Search results for: heart
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 227

Search results for: heart

227 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: Sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis.

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226 Modeling the Human Cardiovascular System with Aspecial Focus on the Heart Using Dymola

Authors: Stefanie Heinke, Carina Pereira, Jan Spillner, Steffen Leonhardt

Abstract:

Severe heart failure is a common problem that has a significant effect on health expenditures in industrialized countries; moreover it reduces patient-s quality of life. However, current research usually focuses either on detailed modeling of the heart or on detailed modeling of the cardiovascular system. Thus, this paper aims to present a sophisticated model of the heart enhanced with an extensive model of the cardiovascular system. Special interest is on the pressure and flow values close to the heart since these values are critical to accurately diagnose causes of heart failure. The model is implemented in Dymola an object-oriented, physical modeling language. Results achieved with the novel model show overall feasibility of the approach. Moreover, results are illustrated and compared to other models. The novel model shows significant improvements.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, heart, modeling.

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225 A Diagnostic Fuzzy Rule-Based System for Congenital Heart Disease

Authors: Ersin Kaya, Bulent Oran, Ahmet Arslan

Abstract:

In this study, fuzzy rule-based classifier is used for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases are defined as structural or functional heart disease. Medical data sets were obtained from Pediatric Cardiology Department at Selcuk University, from years 2000 to 2003. Firstly, fuzzy rules were generated by using medical data. Then the weights of fuzzy rules were calculated. Two different reasoning methods as “weighted vote method" and “singles winner method" were used in this study. The results of fuzzy classifiers were compared.

Keywords: Congenital heart disease, Fuzzy rule-basedclassifiers, Classification

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224 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C. D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi

Abstract:

The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: Autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals and sugar.

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223 Quantification of Heart Rate Variability: A Measure based on Unique Heart Rates

Authors: V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, P. Dhanasekaran, A. Naseem, N. G. Karthick, T. K. Abdul Jaleel, Paul K.Joseph

Abstract:

It is established that the instantaneous heart rate (HR) of healthy humans keeps on changing. Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular non invasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system. Depressed HRV has been found in several disorders, like diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease, characterised by autonomic nervous dysfunction. A new technique, which searches for pattern repeatability in a time series, is proposed specifically for the analysis of heart rate data. These set of indices, which are termed as pattern repeatability measure and pattern repeatability ratio are compared with approximate entropy and sample entropy. In our analysis, based on the method developed, it is observed that heart rate variability is significantly different for DM patients, particularly for patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, diabetes mellitus, heart rate variability, pattern identification, sample entropy

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222 Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Jia Xin Low, Keng Wah Choo

Abstract:

This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.

Keywords: Convolutional neural network, discrete wavelet transform, deep learning, heart sound classification.

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221 Adaptive Filtering of Heart Rate Signals for an Improved Measure of Cardiac Autonomic Control

Authors: Desmond B. Keenan, Paul Grossman

Abstract:

In order to provide accurate heart rate variability indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, the low frequency and high frequency components of an RR heart rate signal must be adequately separated. This is not always possible by just applying spectral analysis, as power from the high and low frequency components often leak into their adjacent bands. Furthermore, without the respiratory spectra it is not obvious that the low frequency component is not another respiratory component, which can appear in the lower band. This paper describes an adaptive filter, which aids the separation of the low frequency sympathetic and high frequency parasympathetic components from an ECG R-R interval signal, enabling the attainment of more accurate heart rate variability measures. The algorithm is applied to simulated signals and heart rate and respiratory signals acquired from an ambulatory monitor incorporating single lead ECG and inductive plethysmography sensors embedded in a garment. The results show an improvement over standard heart rate variability spectral measurements.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, vagal tone, sympathetic, parasympathetic, spectral analysis, adaptive filter.

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220 Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease by Applying Feature Extraction

Authors: Nebi Gedik

Abstract:

Heart disease threatens the lives of a great number of people every year around the world. Heart issues lead to many of all deaths; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are critical. The diagnosis of heart disease is complicated due to several factors affecting health such as high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, an irregular pulse rhythm, and more. Artificial intelligence has the potential to assist in the early detection and treatment of diseases. Improving heart failure prediction is one of the primary goals of research on heart disease risk assessment. This study aims to determine the features that provide the most successful classification prediction in detecting cardiovascular disease. The performances of each feature are compared using the K-Nearest Neighbor machine learning method. The feature that gives the most successful performance has been identified.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, feature extraction, supervised learning, k-NN.

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219 Characteristics of Hemodynamics in a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve using an Implicit FSI Method

Authors: Tae-Hyub Hong, Choeng-Ryul Choi, Chang-Nyung Kim

Abstract:

Human heart valves diseased by congenital heart defects, rheumatic fever, bacterial infection, cancer may cause stenosis or insufficiency in the valves. Treatment may be with medication but often involves valve repair or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve). Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are widely implanted to replace the diseased heart valves, but still suffer from complications such as hemolysis, platelet activation, tissue overgrowth and device failure. These complications are closely related to both flow characteristics through the valves and leaflet dynamics. In this study, the physiological flow interacting with the moving leaflets in a bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) is simulated with a strongly coupled implicit fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method which is newly organized based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and the dynamic mesh method (remeshing) of FLUENT. The simulated results are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. This study shows the applicability of the present FSI model to the complicated physics interacting between fluid flow and moving boundary.

Keywords: Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve, Fluid- Structure Interaction.

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218 HRV Analysis Based Arrhythmic Beat Detection Using kNN Classifier

Authors: Onder Yakut, Oguzhan Timus, Emine Dogru Bolat

Abstract:

Health diseases have a vital significance affecting human being's life and life quality. Sudden death events can be prevented owing to early diagnosis and treatment methods. Electrical signals, taken from the human being's body using non-invasive methods and showing the heart activity is called Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG signal is used for following daily activity of the heart by clinicians. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a physiological parameter giving the variation between the heart beats. ECG data taken from MITBIH Arrhythmia Database is used in the model employed in this study. The detection of arrhythmic heart beats is aimed utilizing the features extracted from the HRV time domain parameters. The developed model provides a satisfactory performance with ~89% accuracy, 91.7 % sensitivity and 85% specificity rates for the detection of arrhythmic beats.

Keywords: Arrhythmic beat detection, ECG, HRV, kNN classifier.

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217 Cardiac Disorder Classification Based On Extreme Learning Machine

Authors: Chul Kwak, Oh-Wook Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, an extreme learning machine with an automatic segmentation algorithm is applied to heart disorder classification by heart sound signals. From continuous heart sound signals, the starting points of the first (S1) and the second heart pulses (S2) are extracted and corrected by utilizing an inter-pulse histogram. From the corrected pulse positions, a single period of heart sound signals is extracted and converted to a feature vector including the mel-scaled filter bank energy coefficients and the envelope coefficients of uniform-sized sub-segments. An extreme learning machine is used to classify the feature vector. In our cardiac disorder classification and detection experiments with 9 cardiac disorder categories, the proposed method shows significantly better performance than multi-layer perceptron, support vector machine, and hidden Markov model; it achieves the classification accuracy of 81.6% and the detection accuracy of 96.9%.

Keywords: Heart sound classification, extreme learning machine

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216 Design and Simulation of Heartbeat Measurement System Using Arduino Microcontroller in Proteus

Authors: Muhibul H. Bhuyan, Mafujul Hasan

Abstract:

If a person can monitor his/her heart rate regularly then he/she can detect heart disease early and thus he/she can enjoy longer life span. Therefore, this disease should be taken seriously. Hence, many health care devices and monitoring systems are being designed to keep track of the heart disease. This work reports a design and simulation processes of an Arduino microcontroller based heart rate measurement and monitoring system in Proteus environment. Clipping sensors were utilized to sense the heart rate of an individual from the finger tips. It is a digital device and uses mainly infrared (IR) transmitter (mainly IR LED) and receiver (mainly IR photo-transistor or IR photo-detector). When the heart pumps the blood and circulates it among the blood vessels of the body, the changed blood pressure is detected by the transmitter and then reflected back to the receiver accordingly. The reflected signals are then processed inside the microcontroller through a software written assembly language and appropriate heart rate (HR) is determined by it in beats per minute (bpm) from the detected signal for a duration of 10 seconds and display the same in bpm on the LCD screen in digital format. The designed system was simulated on several persons with varying ages, for example, infants, adult persons and active athletes. Simulation results were found very satisfactory.

Keywords: Heart rate measurement, design, simulation, Proteus, Arduino Uno microcontroller.

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215 An Auxiliary Technique for Coronary Heart Disease Prediction by Analyzing ECG Based on ResNet and Bi-LSTM

Authors: Yang Zhang, Jian He

Abstract:

Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world, and coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the major heart diseases. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used in the detection of heart diseases, but the traditional manual method for CHD prediction by analyzing ECG requires lots of professional knowledge for doctors. This paper presents sliding window and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to transform ECG signals into images, and then ResNet and Bi-LSTM are introduced to build the ECG feature extraction network (namely ECGNet). At last, an auxiliary system for CHD prediction was developed based on modified ResNet18 and Bi-LSTM, and the public ECG dataset of CHD from MIMIC-3 was used to train and test the system. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the method is 83%, and the F1-score is 83%. Compared with the available methods for CHD prediction based on ECG, such as kNN, decision tree, VGGNet, etc., this method not only improves the prediction accuracy but also could avoid the degradation phenomenon of the deep learning network.

Keywords: Bi-LSTM, CHD, coronary heart disease, ECG, electrocardiogram, ResNet, sliding window.

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214 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das

Abstract:

This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea.

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213 Applying the Regression Technique for Prediction of the Acute Heart Attack

Authors: Paria Soleimani, Arezoo Neshati

Abstract:

Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Some of these deaths occur even before the patient reaches the hospital. Myocardial infarction occurs as a result of impaired blood supply. Because the most of these deaths are due to coronary artery disease, hence the awareness of the warning signs of a heart attack is essential. Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but most of them start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort, then early detection and successful treatment of these symptoms is vital to save them. Therefore, importance and usefulness of a system designing to assist physicians in early diagnosis of the acute heart attacks is obvious. The main purpose of this study would be to enable patients to become better informed about their condition and to encourage them to seek professional care at an earlier stage in the appropriate situations. For this purpose, the data were collected on 711 heart patients in Iran hospitals. 28 attributes of clinical factors can be reported by patients; were studied. Three logistic regression models were made on the basis of the 28 features to predict the risk of heart attacks. The best logistic regression model in terms of performance had a C-index of 0.955 and with an accuracy of 94.9%. The variables, severe chest pain, back pain, cold sweats, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, were selected as the main features.

Keywords: Coronary heart disease, acute heart attacks, prediction, logistic regression.

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212 Poincaré Plot for Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Mazhar B. Tayel, Eslam I. AlSaba

Abstract:

Heart is the most important part in the body of living organisms. It affects and is affected by any factor in the body. Therefore, it is a good detector for all conditions in the body. Heart signal is a non-stationary signal; thus, it is utmost important to study the variability of heart signal. The Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has attracted considerable attention in psychology, medicine and has become important dependent measure in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. The standards of measurements, physiological interpretation and clinical use for HRV that are most often used were described in many researcher papers, however, remain complex issues are fraught with pitfalls. This paper presents one of the nonlinear techniques to analyze HRV. It discusses many points like, what Poincaré plot is and how Poincaré plot works; also, Poincaré plot's merits especially in HRV. Besides, it discusses the limitation of Poincaré cause of standard deviation SD1, SD2 and how to overcome this limitation by using complex correlation measure (CCM). The CCM is most sensitive to changes in temporal structure of the Poincaré plot as compared toSD1 and SD2.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, chaotic system, Poincaré, variance, standard deviation, complex correlation measure.

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211 Intelligent Modeling of the Electrical Activity of the Human Heart

Authors: Lambros V. Skarlas, Grigorios N. Beligiannis, Efstratios F. Georgopoulos, Adam V. Adamopoulos

Abstract:

The aim of this contribution is to present a new approach in modeling the electrical activity of the human heart. A recurrent artificial neural network is being used in order to exhibit a subset of the dynamics of the electrical behavior of the human heart. The proposed model can also be used, when integrated, as a diagnostic tool of the human heart system. What makes this approach unique is the fact that every model is being developed from physiological measurements of an individual. This kind of approach is very difficult to apply successfully in many modeling problems, because of the complexity and entropy of the free variables describing the complex system. Differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual, measured at specific moments, can be used for diagnostic purposes. The sensor fusion used in order to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors is another point that this paper focuses on. Sensor fusion has been known for its advantages in applications such as control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Diagnostic System, Health Condition Modeling Tool, Heart Diagnostics Model, Heart Electricity Model.

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210 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Comparison of Flow through Mechanical Heart Valve Using Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid

Authors: D. Šedivý, S. Fialová

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to show differences between the numerical solution of the flow through the artificial heart valve using Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The simulation was carried out by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package based on finite-volume method. An aortic bileaflet heart valve (Sorin Bicarbon) was used as a pattern for model of real heart valve replacement. Computed tomography (CT) was used to gain the accurate parameters of the valve. Data from CT were transferred in the commercial 3D designer, where the model for CFD was made. Carreau rheology model was applied as non-Newtonian fluid. Physiological data of cardiac cycle were used as boundary conditions. Outputs were taken the leaflets excursion from opening to closure and the fluid dynamics through the valve. This study also includes experimental measurement of pressure fields in ambience of valve for verification numerical outputs. Results put in evidence a favorable comparison between the computational solutions of flow through the mechanical heart valve using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.

Keywords: Computational modeling, dynamic mesh, mechanical heart valve, non-Newtonian fluid, SDOF.

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209 Design and Fabrication of a Low Cost Heart Monitor using Reflectance Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Nur Ilyani Ramli, Mansour Youseffi, Peter Widdop

Abstract:

This paper presents a low cost design of heart beat monitoring device using reflectance mode PhotoPlethysmography (PPG). PPG is known for its simple construction, ease of use and cost effectiveness and can provide information about the changes in cardiac activity as well as aid in earlier non-invasive diagnostics. The proposed device is divided into three phases. First is the detection of pulses through the fingertip. The signal is then passed to the signal processing unit for the purpose of amplification, filtering and digitizing. Finally the heart rate is calculated and displayed on the computer using parallel port interface. The paper is concluded with prototyping of the device followed by verification procedure of the heartbeat signal obtained in laboratory setting.

Keywords: Reflectance mode PPG, Heart beat detection, Circuitdesign, PCB design

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208 Intelligent Heart Disease Prediction System Using CANFIS and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Latha Parthiban, R. Subramanian

Abstract:

Heart disease (HD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern society. Medical diagnosis is an important but complicated task that should be performed accurately and efficiently and its automation would be very useful. All doctors are unfortunately not equally skilled in every sub specialty and they are in many places a scarce resource. A system for automated medical diagnosis would enhance medical care and reduce costs. In this paper, a new approach based on coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was presented for prediction of heart disease. The proposed CANFIS model combined the neural network adaptive capabilities and the fuzzy logic qualitative approach which is then integrated with genetic algorithm to diagnose the presence of the disease. The performances of the CANFIS model were evaluated in terms of training performances and classification accuracies and the results showed that the proposed CANFIS model has great potential in predicting the heart disease.

Keywords: CANFIS, genetic algorithms, heart disease, membership function.

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207 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features

Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan

Abstract:

Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.

Keywords: Pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction.

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206 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik

Abstract:

This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: Heart rate, NIOS II, Oxygen Saturation, photoplethysmography, soft-core, SOPC.

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205 Differentiation of Heart Rate Time Series from Electroencephalogram and Noise

Authors: V. I. Thajudin Ahamed, P. Dhanasekaran, Paul Joseph K.

Abstract:

Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular non-invasive tool for assessing the activities of autonomic nervous system. Most of the methods were hired from techniques used for time series analysis. Currently used methods are time domain, frequency domain, geometrical and fractal methods. A new technique, which searches for pattern repeatability in a time series, is proposed for quantifying heart rate (HR) time series. These set of indices, which are termed as pattern repeatability measure and pattern repeatability ratio are able to distinguish HR data clearly from noise and electroencephalogram (EEG). The results of analysis using these measures give an insight into the fundamental difference between the composition of HR time series with respect to EEG and noise.

Keywords: Approximate entropy, heart rate variability, noise, pattern repeatability, and sample entropy.

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204 Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic Cardiac Phantom for use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Marcos A. Dullius, Ramon C. Fernandes, Divanízia N. Souza

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a dynamic cardiac phantom for quality control in myocardial scintigraphy. The dynamic heart phantom constructed only contained the left ventricle, made of elastic material (latex), comprising two cavities: one internal and one external. The data showed a non-significant variation in the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by varying the heart rate. It was also possible to evaluate the ejection fraction (LVEF) through different arrays of image acquisition and to perform an intercomparison of LVEF by two different scintillation cameras. The results of the quality control tests were satisfactory, showing that they can be used as parameters in future assessments. The new dynamic heart phantom was demonstrated to be effective for use in LVEF measurements. Therefore, the new heart simulator is useful for the quality control of scintigraphic cameras.

Keywords: sheart, nuclear medicine, phantom

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203 In Search of an SVD and QRcp Based Optimization Technique of ANN for Automatic Classification of Abnormal Heart Sounds

Authors: Samit Ari, Goutam Saha

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been extensively used for classification of heart sounds for its discriminative training ability and easy implementation. However, it suffers from overparameterization if the number of nodes is not chosen properly. In such cases, when the dataset has redundancy within it, ANN is trained along with this redundant information that results in poor validation. Also a larger network means more computational expense resulting more hardware and time related cost. Therefore, an optimum design of neural network is needed towards real-time detection of pathological patterns, if any from heart sound signal. The aims of this work are to (i) select a set of input features that are effective for identification of heart sound signals and (ii) make certain optimum selection of nodes in the hidden layer for a more effective ANN structure. Here, we present an optimization technique that involves Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and QR factorization with column pivoting (QRcp) methodology to optimize empirically chosen over-parameterized ANN structure. Input nodes present in ANN structure is optimized by SVD followed by QRcp while only SVD is required to prune undesirable hidden nodes. The result is presented for classifying 12 common pathological cases and normal heart sound.

Keywords: ANN, Classification of heart diseases, murmurs, optimization, Phonocardiogram, QRcp, SVD.

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202 Extraction of Fetal Heart Rate and Fetal Heart Rate Variability from Mother's ECG Signal

Authors: Khaldon Lweesy, Luay Fraiwan, Christoph Maier, Hartmut Dickhaus

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method for extracting the fetal heart rate (fHR) and the fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) signal non-invasively using abdominal maternal electrocardiogram (mECG) recordings. The extraction is based on the fundamental frequency (Fourier-s) theorem. The fundamental frequency of the mother-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-m) is calculated directly from the abdominal signal. The heart rate of the fetus is usually higher than that of the mother; as a result, the fundamental frequency of the fetal-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-f) is higher than that of the mother-s (fo-f > fo-m). Notch filters to suppress mother-s higher harmonics were designed; then a bandpass filter to target fo-f and reject fo-m is implemented. Although the bandpass filter will pass some other frequencies (harmonics), we have shown in this study that those harmonics are actually carried on fo-f, and thus have no impact on the evaluation of the beat-to-beat changes (RR intervals). The oscillations of the time-domain extracted signal represent the RR intervals. We have also shown in this study that zero-to-zero evaluation of the periods is more accurate than the peak-to-peak evaluation. This method is evaluated both on simulated signals and on different abdominal recordings obtained at different gestational ages.

Keywords: Aabdominal ECG, fetal heart rate variability, frequency harmonics, fundamental frequency.

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201 Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks

Authors: Tsu-Wang Shen, Shan-Chun Chang, Chih-Hsien Wang, Te-Chao Fang

Abstract:

For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.

Keywords: High-intensity heart rate, heart rate resistant, ECG human identification, decision based artificial neural network.

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200 Effect of Physical Contact (Hand-Holding) on Heart Rate Variability

Authors: T. Pishbin, S.M.P. Firoozabadi, N. Jafarnia Dabanloo, F. Mohammadi, S. Koozehgari

Abstract:

Heart-s electric field can be measured anywhere on the surface of the body (ECG). When individuals touch, one person-s ECG signal can be registered in other person-s EEG and elsewhere on his body. Now, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physical contact (hand-holding) of two persons changes their heart rate variability. Subjects were sixteen healthy female (age: 20- 26) which divided into eight sets. In each sets, we had two friends that they passed intimacy test of J.sternberg. ECG of two subjects (each set) acquired for 5 minutes before hand-holding (as control group) and 5 minutes during they held their hands (as experimental group). Then heart rate variability signals were extracted from subjects' ECG and analyzed in linear feature space (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear feature space. Considering the results, we conclude that physical contact (hand-holding of two friends) increases parasympathetic activity, as indicate by increase SD1, SD1/SD2, HF and MF power (p<0.05) and decreases sympathetic activity, as indicate by decrease LF power (p<0.01) and LF/HF ratio (p<0.05).

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system (ANS), Hand- holding, Heart rate variability (HRV), Power spectral density analysis.

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199 Screening of Congenital Heart Diseases with Fetal Phonocardiography

Authors: F. Kovács, K. Kádár, G. Hosszú, Á. T. Balogh, T. Zsedrovits, N. Kersner, A. Nagy, Gy. Jeney

Abstract:

The paper presents a novel screening method to indicate congenital heart diseases (CHD), which otherwise could remain undetected because of their low level. Therefore, not belonging to the high-risk population, the pregnancies are not subject to the regular fetal monitoring with ultrasound echocardiography. Based on the fact that CHD is a morphological defect of the heart causing turbulent blood flow, the turbulence appears as a murmur, which can be detected by fetal phonocardiography (fPCG). The proposed method applies measurements on the maternal abdomen and from the recorded sound signal a sophisticated processing determines the fetal heart murmur. The paper describes the problems and the additional advantages of the fPCG method including the possibility of measurements at home and its combination with the prescribed regular cardiotocographic (CTG) monitoring. The proposed screening process implemented on a telemedicine system provides an enhanced safety against hidden cardiac diseases.

Keywords: Cardiac murmurs, fetal phonocardiography, screening of CHDs, telemedicine system.

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198 Synchronization of 0.1 Hz Oscillations in Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: Application to Treatment of Myocardial Infarction Patients

Authors: M. D. Prokhorov, A. R. Kiselev, A. S. Karavaev, O. M. Posnenkova, V. I. Gridnev, V. I. Ponomarenko

Abstract:

Synchronization between 0.1 Hz oscillations in heart rate and blood pressure is studied and its change during vertical tilt is evaluated in 37 myocardial infarction patients. Two groups of patients are identified with decreased and increased, respectively, synchronization of the studied oscillations as a response to a tilt test. It is shown that assessment of synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations as a response to vertical tilt can be used as a guideline for selecting optimal dose of beta-blocker treatment in post-myocardial infarction patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, heart rate variability, synchronization.

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