Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 920

Search results for: sequential extraction

920 Release of Elements in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash from Incineration of Peat- and Wood-Residues using a Sequential Extraction Procedure

Authors: Risto Poykio, Kati Manskinen, Olli Dahl, Mikko Mäkelä, Hannu Nurmesniemi

Abstract:

When the results of the total element concentrations using USEPA method 3051A are compared to the sequential extraction analyses (i.e. the sum of fractions BCR1, BCR2 and BRC3), it can be calculated that the recovery values of elements varied between 56.8-% and 69.4-% in the bottom ash, and between 11.3-% and 70.9-% in the fly ash. This indicates that most of the elements in the ashes do not occur as readily soluble forms.

Keywords: Ash, BCR, leaching, solubility, waste

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919 Volatility of Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and As in Fluidised-Bed Combustion Chamber in Relation to Their Modes of Occurrence in Coal

Authors: L. Bartoňová, Z. Klika

Abstract:

Modes of occurrence of Pb, As, Cr, Co, Cu, and Ni in bituminous coal and lignite were determined by means of sequential extraction using NH4OAc, HCl, HF and HNO3 extraction solutions. Elemental affinities obtained were then evaluated in relation to volatility of these elements during the combustion of these coals in two circulating fluidised-bed power stations. It was found out that higher percentage of the elements bound in silicates brought about lower volatility, while higher elemental proportion with monosulphides association (or bound as exchangeable ion) resulted in higher volatility. The only exception was the behavior of arsenic, whose volatility depended on amount of limestone added during the combustion process (as desulphurisation additive) rather than to its association in coal.

Keywords: Coal combustion, sequential extraction, trace elements, volatility.

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918 Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes

Authors: F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Freundlich-like equation, sequential extraction, soil lead contamination.

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917 A Sequential Pattern Mining Method Based On Sequential Interestingness

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Youichi Kitahara, Ryohei Orihara

Abstract:

Sequential mining methods efficiently discover all frequent sequential patterns included in sequential data. These methods use the support, which is the previous criterion that satisfies the Apriori property, to evaluate the frequency. However, the discovered patterns do not always correspond to the interests of analysts, because the patterns are common and the analysts cannot get new knowledge from the patterns. The paper proposes a new criterion, namely, the sequential interestingness, to discover sequential patterns that are more attractive for the analysts. The paper shows that the criterion satisfies the Apriori property and how the criterion is related to the support. Also, the paper proposes an efficient sequential mining method based on the proposed criterion. Lastly, the paper shows the effectiveness of the proposed method by applying the method to two kinds of sequential data.

Keywords: Sequential mining, Support, Confidence, Apriori property

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916 Evaluation of Algorithms for Sequential Decision in Biosonar Target Classification

Authors: Turgay Temel, John Hallam

Abstract:

A sequential decision problem, based on the task ofidentifying the species of trees given acoustic echo data collectedfrom them, is considered with well-known stochastic classifiers,including single and mixture Gaussian models. Echoes are processedwith a preprocessing stage based on a model of mammalian cochlearfiltering, using a new discrete low-pass filter characteristic. Stoppingtime performance of the sequential decision process is evaluated andcompared. It is observed that the new low pass filter processingresults in faster sequential decisions.

Keywords: Classification, neuro-spike coding, parametricmodel, Gaussian mixture with EM algorithm, sequential decision.

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915 Discovery of Sequential Patterns Based On Constraint Patterns

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Youichi Kitahata, Ryohei Orihara

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that discovers sequential patterns corresponding to user-s interests from sequential data. This method expresses the interests as constraint patterns. The constraint patterns can define relationships among attributes of the items composing the data. The method recursively decomposes the constraint patterns into constraint subpatterns. The method evaluates the constraint subpatterns in order to efficiently discover sequential patterns satisfying the constraint patterns. Also, this paper applies the method to the sequential data composed of stock price indexes and verifies its effectiveness through comparing it with a method without using the constraint patterns.

Keywords: Sequential pattern mining, Constraint pattern, Attribute constraint, Stock price indexes

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914 A Prediction of Attractive Evaluation Objects Based On Complex Sequential Data

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Makino Kyoko, Shigeru Matsumoto

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that predicts attractive evaluation objects. In the learning phase, the method inductively acquires trend rules from complex sequential data. The data is composed of two types of data. One is numerical sequential data. Each evaluation object has respective numerical sequential data. The other is text sequential data. Each evaluation object is described in texts. The trend rules represent changes of numerical values related to evaluation objects. In the prediction phase, the method applies new text sequential data to the trend rules and evaluates which evaluation objects are attractive. This paper verifies the effect of the proposed method by using stock price sequences and news headline sequences. In these sequences, each stock brand corresponds to an evaluation object. This paper discusses validity of predicted attractive evaluation objects, the process time of each phase, and the possibility of application tasks.

Keywords: Trend rule, frequent pattern, numerical sequential data, text sequential data, evaluation object.

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913 Comparison Analysis of the Wald-s and the Bayes Type Sequential Methods for Testing Hypotheses

Authors: K. J. Kachiashvili

Abstract:

The Comparison analysis of the Wald-s and Bayestype sequential methods for testing hypotheses is offered. The merits of the new sequential test are: universality which consists in optimality (with given criteria) and uniformity of decision-making regions for any number of hypotheses; simplicity, convenience and uniformity of the algorithms of their realization; reliability of the obtained results and an opportunity of providing the errors probabilities of desirable values. There are given the Computation results of concrete examples which confirm the above-stated characteristics of the new method and characterize the considered methods in regard to each other.

Keywords: Errors of types I and II, likelihood ratio, the Bayes Type Sequential test, the Wald's sequential test, averaged number of observations.

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912 Conditions for Fault Recovery of Interconnected Asynchronous Sequential Machines with State Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, fault recovery for parallel interconnected asynchronous sequential machines is studied. An adversarial input can infiltrate into one of two submachines comprising parallel composition of the considered asynchronous sequential machine, causing an unauthorized state transition. The control objective is to elucidate the condition for the existence of a corrective controller that makes the closed-loop system immune against any occurrence of adversarial inputs. In particular, an efficient existence condition is presented that does not need the complete modeling of the interconnected asynchronous sequential machine.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, parallel composition, corrective control, fault tolerance.

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911 Application of a Modified BCR Approach to Investigate the Mobility and Availability of Trace Elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo,Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg) from a Solid Residue Matrix Designed for Soil Amendment

Authors: Mikko Mäkelä, Risto Pöykiö, Gary Watkins, Hannu Nurmesniemi, Olli Dahl

Abstract:

Trace element speciation of an integrated soil amendment matrix was studied with a modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The analysis included pseudo-total concentration determinations according to USEPA 3051A and relevant physicochemical properties by standardized methods. Based on the results, the soil amendment matrix possessed neutralization capacity comparable to commercial fertilizers. Additionally, the pseudo-total concentrations of all trace elements included in the Finnish regulation for agricultural fertilizers were lower than the respective statutory limit values. According to chemical speciation, the lability of trace elements increased in the following order: Hg < Cr < Co < Cu < As < Zn < Ni < Pb < Cd < V < Mo < Ba. The validity of the BCR approach as a tool for chemical speciation was confirmed by the additional acid digestion phase. Recovery of trace elements during the procedure assured the validity of the approach and indicated good quality of the analytical work.

Keywords: BCR, bioavailability, trace element, industrialresidue, sequential extraction

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910 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction

Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai

Abstract:

The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.

Keywords: Mechanism, bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extraction.

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909 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: Availability, crude oil contamination, EDTA, maize, metals.

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908 Extraction Condition of Echinocactus grusonii

Authors: R. Oonsivilai, N. Chaijareonudomroung, Y. Huantanom, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The optimal extraction condition of dried Echinocactus grusonii powder was studied. The three independent variables are raw material drying temperature, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and total phenolic quantification as gallic acid equivalent in crude extract. The experimental design was based on central composite design. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 15°C, and extraction time for 25 min °C. Moreover, the crude extract with highest phenolic occurred by extraction condition of raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 35 °C, and extraction lasting 25 min.

Keywords: Drying temperature, Extraction temperature, Optimal condition, Total phenolic

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907 Multiple-Level Sequential Pattern Discovery from Customer Transaction Databases

Authors: An Chen, Huilin Ye

Abstract:

Mining sequential patterns from large customer transaction databases has been recognized as a key research topic in database systems. However, the previous works more focused on mining sequential patterns at a single concept level. In this study, we introduced concept hierarchies into this problem and present several algorithms for discovering multiple-level sequential patterns based on the hierarchies. An experiment was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed algorithms. The performances of the algorithms were measured by the relative time spent on completing the mining tasks on two different datasets. The experimental results showed that the performance depends on the characteristics of the datasets and the pre-defined threshold of minimal support for each level of the concept hierarchy. Based on the experimental results, some suggestions were also given for how to select appropriate algorithm for a certain datasets.

Keywords: Data Mining, Multiple-Level Sequential Pattern, Concept Hierarchy, Customer Transaction Database.

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906 CFD Simulation of Dense Gas Extraction through Polymeric Membranes

Authors: Azam Marjani, Saeed Shirazian

Abstract:

In this study is presented a general methodology to predict the performance of a continuous near-critical fluid extraction process to remove compounds from aqueous solutions using hollow fiber membrane contactors. A comprehensive 2D mathematical model was developed to study Porocritical extraction process. The system studied in this work is a membrane based extractor of ethanol and acetone from aqueous solutions using near-critical CO2. Predictions of extraction percentages obtained by simulations have been compared to the experimental values reported by Bothun et al. [5]. Simulations of extraction percentage of ethanol and acetone show an average difference of 9.3% and 6.5% with the experimental data, respectively. More accurate predictions of the extraction of acetone could be explained by a better estimation of the transport properties in the aqueous phase that controls the extraction of this solute.

Keywords: Solvent extraction, Membrane, Mass transfer, Densegas, Modeling

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905 Mining Sequential Patterns Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: Mourad Ykhlef, Hebah ElGibreen

Abstract:

Mining Sequential Patterns in large databases has become an important data mining task with broad applications. It is an important task in data mining field, which describes potential sequenced relationships among items in a database. There are many different algorithms introduced for this task. Conventional algorithms can find the exact optimal Sequential Pattern rule but it takes a long time, particularly when they are applied on large databases. Nowadays, some evolutionary algorithms, such as Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm, were proposed and have been applied to solve this problem. This paper will introduce a new kind of hybrid evolutionary algorithm that combines Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to mine Sequential Pattern, in order to improve the speed of evolutionary algorithms convergence. This algorithm is referred to as SP-GAPSO.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, Sequential Pattern mining.

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904 Thermodynamic Study of Seed Oil Extraction by Organic Solvents

Authors: Zhila Safari, Ali Ashrafizadeh, Najaf Hedayat

Abstract:

Thermodynamics characterization Sesame oil extraction by Acetone, Hexane and Benzene has been evaluated. The 120 hours experimental Data were described by a simple mathematical model. According to the simulation results and the essential criteria, Acetone is superior to other solvents but under certain conditions where oil extraction takes place Hexane is superior catalyst.

Keywords: Liquid-solid extraction, seed oil, ThermodynamicStudy.

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903 Effect of Enzyme and Heat Pretreatment on Sunflower Oil Recovery Using Aqueous and Hexane Extractions

Authors: E. Danso-Boateng

Abstract:

The effects of enzyme action and heat pretreatment on oil extraction yield from sunflower kernels were analysed using hexane extraction with Soxhlet, and aqueous extraction with incubator shaker. Ground kernels of raw and heat treated kernels, each with and without Viscozyme treatment were used. Microscopic images of the kernels were taken to analyse the visible effects of each treatment on the cotyledon cell structure of the kernels. Heat pretreated kernels before both extraction processes produced enhanced oil extraction yields than the control, with steam explosion the most efficient. In hexane extraction, applying a combination of steam explosion and Viscozyme treatments to the kernels before the extraction gave the maximum oil extractable in 1 hour; while for aqueous extraction, raw kernels treated with Viscozyme gave the highest oil extraction yield. Remarkable cotyledon cell disruption was evident in kernels treated with Viscozyme; whereas steam explosion and conventional heat treated kernels had similar effects.

Keywords: Enzyme-assisted aqueous and hexane extraction, heatpretreatment, sunflower cotyledon structure, sunflower oil extraction

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902 Subcritical Water Extraction of Mannitol from Olive Leaves

Authors: S. M. Ghoreishi, R. Gholami Shahrestani, S. H. Ghaziaskar

Abstract:

Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology in the food and pharmaceutical industry for the separation of Mannitol from olive leaves and its results was compared with those of Soxhlet extraction. The effects of temperature, pressure, and flow rate of water and also momentum and mass transfer dimensionless variables such as Reynolds and Peclet Numbers on extraction yield and equilibrium partition coefficient were investigated. The 30-110 bars, 60-150°C, and flow rates of 0.2-2 mL/min were the water operating conditions. The results revealed that the highest Mannitol yield was obtained at 100°C and 50 bars. However, extraction of Mannitol was not influenced by the variations of flow rate. The mathematical modeling of experimental measurements was also investigated and the model is capable of predicting the experimental measurements very well. In addition, the results indicated higher extraction yield for the subcritical water extraction in contrast to Soxhlet method.

Keywords: Extraction, Mannitol, Modeling, Olive leaves, Soxhlet extraction, Subcritical water.

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901 Design and Testing of Nanotechnology Based Sequential Circuits Using MX-CQCA Logic in VHDL

Authors: K. Maria Agnes, J. Joshua Bapu

Abstract:

This paper impart the design and testing of Nanotechnology based sequential circuits using multiplexer conservative QCA (MX-CQCA) logic gates, which is easily testable using only two vectors. This method has great prospective in the design of sequential circuits based on reversible conservative logic gates and also smashes the sequential circuits implemented in traditional gates in terms of testability. Reversible circuits are similar to usual logic circuits except that they are built from reversible gates. Designs of multiplexer conservative QCA logic based two vectors testable double edge triggered (DET) sequential circuits in VHDL language are also accessible here; it will also diminish intricacy in testing side. Also other types of sequential circuits such as D, SR, JK latches are designed using this MX-CQCA logic gate. The objective behind the proposed design methodologies is to amalgamate arithmetic and logic functional units optimizing key metrics such as garbage outputs, delay, area and power. The projected MX-CQCA gate outshines other reversible gates in terms of the intricacy, delay.

Keywords: Conservative logic, Double edge triggered (DET) flip flop, majority voters, MX-CQCA gate, reversible logic, Quantum dot Cellular automata.

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900 Additional Considerations on a Sequential Life Testing Approach using a Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, R. Rocha

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Weibull sampling distribution. The minimum life will be considered equal to zero. We will again provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new type of a low alloy-high strength steel product. To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Underlying Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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899 Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

Solvability of the model matching problem for input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled switched machine can show the desired input/output behavior. A matrix expression is presented to address reachability of switched asynchronous sequential machines with output equivalence with respect to a model. The presented reachability condition for the controller design is validated in a simple example.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, model matching, input/output control.

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898 Effect of Wheat Flour Extraction Rates on Flour Composition, Farinographic Characteristics and Sensory Perception of Sourdough Naans

Authors: Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din, Salim-ur-Rehman, Faqir M. Anjum, Haq Nawaz, Mian A. Murtaza

Abstract:

The effect of wheat flour extraction rates on flour composition, farinographic characteristics and the quality of sourdough naans was investigated. The results indicated that by increasing the extraction rate, the amount of protein, fiber, fat and ash increased, whereas moisture content decreased. Farinographic characteristic like water absorption and dough development time increased with an increase in flour extraction rate but the dough stabilities and tolerance indices were reduced with an increase in flour extraction rates. Titratable acidity for both sourdough and sourdough naans also increased along with flour extraction rate. The study showed that overall quality of sourdough naans were affected by both flour extraction rate and starter culture used. Sensory analysis of sourdough naans revealed that desirable extraction rate for sourdough naan was 76%.

Keywords: Extraction rates, Farinographic characteristics, Flour composition, Sourdough naans, Wheat flour.

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897 Determination of Sequential Best Replies in N-player Games by Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Mattheos K. Protopapas, Elias B. Kosmatopoulos

Abstract:

An iterative algorithm is proposed and tested in Cournot Game models, which is based on the convergence of sequential best responses and the utilization of a genetic algorithm for determining each player-s best response to a given strategy profile of its opponents. An extra outer loop is used, to address the problem of finite accuracy, which is inherent in genetic algorithms, since the set of feasible values in such an algorithm is finite. The algorithm is tested in five Cournot models, three of which have convergent best replies sequence, one with divergent sequential best replies and one with “local NE traps"[14], where classical local search algorithms fail to identify the Nash Equilibrium. After a series of simulations, we conclude that the algorithm proposed converges to the Nash Equilibrium, with any level of accuracy needed, in all but the case where the sequential best replies process diverges.

Keywords: Best response, Cournot oligopoly, genetic algorithms, Nash equilibrium.

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896 Extraction Condition of Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai, Jutarat Manatwiyangkool, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Theoptimal extraction condition of dried Phaseolus vulgaris powderwas studied. The three independent variables are raw material concentration, shaking and centrifugaltime. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and alphaamylase enzyme inhibition activity. The experimental design was based on box-behnkendesign. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at concentration of 1, 0,1, concentration of 0.15 M ,extraction time for 2hour, and separationtime for60 min. Moreover, the crude extract with highest alpha-amylase enzyme inhibition activityoccurred by extraction condition at concentration of 0.10 M, extraction time for 2 min, and separation time for 45 min

Keywords: Extraction time, Optimal condition, Alpha-amylase enzymeinhibition activity

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895 A New Method for Rapid DNA Extraction from Artemia (Branchiopoda, Crustacea)

Authors: R. Manaffar, R. Maleki, S. Zare, N. Agh, S. Soltanian, B. Sehatnia, P. Sorgeloos, P. Bossier, G. Van Stappen

Abstract:

Artemia is one of the most conspicuous invertebrates associated with aquaculture. It can be considered as a model organism, offering numerous advantages for comprehensive and multidisciplinary studies using morphologic or molecular methods. Since DNA extraction is an important step of any molecular experiment, a new and a rapid method of DNA extraction from adult Artemia was described in this study. Besides, the efficiency of this technique was compared with two widely used alternative techniques, namely Chelex® 100 resin and SDS-chloroform methods. Data analysis revealed that the new method is the easiest and the most cost effective method among the other methods which allows a quick and efficient extraction of DNA from the adult animal.

Keywords: APD, Artemia, DNA extraction, Molecularexperiments

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894 Optimization for Subcritical Water Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Rambutan Peels

Authors: Nuttawan Yoswathana, M. N. Eshtiaghi

Abstract:

Rambutan is a tropical fruit which peel possesses antioxidant properties. This work was conducted to optimize extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from rambutan peel. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize subcritical water extraction (SWE) on temperature, extraction time and percent solvent mixture. The results demonstrated that the optimum conditions for SWE were as follows: temperature 160°C, extraction time 20min. and concentration of 50% ethanol. Comparison of the phenolic compounds from the rambutan peels in maceration 6h, soxhlet 4h, and SWE 20min., it indicated that total phenolic content (using Folin-Ciocalteu-s phenol reagent) was 26.42, 70.29, and 172.47mg of tannic acid equivalent (TAE) per g dry rambutan peel, respectively. The comparative study concluded that SWE was a promising technique for phenolic compounds extraction from rambutan peel, due to much more two times of conventional techniques and shorter extraction times.

Keywords: Subcritical water extraction, Rambutan peel, phenolic compounds, response surface methodology

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893 Optimization of Deglet-Nour Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Phenol Extraction Conditions

Authors: Lekbir Adel, Alloui-Lombarkia Ourida, Mekentichi Sihem, Noui Yassine, Baississe Salima

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from Deglet-Nour variety. The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The effects of extraction variables, namely types of solvent (methanol, ethanol and acetone) and extraction time (1h, 6h, 12h and 24h) on phenolics extraction yield were evaluated. It has been shown that the time of extraction and types of solvent have a statistically significant influence on the extraction of phenolic compounds from Deglet-Nour variety. The optimised conditions yielded values of 80.19 ± 6.37 mg GAE/100 g FW for TPC, 2.34 ± 0.27 mg QE/100 g FW for TFC and 90.20 ± 1.29% for antioxidant activity were methanol solvent and 6 hours of time. According to the results obtained in this study, Deglet-Nour variety can be considered as a natural source of phenolic compounds with good antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Deglet-Nour variety, Date palm Fruit, Phenolic compounds, Total flavonoids, Antioxidant activity, Extraction, Optimization.

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892 Extraction of Significant Phrases from Text

Authors: Yuan J. Lui

Abstract:

Prospective readers can quickly determine whether a document is relevant to their information need if the significant phrases (or keyphrases) in this document are provided. Although keyphrases are useful, not many documents have keyphrases assigned to them, and manually assigning keyphrases to existing documents is costly. Therefore, there is a need for automatic keyphrase extraction. This paper introduces a new domain independent keyphrase extraction algorithm. The algorithm approaches the problem of keyphrase extraction as a classification task, and uses a combination of statistical and computational linguistics techniques, a new set of attributes, and a new machine learning method to distinguish keyphrases from non-keyphrases. The experiments indicate that this algorithm performs better than other keyphrase extraction tools and that it significantly outperforms Microsoft Word 2000-s AutoSummarize feature. The domain independence of this algorithm has also been confirmed in our experiments.

Keywords: classification, keyphrase extraction, machine learning, summarization

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891 Further Thoughtson a Sequential Life Testing Approach Using an Inverse Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, G. P. Azevedo, D. R. Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Inverse Weibull sampling distribution. The location parameter or minimum life will be considered equal to zero. Once again we will provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new electronic component. There is little information available about the possible values the parameters of the corresponding Inverse Weibull underlying sampling distribution could have.To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Inverse Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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