the FeCrAlloy wires. Finally, the activity of the structured catalyst was verified by a series of comparison experiments with standard zeolite Y catalysts in powdered pelleted forms.
Keywords: FeCrAlloy, Structured catalyst, and Zeolite Y.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2326
10 Association of Sensory Processing and Cognitive Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders – Pioneer Study in Saudi Arabia
Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila AL-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir
The association between sensory problems and cognitive abilities has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we used a Neuropsychological Test to evaluate memory and attention in ASDs children with sensory problems compared to the ASDs children without sensory problems. Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) including Big/little circle (BLC), Simple Reaction Time (SRT) Intra /Extra dimensional set shift (IED), Spatial recognition memory (SRM), were administered to 14 ASDs children with sensory problems compared to 13 ASDs without sensory problems aged 3 to 12 with IQ of above 70. ASDs individuals with sensory problems performed worse than the ASDs group without sensory problems on comprehension, learning, reversal and simple reaction time tasks, and no significant difference between the two groups was recorded in terms of the visual memory and visual comprehension tasks. The findings of this study suggest that ASDs children with sensory problems are facing deficits in learning, comprehension, reversal, and speed of response to a stimulus.
Keywords: Visual memory, Attention, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2357
9 Exploring the Need to Study the Efficacy of VR Training Compared to Traditional Cybersecurity Training
Authors: Shaila Rana, Wasim Alhamdani
Effective cybersecurity training is of the utmost importance, given the plethora of attacks that continue to increase in complexity and ubiquity. VR cybersecurity training remains a starkly understudied discipline. Studies that evaluated the effectiveness of VR cybersecurity training over traditional methods are required. An engaging and interactive platform can support knowledge retention of the training material. Consequently, an effective form of cybersecurity training is required to support a culture of cybersecurity awareness. Measurements of effectiveness varied throughout the studies, with surveys and observations being the two most utilized forms of evaluating effectiveness. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of VR cybersecurity training and traditional training. Additionally, research for evaluating if VR cybersecurity training is more effective than traditional methods is vital. This paper proposes a methodology to compare the two cybersecurity training methods and their effectiveness. The proposed framework includes developing both VR and traditional cybersecurity training methods and delivering them to at least 100 users. A quiz along with a survey will be administered and statistically analyzed to determine if there is a difference in knowledge retention and user satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to the need to study VR cybersecurity training and its effectiveness compared to traditional training methods. This paper hopes to contribute to the cybersecurity training field by providing an effective way to train users for security awareness. If VR training is deemed more effective, this could create a new direction for cybersecurity training practices.
Keywords: Virtual reality cybersecurity training, VR cybersecurity training, traditional cybersecurity training, evaluating efficacy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 848
8 Creating a Profound Sense of Comfort to Stimulate Workers’ Innovation and Productivity: Exploring Research and Case Study Applications
Authors: Rana Bazaid, Debajyoti Pati
Purpose: The aim of this research is to explore and discuss innovation-workspaces, and how the design of the workspace has the potential to boost the work process and encourage employees’ satisfaction, leading to inventive and creative results. Background: The relationship between the workers and the work environment has a strong potential to enhance work outcomes when optimized for work goals. Innovation-work environment can benefit employees’ satisfaction, health, and performance. To understand this complex relationship, this research explores innovation-work environments. Methods: A review of 26 peer-reviewed articles, seven books, and 23 companies’ websites was conducted; in addition, five case studies were analyzed to deduce appropriate examples for the study. Results: The research found all successful five innovation environments focused on two aspects: first, workers’ satisfaction and comfort, which includes a focus on physical, functional, and psychological comfort; second aspect, all five centers were diverse work environments that addressed workers’ needs, design for individuals and teamwork, design for workers’ freedom, and design for increasing interaction. Conclusion: understanding individuals' needs and creating work environments that enhance interaction between workers and with the space are key aspects of successful innovation-work environments.
Keywords: Innovation-workspace, productivity, work environment, workers’ satisfaction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 369