Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7286

Search results for: High temperature

7286 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery, CO2 flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding.

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7285 Optimization of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor, H.R Jivanramajiwala

Abstract:

The present work deals with optimization of cascade refrigeration system using eco friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% by wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable. Optimization of R507AR23 cascade refrigeration system performance parameters such as minimum work required, refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency was carried out in terms of eight operating parameters- combinations using Genetic Algorithm tool. The eight operating parameters include (1) low side evaporator temperature (2) high side condenser temperature (3) temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger (4) low side condenser temperature (5) low side degree of subcooling (6) high side degree of subcooling (7) low side degree of superheating (8) high side degree of superheating. Results show that for minimum work system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and low degree of subcooling and superheating in both side. For maximum refrigeration effect system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, high temperature in high side condenser, high temperature difference in cascade condenser, low temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling in LT and HT side. For maximum coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency, system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling and superheating in low side of the system.

Keywords: Cascade refrigeration system, Genetic Algorithm, R507A, R23,

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7284 3D Modeling of Temperature by Finite Element in Machining with Experimental Authorization

Authors: P. Mottaghizadeh, M. Bagheri

Abstract:

In the present paper, the three-dimensional temperature field of tool is determined during the machining and compared with experimental work on C45 workpiece using carbide cutting tool inserts. During the metal cutting operations, high temperature is generated in the tool cutting edge which influence on the rate of tool wear. Temperature is most important characteristic of machining processes; since many parameters such as cutting speed, surface quality and cutting forces depend on the temperature and high temperatures can cause high mechanical stresses which lead to early tool wear and reduce tool life. Therefore, considerable attention is paid to determine tool temperatures. The experiments are carried out for dry and orthogonal machining condition. The results show that the increase of tool temperature depends on depth of cut and especially cutting speed in high range of cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element method, Machining, Temperature measurement, Thermal fields

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7283 Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

Authors: Wai Pan Chan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Keywords: Chopping, analog frontend, CMOS temperature sensor, traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial temperature monitoring.

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7282 Microstructure and High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cast 310S Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High temperature deformation behavior of cast 310S stainless steel has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 900 to 1200oC. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 350×350×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Thermal expansion coefficient was also measured on the ingot in the temperature range from room temperature to 1200oC. Tensile strength of cast 310S stainless steel was 9 MPa at 1200oC, which is a little higher than that of a wrought 310S. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 72 MPa at 900oC. Elongation also increased with temperature decreased. Microstructure observation revealed that s phase was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix over 1200oC, which is detrimental to high temperature elongation.

Keywords: Stainless steel, STS 310S, high temperature deformation, microstructure, mechanical properties.

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7281 High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor

Authors: J. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, M. S. Jung, S. J. Kim, S. J. Joo, S. C. Kim

Abstract:

There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.

Keywords: High temperature, hydrogen sensor, SiC, Ta2O5 dielectric layer.

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7280 Thermal Cracking Respone of Reinforced Concrete Beam to Gradient Temperature

Authors: L. Dahmani, M.Kouane

Abstract:

In this paper are illustrated the principal aspects connected with the numerical evaluation of thermal stress induced by high gradient temperature in the concrete beam. The reinforced concrete beam has many advantages over steel beam, such as high resistance to high temperature, high resistance to thermal shock, Better resistance to fatigue and buckling, strong resistance against, fire, explosion, etc. The main drawback of the reinforced concrete beam is its poor resistance to tensile stresses. In order to investigate the thermal induced tensile stresses, a numerical model of a transient thermal analysis is presented for the evaluation of thermo-mechanical response of concrete beam to the high temperature, taking into account the temperature dependence of the thermo physical properties of the concrete like thermal conductivity and specific heat.

Keywords: Cracking, Gradient Temperature, Reinforced Concrete beam, Thermo-mechanical analysis.

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7279 High-Temperature Corrosion of Weldment of Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si Steel in N2/H2O/H2S-Mixed Gas

Authors: Sang Hwan Bak, Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si-0.2C steel was welded and corroded at 600, 700 and 800oC for 20 h in 1 atm of N2/H2S/H2O-mixed gas in order to characterize the high-temperature corrosion behavior of the welded joint. Corrosion proceeded fast and almost linearly. It increased with an increase in the corrosion temperature. H2S formed FeS owing to sulfur released from H2S. The scales were fragile and nonadherent.

Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si Steel, Corrosion, Welding, Sulfidation, H2S Gas.

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7278 A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator

Authors: Kimberly Jane S. Uy, Patricia Angela Reyes-Abu, Wen Yaw Chung

Abstract:

A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

Keywords: Current reference, voltage reference, threshold voltage, temperature compensation, mobility.

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7277 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: Reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming.

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7276 Effect of Preheating Temperature and Chamber Pressure on the Properties of Porous NiTi Alloy Prepared by SHS Technique

Authors: Wisutmethangoon S., Denmud N., Sikong L.

Abstract:

The fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) from elemental powder compacts was conducted by selfpropagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). Effects of the preheating temperature and the chamber pressure on the combustion characteristics as well as the final morphology and the composition of products were studied. The samples with porosity between 56.4 and 59.0% under preheating temperature in the range of 200-300°C and Ar-gas chamber pressure of 138 and 201 kPa were obtained. The pore structures were found to be dissimilar only in the samples processed with different preheating temperature. The major phase in the porous product is NiTi with small amounts of secondary phases, NiTi2 and Ni4Ti3. The preheating temperature and the chamber pressure have very little effect on the phase constituent. While the combustion temperature of the sample was notably increased by increasing the preheating temperature, they were slightly changed by varying the chamber pressure.

Keywords: Combustion synthesis, porous materials, self propagating high temperature synthesis, shape memory alloy.

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7275 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH, as a sustainable material, instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: High temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fiber, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties.

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7274 Mechanical Properties and Released Gas Analysis of High Strength Concrete with Polypropylene and Raw Rice Husk under High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

When concrete is exposed to high temperatures, some changes may occur in its physical and mechanical properties. Especially, high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a well-known method. In high temperatures, PP decomposes and releases harmful gases such as CO and CO2. This study researches the use of raw rice husk (RRH) as a sustainable material, instead of PP fibers considering its several favorable properties, and its usability in HSC. RRH and PP fibers were incorporated in concrete at 0.5-3% and 0.2-0.5% by weight of cement, respectively. Concrete specimens were exposed to 20 (control), 300, 600 and 900°C. Under these temperatures, residual compressive and splitting tensile strength was determined. During the high temperature effect, the amount of released harmful gases was measured by a gas detector.

Keywords: Gas analysis, high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fibers, raw rice husk.

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7273 Resistive RAM Based on Hfox and its Temperature Instability Study

Authors: Z. Fang, H.Y. Yu, W.J. Liu, N. Singh, G.Q. Lo

Abstract:

High performance Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) based on HfOx has been prepared and its temperature instability has been investigated in this work. With increasing temperature, it is found that: leakage current at high resistance state increases, which can be explained by the higher density of traps inside dielectrics (related to trap-assistant tunneling), leading to a smaller On/Off ratio; set and reset voltages decrease, which may be attributed to the higher oxygen ion mobility, in addition to the reduced potential barrier to create / recover oxygen ions (or oxygen vacancies); temperature impact on the RRAM retention degradation is more serious than electrical bias.

Keywords: RRAM, resistive switching, temperature instability.

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7272 Simulation of Climate Variability for Assessing Impacts on Yield and Genetic Change of Thai Soybean

Authors: Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Orose Rugchati

Abstract:

This study assessed the effects of climate change on Thai soybeans under simulation situations. Our study is focused on temperature variability and effects on growth, yield, and genetic changes in 2 generations of Chiang Mai 60 cultivars. In the experiment, soybeans were exposed to 3 levels of air temperature for 8 h day-1 in an open top chamber for 2 cropping periods. Air temperature levels in each treatment were controlled at 30-33°C (± 2.3) for LT-treatment, 33-36°C ( ± 2.4) for AT-treatment, and 36-40 °C ( ± 3.2) for HT-treatment, respectively. Positive effects of high temperature became obvious at the maturing stage when yield significantly increased in both cropping periods. Results in growth indicated that shoot length at the pre-maturing stage (V3-R3) was more positively affected by high temperature than at the maturing stage. However, the positive effect on growth under high temperature was not found in the 2nd cropping period. Finally, genetic changes were examined in phenotype characteristics by the AFLPs technique. The results showed that the high temperature factor clearly caused genetic change in the soybeans and showed more alteration in the 2nd cropping period.

Keywords: simulation, air temperature, variability, Thai soybean, yield , genetic change

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7271 Temperature-Dependence of Hardness and Wear Resistance of Stellite Alloys

Authors: S. Kapoor, R. Liu, X. J. Wu, M. X. Yao

Abstract:

A group of Stellite alloys are studied in consideration of temperature effects on their hardness and wear resistance. The hardness test is conducted on a micro-hardness tester with a hot stage equipped that allows heating the specimen up to 650°C. The wear resistance of each alloy is evaluated using a pin-on-disc tribometer with a heating furnace built-in that provides the temperature capacity up to 450°C. The experimental results demonstrate that the hardness and wear resistance of Stellite alloys behave differently at room temperature and at high temperatures. The wear resistance of Stellite alloys at room temperature mainly depends on their carbon content and also influenced by the tungsten content in the alloys. However, at high temperatures the wear mechanisms of Stellite alloys become more complex, involving multiple factors. The relationships between chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of these alloys are studied, with focus on temperature effect on these relations.

Keywords: Stellite alloy, temperature, hardness, wear resistance

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7270 Temperature Effect on the Organic Solar Cells Parameters

Authors: F.Belhocine-Nemmar; MS.Belkaid D. Hatem, O Boughias

Abstract:

In this work, the influence of temperature on the different parameters of solar cells based on organic semiconductors are studied. The short circuit current Isc increases so monotonous with temperature and then saturates to a maximum value before decreasing at high temperatures. The open circuit voltage Vco decreases linearly with temperature. The fill factor FF and efficiency, which are directly related with Isc and Vco follow the variations of the letters. The phenomena are explained by the behaviour of the mobility which is a temperature activated process.

Keywords: cells parameters, organic materials, solar cells, temperature effect

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7269 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri

Abstract:

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure, high temperature oxidation.

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7268 HPL-TE Method for Determination of Coatings Relative Total Emissivity Sensitivity Analysis of the Influences of Method Parameters

Authors: Z. Veselý, M. Honner

Abstract:

High power laser – total emissivity method (HPL-TE method) for determination of coatings relative total emissivity dependent on the temperature is introduced. Method principle, experimental and evaluation parts of the method are described. Computer model of HPL-TE method is employed to perform the sensitivity analysis of the effect of method parameters on the sample surface temperature in the positions where the surface temperature and radiation heat flux are measured.

Keywords: High temperature laser testing, measurement ofthermal properties, emissivity, coatings.

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7267 The Influence of RHA on the Mechanical Properties of Mortar Heated Up To High Temperature

Authors: Md. Harunur Rashid, S. M. Kamal Uddin, Sobura khatun

Abstract:

The performance of mortar subjected to high temperature and cooled in normal ambient temperature was examined in the laboratory to comply with the situation of burning & cooling of a structure. Four series of cubical (5 X 5 X 5 cm) mortar specimens were made from OPC, and partial replacement (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30%) of OPC by Rice Husk Ash (RHA) produced in the uncontrolled environment. These specimens were heated in electric furnace to 200, 300, 400, 500 and 7000C. The specimens were kept in normal room temperature for cooling. They were then tested for mechanical properties and the results shows that particular 20% RHA mixed mortar shows better fire performance.

Keywords: Fire performance, Rice Husk

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7266 Simultaneously Reduction of NOx and Soot Emissions in a DI Heavy Duty diesel Engine Operating at High Cooled EGR Rates

Authors: Sh. Khalilarya, S. Jafarmadar, H. Khatamnezhad, Gh. Javadirad, M. Pourfallah

Abstract:

One promising way to achieve low temperature combustion regime is the use of a large amount of cooled EGR. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on low temperature combustion process and emissions were investigated via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures in a DI diesel engine using high EGR rates. The results show when increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to reduced temperature combustion, soot emission after first increasing, is decreased beyond 40% EGR and get the lowest value at 58% EGR rate. Soot and NOx emissions are simultaneously decreased at advanced injection timing before 20.5 ºCA BTDC in conjunction with 58% cooled EGR rate in compared to baseline case.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, Low Temperature Combustion, High Cooled EGR Rates, Combustion, Emissions

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7265 Hot Workability of High Strength Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Jung Ho Moon, Woo Young Jung, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The hot deformation behavior of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with different chemical compositions under hot working conditions in the temperature range of 900 to 1100℃ and strain rate range from 0.1 to 10 s-1 has been studied by performing a series of hot compression tests. The dynamic materials model has been employed for developing the processing maps, which show variation of the efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate. Also the Kumar-s model has been used for developing the instability map, which shows variation of the instability for plastic deformation with temperature and strain rate. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with decreasing strain rate and increasing temperature in the steel with higher Cr and Ti content. High efficiency of power dissipation over 20 % was obtained at a finite strain level of 0.1 under the conditions of strain rate lower than 1 s-1 and temperature higher than 1050 ℃ . Plastic instability was expected in the regime of temperatures lower than 1000 ℃ and strain rate lower than 0.3 s-1. Steel with lower Cr and Ti contents showed high efficiency of power dissipation at higher strain rate and lower temperature conditions.

Keywords: High strength low alloys steels, hot workability, Dynamic materials model, Processing maps.

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7264 High-Temperature X-Ray Powder Diffraction of Secondary Gypsum

Authors: D. Gazdič, I. Hájková, M. Fridrichová

Abstract:

This paper involved the performance of a hightemperature X-Ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) of a sample of chemical gypsum generated in the production of titanium white; this gypsum originates by neutralizing highly acidic water with limestone suspension. Specifically, it was gypsum formed in the first stage of neutralization when the resulting material contains, apart from gypsum, a number of waste products resulting from the decomposition of ilmenite by sulphuric acid. So it can be described as red titanogypsum. By conducting the experiment using XRD apparatus Bruker D8 Advance with a Cu anode (λkα=1.54184 Å) equipped with high-temperature chamber Anton Paar HTK 16, it was possible to identify clearly in the sample each phase transition in the system of CaSO4·xH2O.

Keywords: Anhydrite, Gypsum, Bassanite, Hematite, XRD, Powder, High-Temperature.

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7263 Combination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Reverse Rolled TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: M. Veerasham

Abstract:

The refractory high entropy alloys are potential materials for high-temperature applications because of their ability to retain high strength up to 1600°C. However, their practical applications were limited due to poor elongation at room temperature. Therefore, decreasing the average valence electron concentrations (VEC) is an effective design strategy to improve the intrinsic ductility of refractory high entropy alloys. In this work, the high-entropy alloy TaNbHfZrTi was processed at room temperature by each step reverse rolling up to a 90% reduction in thickness. Subsequently, the reverse rolled 90% samples were utilized for annealing treatment at 800°C and 1000°C for 1 h to understand phase stability, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The reverse rolled 90% condition contains body-centered cubic (BCC) single-phase; upon annealing at 800 °C, the formation of secondary phase BCC-2 prevailed. The partial recrystallization and complete recrystallization microstructures were developed for annealed at 800°C and 1000°C, respectively. The reverse rolled condition and 1000°C annealed temperature exhibit extraordinary room temperature tensile properties with high ultimate tensile strength (UTS) without compromising loss of ductility called “strength-ductility” trade-off. The reverse-rolled 90% and annealing treatment carried out at temperature about 1000°C for 1 h consist of UTS 1430 MPa and 1556 MPa with an appreciable amount of 21% and 20% elongation, respectively. The development of hierarchical microstructure prevailed for the annealed 1000°C which led to the simultaneous increase in tensile strength and elongation.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, reverse rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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7262 The High Temperature Damage of DV – 2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni – Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV – 2 jet engines are made from Ni – based superalloy. This alloy was originally manufactured in the Soviet Union and referred as ŽS6K. For improving alloy’s high temperature resistance are blades coated with Al – Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An overcrossing working temperature range causes degradation of the protective coating as well as base material which microstructure is formed by the gamma matrix and strengthening phase gamma prime (forming small particles in the microstructure). Diffusion processes inside the material during exposition of the material to high temperatures causes mainly coarsening of the gamma prime particles, thus decreasing its strengthening effect. Degradation of the Al – Si coating caused its thickness growth. All the microstructure changes and coating layer thickness growth results in decreasing of the turbine blade operation lifetime.

Keywords: Alitize coating layer, gamma prime phase, high temperature degradation, Ni – base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade.

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7261 Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels

Authors: M. Münch, R. Brandt

Abstract:

Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.

Keywords: Activation parameters, creep mechanisms, high strength steels, low temperature creep.

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7260 Measurement and Analysis of Temperature Effects on Box Girders of Continuous Rigid Frame Bridges

Authors: Bugao Wang, Weifeng Wang, Xianwei Zeng

Abstract:

Researches on the general rules of temperature field changing and their effects on the bridge in construction are necessary. This paper investigated the rules of temperature field changing and its effects on bridge using onsite measurement and computational analysis. Guanyinsha Bridge was used as a case study in this research. The temperature field was simulated in analyses. The effects of certain boundary conditions such as sun radiance, wind speed, and model parameters such as heat factor and specific heat on temperature field are investigated. Recommended values for these parameters are proposed. The simulated temperature field matches the measured observations with high accuracy. At the same time, the stresses and deflections of the bridge computed with the simulated temperature field matches measured values too. As a conclusion, the temperature effect analysis of reinforced concrete box girder can be conducted directly based on the reliable weather data of the concerned area.

Keywords: continuous rigid frame bridge, temperature effectanalysis, temperature field, temperature field simulation

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7259 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnárová, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková

Abstract:

This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: Expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, high temperature, lightweight concrete, temperature-time curve ISO 834.

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7258 Ageing and Partial Discharge Patterns in Oil-Impregnated Paper and Pressboard Insulation at High Temperature

Authors: R. H. Khawaja, T. R. Blackburn, M. Rehan Arif

Abstract:

The power transformer is the most expensive, indispensable and arguably the most important equipment item in a power system Insulation failure in transformers can cause long term interruption to supply and loss of revenue and the condition assessment of the insulation is thus an important maintenance procedure. Oil-impregnated transformer insulation consists of mainly organic materials including mineral oil and cellulose-base paper and pressboard. The operating life of cellulose-based insulation, as with most organic insulation, depends heavily on its operating temperature rise above ambient. This paper reports results of a laboratory-based experimental investigation of partial discharge (PD) activity at high temperature in oil-impregnated insulation. The experiments reported here are part an on-going programme aimed at investigating the way in which insulation deterioration can be monitored and quantified by use of partial discharge diagnostics. Partial discharge patterns were recorded and analysed during increasing and decreasing phases of the temperature. The effect of ageing of the insulation on the PD patterns in oil and oil-impregnated insulation are also considered.

Keywords: Ageing, high temperature, PD, oil-impregnated insulation.

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7257 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures

Authors: A. A. Amer, H. M. Gad, I. A. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag

Abstract:

This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated preheated air temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Five air to fuel mass ratios of 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of preheated air temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the preheated air temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the preheated air temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the preheated air temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.

Keywords: Preheated air temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission index.

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