Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30836
Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption on Pomegranate Skin: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics

Authors: G. Henini, Y. Laidani, F. Souahi, A. Labbaci, S. Hanini


In this study, pomegranate skin, a material suitable for the conditions in Algeria, was chosen as adsorbent material for removal of lead in an aqueous solution. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, the initial concentration of metal, and temperature. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g, 0.035 mg/g; 1.25 g, 0.096 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at pH value of 8 for the lead. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of metal in solution (Co = 4 mg/L, qt = 1.2 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.995) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g for lead. The adsorption of the lead was exothermic in nature (ΔH° = -17.833 kJ/mol for Pb (II). The reaction was accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS° = -0.056 kJ/K. mol). The Gibbs energy (ΔG°) increased from -1.458 to -0.305 kJ/mol, respectively for Pb (II) when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K.

Keywords: wastewater, biosorption, pomegranate skin, Pb(II)

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 868


[1] N. A. Adesola et al, “Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution by maize leaf”. Inter. J. Phy. Sci. Vol. 1 (1), pp. 023-026, 2006.
[2] J. L. Garde a-Torresdey, L. Tang, J.M. Salvador, “Copper Adsorption by Esterified and Unesterified Fractions of Sphagnum Peat Moss and Its Different Humic Substances”, J. Hazard. Mater., 48: 191-206, 1996.
[3] M. Kobya, E. Demirbas, E. Senturk, M. Ince, “Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from apricot stone”. Bioresour. Technol. 96(13), pp. 1518–1512, 2005
[4] SK. Jain, P. Vasudevan, NK. Jha, “Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by aquatic plants: studies on duckweed and water velvet”, Biol. Wastes. 28: 115–126, (1989).
[5] P. S. Kumar, C. Vincent, K. Kirthika and K. S. Kumar, “Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies of Lead (II) Ion Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Use of Nano-Silversol-Coated Activated Carbon”, Braz. J. Chem. Eng., vol. 27 (2), pp. 339-346, 2010.
[6] M. Sekar, V. Sakthi, S. Rengaraj, “Kinetic and Isotherm Adsorption Study of Lead (II) Onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell”, J. Colloi. Interf. Sci., 279, pp. 307, 2004.
[7] I. Ghodbane, L.Nouri, L.Hamdaoui, M. Chiha, “Kinetic and Equilibrium Study for the Sorption of Cadmium (II) Ions from Aqueous Phase by Eucalyptus Bark”, J. Hazard. Mater., 152, pp. 148, 2008.
[8] P. King, N. Rakesh, S. Beenalahari, Y.P. Kumer, V.S.R.K. Prasad, “Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solution using Sysigum cumini L.: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies”, J. Hazard. Mater. 142, pp. 340, 2007.
[9] B. R. Nurul Aimi, BAH Norhafizah, CS. Wong, “Removal of Cu(Ii) From Water by Adsorption On Chicken Eggshell”. Inter. J. Eng. & Tech. Ijet-Ijens Vol: 13 No:01, (2013).
[10] SD. Renata, C. Laercio, F. Guilherme, MP. Pedro, JS. Margarida, “Banana Peel Applied to The Solid Phase Extraction of Copper and Lead from River Water: Preconcentration of Metal Ions with A Fruit Waste”. Ind. Chem. Res., 2011.
[11] P. D. Johnson, M. A. Watson, J. Brown and I.A. Jefcoat, “Peanut hull pellets as a single use sorbent for the capture of Cu (II) from wastewater”. Waste Management, vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 471-480, 2002.
[12] Z. Reddad, C. Gerente, Y. Andres and P. cloirec, “Adsorption of several metal ions onto a lowcost biosorbent: Kinetic and equilibrium studies”. Env. Sci.d Techn., vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 2067-2073, 2002.
[13] S. Y. Quek, D.A.J. Wase and C.F. Forster, “The use of sago waste for the sorption of lead and copper”. Water SA, vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 251-256, 1998.
[14] F. Pagnanelli, S. Mainelli, F. Veglio and L. Toro, “Heavy metal removal by olive pomace: biosorbent characterization and equilibrium modeling”. Chem. Eng.g Sci., vol. 58, No. 20, pp. 4709-4717, 2003.
[15] S. Babel and T. A. Kurniawan, “Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water”: a review. J. Hazard. Mat., vol. 97, No. 1-3, pp.219-243, 2003.
[16] K. C. Sekhar, C. T. Kamala, N.S. Chary and Y. Anjaneyulu, “Removal of heavy metals using a plant biomass with reference to environmental control”. Intern. J. Mineral Process. vol. 68, No. 1-4, p. 37-45, 2003.
[17] QC. Charles, “Banana Peels May Help Filter Pollutants Out Of Water”, 2011.
[18] AM. King’ori, “Eggshells and Shell Membranes”. Inter. J. Poul. Sci. 10, pp. 908-912 (2011).
[19] D. Mohan, K. P. Singh, “Single- and multi-component adsorption of cadmium and zinc using activated carbon derived from bagasse-an agricultural waste”. Water Res., 36 (9), pp. 2304-18, 2002.
[20] S. Yoshihiro, T. Kametani, T. Maruyama, “Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by nonliving Ulva seaweed as biosorbent”. Water Res., 39 (9), pp. 1803-1808, 2005.
[21] A. Nasruddin, “Biosorption of ions zinc from its aqueous solution using tempe”. Ph. D. Thesis. Malaysia: University of Sains Malaysia, (2002).
[22] A. Kapoor, T. Viraraghavan, “Nitrate removal from drinking waterreview”. J. Env. Eng.-Asce, 123(4), pp. 371–80, 1997.
[23] H. Song, Y. Zhou, A. Li and S. Mueller, “Selective removal of nitrate by using a novel macroporous acrylic anion exchange resin”. Chin. Chem. Lett., 10.1016/j.cclet.2012.03.004, pp. 603-606, 2012.
[24] A. Khalfaoui, “Elimination of organic and inorganic pollutants by adsorption on natural materials: application to orange skin and banana”, PhD Thesis, Constantine University, Algeria (2012).
[25] I. Langmuir, “The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38, pp. 2221–2295, 1916.
[26] K. R. Hall, L.C. Eagleton, A. Acrivos, T. Vermeulen, “Pore and Solid-Diffusion Kinetics in Fixed Bed Adsorption Under Constant Pattern Conditions”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., pp. 5212, 1966.
[27] P. Baskaralingam, M. Pulikesi, D. Elango, V. Ramamurthi, S. Sivanesan, “Adsorption of acid dye onto organobentonite”; J. Hazard. Mater., 128(2-3), pp. 138-44, 2006.
[28] T. W. Weber, R. K. Chakravorti, “Pore and solid diffusion models for fixed-bed adsorbers”, AlChE J. 20, pp. 228–238, 1974.
[29] H. M. F. Freundlich, “Uber die adsorption in losungen (Over the adsorption in solutions”, J. Phys. Chem. 57, pp. 385–470, 1906.
[30] M. J. Temkin, and V. Pyzhev, “Recent modifications to Langmuir isotherms”. Acta Physicochim URSS, 12, pp. 217-222, 1940.
[31] B. M. W. P. K Amarasinghe and R. A. Williams, “Tea waste as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu and Pb from wastewater”. Chem. Eng. J., 132(1-3), pp. 299-309, 2007.
[32] S. Lagergren, “Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption gelöster stoffe, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens”. Handlingar, 24 (4), pp. 1-39, 1898.
[33] G. Crini, “Kinetic and equilibrium studies on the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption onto a cyclodextrin polymer”, Dyes Pigm. 77, pp 415–426, 2008.
[34] P. Senthil kumar, R. Gayathri, “Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions onto bael tree leaf powder: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics study”. J. Eng. Sci. and Tech. Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 381 – 399, 2009.
[35] Y. Seki, K. Yurdakoc, “Adsorption of Promethazine hydrochloride with KSF Montmorillonite”, Adsorption, 12, pp. 89, 2006.
[36] J. R. Memon, S. Q. Memon, M. I. Bhanger, G. Z. Memon, A. El-Turki, G. C. Allen, “Characterization of banana peel by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and its use for cadmium removal”. Colloi. Surf. B: Biointerfaces, 66(2), pp. 260-265, 2008.
[37] B. H. Hameed, A. T. M. Din, A. L. Ahmad, “Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium studies”, J. Hazard. Mater. 141, pp. 819–825, 2007.
[38] N. T. Abdel Ghani and G. A. Elchaghaby, “Influence of operating conditions on the removal of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb ion from wastewater by adsorption”. Int. J. Env. Sci. Tech., 4(4), pp. 451-456, 2007.