Optimization of Lead Bioremediation by Marine Halomonas sp. ES015 Using Statistical Experimental Methods
Bioremediation technology is now used for treatment instead of traditional metal removal methods. A strain was isolated from Marsa Alam, Red sea, Egypt showed high resistance to high lead concentration and was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique as Halomonas sp. ES015. Medium optimization was carried out using Plackett-Burman design, and the most significant factors were yeast extract, casamino acid and inoculums size. The optimized media obtained by the statistical design raised the removal efficiency from 84% to 99% from initial concentration 250 ppm of lead. Moreover, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the relationship between yeast extract concentration, casamino acid concentration and inoculums size. The optimized medium increased removal efficiency to 97% from initial concentration 500 ppm of lead. Immobilized Halomonas sp. ES015 cells on sponge cubes, using optimized medium in loop bioremediation column, showed relatively constant lead removal efficiency when reused six successive cycles over the range of time interval. Also metal removal efficiency was not affected by flow rate changes. Finally, the results of this research refer to the possibility of lead bioremediation by free or immobilized cells of Halomonas sp. ES015. Also, bioremediation can be done in batch cultures and semicontinuous cultures using column technology.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132379Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 609
 M. S. Zaki, N. El Battrawy, A. M. Hammam, and S. I. Shalaby, Aquatic Bioremediation of Metals. Life Science Journal, 2014, 11(4).
 R. P. Schwarzenbach, B. I. Escher, K. Fenner, T. B. Hofstetter, C. A. Johnson, U. Von Gunten, and B. Wehrli, The challenge of micropollutants in aquatic systems. Science, 2006, 313(5790), 1072-7.
 G. Flora, D. Gupta, and A. Tiwari, Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates. Interdisciplinary toxicology, 2012, 5(2), 47-58.
 K. Kalia, and S. J. Flora, (2005), Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning. Journal of occupational health, 47(1), 1-21.
 S. Murthy, G. Bali, and S. K. Sarangi, Biosorption of lead by Bacillus cereus isolated from industrial effluents. British biotechnology journal, 2012, 2(2), 73-84.
 H. Abbas, I. M. Ismail, T. M. Mostafa, and A. H. Sulaymon, Biosorption of heavy metals: a review. Journal of Chemical Science and Technology, 3(4) , 2014, 74-102.
 H. Guo, S. Luo, Chen, L., Xiao, X., Xi, Q., Wei, W., and Y. He, Bioremediation of heavy metals by growing hyperaccumulaor endophytic bacterium Bacillus sp. L14. Bioresource technology, 2010, 101(22), 8599-8605.
 O. B. Akpor, and M. Muchie, Remediation of heavy metals in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems: Processes and applications. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 5(12), 2010, 1807-1817.
 R. Munoz, M. Munoz, E. Terrazas, B. Guieysse, and B. Mattisasson, Sequential removal of heavy metals ions and organic pollutants using an algal-bacterial consortium. Chemosphere, 2006, 63, 903-991.
 S. Chatterjee, A. Mukherjee, A. Sarkar, and P. Roy, Bioremediation of lead by lead-resistant microorganisms, isolated from industrial sample, 2012.
 S. N. Radhi, Optimization of heavy metals chlorides resistance by Staphylococcus aureus and its ability to remove them. Iraqi Journal of Science, 2012, 53: 778-785.
 C. E. Zobell, Bacteria of the marine world. The Scientific Monthly, 1942, 55, 320
 D. J. Lipman, Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids,1997, Res. 25, 3389- 3402.
 R. L. Plackett, and J. P. Burman, The design of optimum multifactorial experiments. Biometrika, 1946, 305-325.
 P. W. Araujo, and R. G. Brereton, Experimental design I. Screening. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 1996, 15(1), 26-31.
 G. E. Box, and D. W. Behnken, Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. Technometrics, 1960, 2(4), 455-475.
 A. Kumar, B. S. Bisht, and V. D. Joshi, Bioremediation potential of three acclimated bacteria with reference to heavy metal removal from waste. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2011, 2(2), 896-908.
 S. Shilpi, Bioremediation: Features, Strategies and applications. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science, 2012, 2 (2), 202-213.
 M. E. Mabrouk, Statistical optimization of medium components for chromate reduction by halophilic Streptomyces sp. MS-2. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2008, 2(5), 103-109.
 H. Abd-Elnaby, G. M. Abou-Elela, and N. A. El-Sersy, Cadmium resisting bacteria in Alexandria Eastern Harbor (Egypt) and optimization of cadmium bioaccumulation by Vibrio harveyi. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2013,10 (17), 3412-3423.
 A. M. D. El-Ahwany, Statistical analysis and optimization of copper biosorption capability by Oenococcus oeni PSU-1. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2014, 11(18), 4225-4233.
 P. Bafna, and N. Manimehalai, Kokum Fruit Bar Development via Response Surface Methodology (RSM). International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2014, 4 (2), 223-230
 K. Adinarayana, and P. Ellaiah, Response surface optimization of the critical medium components for the production of alkaline protease by a newly isolated Bacillus sp J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2002, 5(3), 272-278.
 D. Wu, J. Zhou, and Y. Li, Effect of the sulfidation process on the mechanical properties of a CoMoP/Al 2 O 3 hydrotreating catalyst. Chemical Engineering Science, 2009, 64(2), 198-206.
 M. R. R. Kahkha, M. Kaykhaii, and G. Ebrahimzadeh, Optimization of Affective Parameter on Cadmium Removal from an Aqueous Solution by Citrullus colocynthis Powdered Fruits by Response Surface. Journal of health scope, 2015, 4(1): e20667.
 A. Verma, N. R. Bishnoi, and A. Gupta, Optimization study for Pb(II) and COD sequestrationby consortium of sulphate-reducing bacteria Appl. Water. Sci. 2016, DOI: 10.1007/s13201-016-0402-7.
 S. H. Hasan, P. Srivastava, and M. Talat, Biosorption of lead using immobilized Aeromonas hydrophila biomass in up flow column system: Factorial design for process optimization. Journal of hazardous materials, 2010, 177(1), 312-322.
 G. Resmi, S. G. Thampi, S. Chandrakaran, and P. Elias, Biosorption of lead by immobilized biomass of Brevundimonas vesicularis: batch and column studies. Separation Science and Technology, 2010, 45(16), 2356-2362.
 A. Kogej, B. Likozar, and A. Pavko, Lead Biosorption by self-immobilized Rhizopus nigricans pellets in a laboratory scale packed bed column: mathematical model and experiment. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 2010, 48(3), 344-351.