Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Atrial Fibrillation

9 Atrial Fibrillation Analysis Based on Blind Source Separation in 12-lead ECG

Authors: Pei-Chann Chang, Jui-Chien Hsieh, Jyun-Jie Lin, Feng-Ming Yeh

Abstract:

Atrial Fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered by clinicians. Because of the invisible waveform of atrial fibrillation in atrial activation for human, it is necessary to develop an automatic diagnosis system. 12-Lead ECG now is available in hospital and is appropriate for using Independent Component Analysis to estimate the AA period. In this research, we also adopt a second-order blind identification approach to transform the sources extracted by ICA to more precise signal and then we use frequency domain algorithm to do the classification. In experiment, we gather a significant result of clinical data.

Keywords: 12-Lead ECG, Atrial Fibrillation, Blind SourceSeparation, Kurtosis

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8 Diagnosis of the Heart Rhythm Disorders by Using Hybrid Classifiers

Authors: Sule Yucelbas, Gulay Tezel, Cuneyt Yucelbas, Seral Ozsen

Abstract:

In this study, it was tried to identify some heart rhythm disorders by electrocardiography (ECG) data that is taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database by subtracting the required features, presenting to artificial neural networks (ANN), artificial immune systems (AIS), artificial neural network based on artificial immune system (AIS-ANN) and particle swarm optimization based artificial neural network (PSO-NN) classifier systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of hybrid AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN classifiers with regard to the ANN and AIS. For this purpose, the normal sinus rhythm (NSR), atrial premature contraction (APC), sinus arrhythmia (SA), ventricular trigeminy (VTI), ventricular tachycardia (VTK) and atrial fibrillation (AF) data for each of the RR intervals were found. Then these data in the form of pairs (NSR-APC, NSR-SA, NSR-VTI, NSR-VTK and NSR-AF) is created by combining discrete wavelet transform which is applied to each of these two groups of data and two different data sets with 9 and 27 features were obtained from each of them after data reduction. Afterwards, the data randomly was firstly mixed within themselves, and then 4-fold cross validation method was applied to create the training and testing data. The training and testing accuracy rates and training time are compared with each other.

As a result, performances of the hybrid classification systems, AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN were seen to be close to the performance of the ANN system. Also, the results of the hybrid systems were much better than AIS, too. However, ANN had much shorter period of training time than other systems. In terms of training times, ANN was followed by PSO-ANN, AIS-ANN and AIS systems respectively. Also, the features that extracted from the data affected the classification results significantly.

Keywords: AIS, ANN, ECG, hybrid classifiers, PSO.

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7 Obstacles as Switches between Different Cardiac Arrhythmias

Authors: Daniel Olmos-Liceaga

Abstract:

Ventricular fibrillation is a very important health problem as is the cause of most of the sudden deaths in the world. Waves of electrical activity are sent by the SA node, propagate through the cardiac tissue and activate the mechanisms of cell contraction, and therefore are responsible to pump blood to the body harmonically. A spiral wave is an abnormal auto sustainable wave that is responsible of certain types of arrhythmias. When these waves break up, give rise to the fibrillation regime, in which there is a complete loss in the coordination of the contraction of the heart muscle. Interaction of spiral waves and obstacles is also of great importance as it is believed that the attachment of a spiral wave to an obstacle can provide with a transition of two different arrhythmias. An obstacle can be partially excitable or non excitable. In this talk, we present a numerical study of the interaction of meandering spiral waves with partially and non excitable obstacles and focus on the problem where the obstacle plays a fundamental role in the switch between different spiral regimes, which represent different arrhythmic regimes. Particularly, we study the phenomenon of destabilization of spiral waves due to the presence of obstacles, a phenomenon not completely understood (This work will appear as a Chapter in a Book named Cardiac Arrhytmias by INTECH under the name "Spiral Waves, Obstacles and Cardiac Arrhythmias", ISBN 979-953-307-050-5.).

Keywords: Arrhythmias, Cardiac tissue, Obstacles, Spiral waves

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6 Amelioration of Cardiac Arrythmias Classification Performance Using Artificial Neural Network, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy and Fuzzy Inference Systems Classifiers

Authors: Alexandre Boum, Salomon Madinatou

Abstract:

This paper aims at bringing a scientific contribution to the cardiac arrhythmia biomedical diagnosis systems; more precisely to the study of the amelioration of cardiac arrhythmia classification performance using artificial neural network, adaptive neuro-fuzzy and fuzzy inference systems classifiers. The purpose of this amelioration is to enable cardiologists to make reliable diagnosis through automatic cardiac arrhythmia analyzes and classifications based on high confidence classifiers. In this study, six classes of the most commonly encountered arrhythmias are considered: the Right Bundle Branch Block, the Left Bundle Branch Block, the Ventricular Extrasystole, the Auricular Extrasystole, the Atrial Fibrillation and the Normal Cardiac rate beat. From the electrocardiogram (ECG) extracted parameters, we constructed a matrix (360x360) serving as an input data sample for the classifiers based on neural networks and a matrix (1x6) for the classifier based on fuzzy logic. By varying three parameters (the quality of the neural network learning, the data size and the quality of the input parameters) the automatic classification permitted us to obtain the following performances: in terms of correct classification rate, 83.6% was obtained using the fuzzy logic based classifier, 99.7% using the neural network based classifier and 99.8% for the adaptive neuro-fuzzy based classifier. These results are based on signals containing at least 360 cardiac cycles. Based on the comparative analysis of the aforementioned three arrhythmia classifiers, the classifiers based on neural networks exhibit a better performance.

Keywords: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy, artificial neural network, cardiac arrythmias, fuzzy inference systems.

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5 Two Cases of VACTERL Association in Pregnancy with Lymphocyte Therapy

Authors: Seyed Mazyar Mortazavi, Masod Memari, Hasan Ali Ahmadi, Zhaleh Abed

Abstract:

VACTERL association is a rare disorder with various congenital malformations. The aetiology remains unknown. Combination of at least three congenital anomalies of the following criteria is required for diagnosis: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb defects. The first case was 1-day old male neonate with multiple congenital anomalies was bore from 28 years old mother. The mother had history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. His anomalies included: defects in thoracic and lumbar vertebral, anal atresia, bilateral hydronephrosis, atrial septal defect, and lower limb abnormality. Other anomalies were cryptorchidism and nasal canal narrowing. The second case was born with 32 weeks gestational age from mother with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. He had thoracic vertebral defect, cardiac anomalies and renal defect. diagnosis based on clinical finding is VACTERL association. Early diagnosis is very important to investigation and treatment of other coexistence anomalies. VACTERL association in mothers with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy has suggested possibly of relationship between VACTERL association and this method of pregnancy.

Keywords: Anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula, atrial septal defect, lymphocyte therapy.

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4 Identification of Cardiac Arrhythmias using Natural Resonance Complex Frequencies

Authors: Moustafa A. Bani-Hasan, Yasser M. Kadah, Fatma M. El-Hefnawi

Abstract:

An electrocardiogram (ECG) feature extraction system based on the calculation of the complex resonance frequency employing Prony-s method is developed. Prony-s method is applied on five different classes of ECG signals- arrhythmia as a finite sum of exponentials depending on the signal-s poles and the resonant complex frequencies. Those poles and resonance frequencies of the ECG signals- arrhythmia are evaluated for a large number of each arrhythmia. The ECG signals of lead II (ML II) were taken from MIT-BIH database for five different types. These are the ventricular couplet (VC), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular bigeminy (VB), and ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the normal (NR). This novel method can be extended to any number of arrhythmias. Different classification techniques were tried using neural networks (NN), K nearest neighbor (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and multi-class support vector machine (MC-SVM).

Keywords: Arrhythmias analysis, electrocardiogram, featureextraction, statistical classifiers.

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3 A Robust and Efficient Segmentation Method Applied for Cardiac Left Ventricle with Abnormal Shapes

Authors: Peifei Zhu, Zisheng Li, Yasuki Kakishita, Mayumi Suzuki, Tomoaki Chono

Abstract:

Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) from cardiac ultrasound images provides a quantitative functional analysis of the heart to diagnose disease. Active Shape Model (ASM) is widely used for LV segmentation, but it suffers from the drawback that initialization of the shape model is not sufficiently close to the target, especially when dealing with abnormal shapes in disease. In this work, a two-step framework is improved to achieve a fast and efficient LV segmentation. First, a robust and efficient detection based on Hough forest localizes cardiac feature points. Such feature points are used to predict the initial fitting of the LV shape model. Second, ASM is applied to further fit the LV shape model to the cardiac ultrasound image. With the robust initialization, ASM is able to achieve more accurate segmentation. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a dataset of 810 cardiac ultrasound images that are mostly abnormal shapes. This proposed method is compared with several combinations of ASM and existing initialization methods. Our experiment results demonstrate that accuracy of the proposed method for feature point detection for initialization was 40% higher than the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed method significantly reduces the number of necessary ASM fitting loops and thus speeds up the whole segmentation process. Therefore, the proposed method is able to achieve more accurate and efficient segmentation results and is applicable to unusual shapes of heart with cardiac diseases, such as left atrial enlargement.

Keywords: Hough forest, active shape model, segmentation, cardiac left ventricle.

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2 New Echocardiographic Morphofunctional Diastolic Index (MFDI) in Differentiation of Normal Left Ventricular Filling from Pseudonormal and Restrictive

Authors: N. Nelasov, D. Safonov, M. Babaev, E. Mirzojan, O. Eroshenko, M. Morgunov, A. Erofeeva

Abstract:

We have shown previously that reflected high intensity motion signals (RIMS) can be used for detection of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD). It is also well known, that left atrial (LA) dimension can be used as a marker of DD. In this study we decided to analyze the diagnostic role of new echocardiographic morphofunctional diastolic index (MFDI) in differentiation of normal filling of LV from pseudonormal and restrictive. MFDI includes LA dimension and velocity of early diastolic component ea of RIMS (MFDI = LA/ea).  

343 healthy subjects and patients with various cardiac pathology underwent dopplerechocardiographic exam. According to the criteria of "Don" classification scheme 155 subjects had signs of normal LV filling (N) and 55 - of pseudonormal and restrictive filling (PN + R). LA dimension was performed in standard manner. RIMS were registered by conventional pulsed wave Doppler from apical 4-chamber view, when the sample volume was positioned between the tips of mitral leaflets. The velocity of early diastolic component of RIMS was measured. After calculation of MFDI mean values of this index in two groups (N and PN + R) were compared. The cutoff value of MFDI for differentiation of patients with N and PN + R was determined.

Mean value of MFDI in subjects with normal filling was 1.38+0.33 and in patients with pseudonormal and restrictive filling 2.43+0.43; p<0.0001. The cutoff value of MFDI > 2.0 separated subjects with normal LV filling from subjects with pseudonormal and restrictive filling with sensitivity 89.1% and specificity 97.4%.

Keywords: Dopplerechocardiography, diastolic dysfunction, left atrium, reflected high intensity motion signals.

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1 Multiple Organ Manifestation in Neonatal Lupus Erythematous (Report of Two Cases)

Authors: Lubis A., Widayanti R., Hikmah Z., Endaryanto A., Harsono A., Harianto A., Etika R., Handayani D. K., Sampurna M.

Abstract:

Neonatal lupus erythematous (NLE) is a rare disease marked by clinical characteristic and specific maternal autoantibody. Many cutaneous, cardiac, liver, and hematological manifestations could happen with affect of one organ or multiple. In this case, both babies were premature, low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and born through caesarean section from a systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) mother. In the first case, we found a baby girl with dyspnea and grunting. Chest X ray showed respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) great I and echocardiography showed small atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD). She also developed anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, hypoalbuminemia, increasing coagulation factors, hyperbilirubinemia, and positive blood culture of Klebsiella pneumonia. Anti-Ro/SSA and Anti-nRNP/sm were positive. Intravenous fluid, antibiotic, transfusion of blood, thrombocyte concentrate, and fresh frozen plasma were given. The second baby, male presented with necrotic tissue on the left ear and skin rashes, erythematous macula, athropic scarring, hyperpigmentation on all of his body with various size and facial haemorrhage. He also suffered from thrombocytopenia, mild elevated transaminase enzyme, hyperbilirubinemia, anti-Ro/SSA was positive. Intravenous fluid, methyprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), blood, and thrombocyte concentrate transfution were given. Two cases of neonatal lupus erythematous had been presented. Diagnosis based on clinical presentation and maternal auto antibody on neonate. Organ involvement in NLE can occur as single or multiple manifestations.

Keywords: Neonatus lupus erythematous, maternal autoantibody, clinical characteristic.

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