Search results for: Activation parameters
3803 Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels
Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.
Keywords: Activation parameters, creep mechanisms, high strength steels, low temperature creep.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 568
3802 Ultrasound-Assisted Pd Activation Process for Electroless Silver Plating
Authors: Chang-Myeon Lee, Min-Hyung Lee, Jin-Young Hur, Ho-Nyun Lee, Hong-Kee Lee
Abstract:An ultrasound-assisted activation method for electroless silver plating is presented in this study. When the ultrasound was applied during the activation step, the amount of the Pd species adsorbed on substrate surfaces was higher than that of sample pretreated with a conventional activation process without ultrasound irradiation. With this activation method, it was also shown that the adsorbed Pd species with a size of about 5 nm were uniformly distributed on the surfaces, thus a smooth and uniform coating on the surfaces was obtained by subsequent electroless silver plating. The samples after each step were characterized by AFM, XPS, FIB, and SEM.
Keywords: Cavitation, Electroless silver, Pd activation, UltrasonicProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2254
3801 The Comparation of Activation Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta (NFKB) at Rattus Novergicus Strain Wistar Induced by Various Duration High Fat Diet (HFD)
Authors: Titin Andri Wihastuti, Djanggan Sargowo
Abstract:NFκB is a transcription factor regulating many function of the vessel wall. In the normal condition , NFκB is revealed diffuse cytoplasmic expressionsuggesting that the system is inactive. The presence of activation NFκB provide a potential pathway for the rapid transcriptional of a variety of genes encoding cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules and procoagulatory factors. It is likely to play an important role in chronic inflamatory disease involved atherosclerosis. There are many stimuli with the potential to active NFκB, including hyperlipidemia. We used 24 mice which was divided in 6 groups. The HFD given by et libitum procedure during 2, 4, and 6 months. The parameters in this study were the amount of NFKB activation ,H2O2 as ROS and VCAM-1 as a product of NFKB activation. H2O2 colorimetryc assay performed directly using Anti Rat H2O2 ELISA Kit. The NFKB and VCAM-1 detection obtained from aorta mice, measured by ELISA kit and imunohistochemistry. There was a significant difference activation of H2O2, NFKB and VCAM-1 level at induce HFD after 2, 4 and 6 months. It suggest that HFD induce ROS formation and increase the activation of NFKB as one of atherosclerosis marker that caused by hyperlipidemia as classical atheroschlerosis risk factor.
Keywords: High Fat Diet, NFKB, H2O2, atherosclerosisProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1914
3800 Preparation and Characterisation of Chemically Activated Almond Shells by Optimization of Adsorption Parameters for Removal of Chromium VI from Aqueous Solutions
Authors: Inamullah Bhatti, Khadija Qureshi, R. A. Kazi, Abdul Khalique Ansari
Activated carbon was prepared from agricultural waste “almond (Prunus amygdalus) nut shells" by chemical activation with phosphoric acid as an activating agent at 450 °C for 24 hr soaking time. The physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The adsorption of chromium VI from aqueous solution on almond nut shell activated carbon (ASAC) was investigated. The adsorption process parameters pH, agitation speed, agitation time, adsorbent dose were optimized. 98% of Cr VI was sorbed at pH 2 and stirring speed 200 rpm.. Surface structure showed that ASAC has a spongy type structure showing large number of pores
Keywords: adsorption, sorbent , sorbate and activationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2323
3799 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry
Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin
Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.
Keywords: Flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 676
3798 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants
Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen
The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures for grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increase and decrease with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increase in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increase in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.
Keywords: Nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2484
3797 Effect of Fly Ash Fineness on Sorption Properties of Geopolymers Based On Liquid Glass
Authors: M. Zelinkova, M. Ondova
Abstract:Fly ash (FA) thanks to the significant presence of SiO2 and Al2O3 as the main components is a potential raw material for geopolymers production. Mechanical activation is a method for improving FA reactivity and also the porosity of final mixture; those parameters can be analysed through sorption properties. They have direct impact on the durability of fly ash based geopolymer mortars. In the paper, effect of FA fineness on sorption properties of geopolymers based on sodium silicate, as well as relationship between fly ash fineness and apparent density, compressive and flexural strength of geopolymers are presented. The best results in the evaluated area reached the sample H1, which contents the highest portion of particle under 20μm (100% of GFA). The interdependence of individual tested properties was confirmed for geopolymer mixtures corresponding to those in the cement based mixtures: higher is portion of fine particles < 20μm, higher is strength, density and lower are sorption properties. The compressive strength as well as sorption parameters of the geopolymer can be reasonably controlled by grinding process and also ensured by the higher share of fine particle (to 20μm) in total mass of the material.
Keywords: Alkali activation, geopolymers, fly ash, particle fineness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1948
3796 Estimation of the Moisture Diffusivity and Activation Energy in Thin Layer Drying of Ginger Slices
Authors: Ebru Kavak Akpinar, Seda Toraman
Abstract:In the present work, the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick-s diffusion equation. The results showed that increasing drying temperature accelerated the drying process. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective moisture diffusivity values varied from 2.807x10-10 to 6.977x10-10m2 s_1 over the temperature and velocity range. The temperature dependence of the effective moisture diffusivity for the thin layer drying of the ginger slices was satisfactorily described by an Arrhenius-type relationship with activation energy values of 19.313- 22.722 kJ.mol-1 within 40–70 °C and 0.8-3 ms-1 temperature range.
Keywords: Ginger, Drying, Activation energy, Moisture diffusivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2574
3795 Experimental Study of Adsorption Properties of Acid and Thermal Treated Bentonite from Tehran (Iran)
Authors: H. R. Moghadamzadeh, M. Naimi, H. Rahimzadeh, M. Ardjmand, V. M. Nansa, A. M. Ghanadi
Abstract:The Iranian bentonite was first characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and BET. The bentonite was then treated thermally between 150°C-250°C at 15min, 45min and 90min and also was activated chemically with different concentration of sulphuric acid (3N, 5N and 10N). Although the results of thermal activated-bentonite didn-t show any considerable changes in specific surface area and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), but the results of chemical treated bentonite demonstrated that such properties have been improved by acid activation process.
Keywords: Acid activation, Bentonite, CEC, Thermal activation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2714
3794 Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production
Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, E. Phakdeepataraphan, S. Watpathomsub, V. Kunakemakorn
In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.
Keywords: Activated Carbon, Palm Shells (PS), Jatropha Curcas Fruit Shells (JS), Agricultural Wastes, Biodiesel Wastes, Optimum Conditions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4032
3793 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation
Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono
The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.
Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, Pb2+, mangrove propagule.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 609
3792 Propagation of Viscous Waves and Activation Energy of Hydrocarbon Fluids
Authors: Ram N. Singh, Abraham K. George, Dawood N. Al-Namaani
Abstract:The Euler-s equation of motion is extended to include the viscosity stress tensor leading to the formulation of Navier– Stokes type equation. The latter is linearized and applied to investigate the rotational motion or vorticity in a viscous fluid. Relations for the velocity of viscous waves and attenuation parameter are obtained in terms of viscosity (μ) and the density (¤ü) of the fluid. μ and ¤ü are measured experimentally as a function of temperature for two different samples of light and heavy crude oil. These data facilitated to determine the activation energy, velocity of viscous wave and the attenuation parameter. Shear wave velocity in heavy oil is found to be much larger than the light oil, whereas the attenuation parameter in heavy oil is quite low in comparison to light one. The activation energy of heavy oil is three times larger than light oil.
Keywords: Activation Energy, Attenuation, Crude Oil, Navier- Stokes Equation, Viscosity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1893
3791 Geochemistry of Coal Ash in the Equatorial Wet Disposal System Environment
Authors: Kolay P. K., Singh H.
The coal utilization in thermal power plants in Malaysia has increased significantly which produces an enormous amount of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) or coal ash and poses severe disposal problem. As each coal ash is distinct, this study presents the geochemistry of the coal ash, in particular fly ash, produced from the combustion of local coal from Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia. The geochemical composition of the ash showed a high amount of silica, alumina, iron oxides and alkalies which was found to be a convenient starting material for the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites with the higher Na2O percentage being a positive factor for its alkaline activation; while the mineral phases are mainly quartz, mullite, calcium oxide, silica, and iron oxide hydrate. The geochemical changes upon alkali activation that can be predicted in a similar type of ash have been described in this paper. The result shows that this particular ash has a good potential for a high value industrial product like zeolites upon alkali activation.
Keywords: Coal ash, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, alkali activation, SEM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1941
3790 Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hb Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions
Authors: Mohamed M. M. Elnasharty, Azhar M. Elwan
Irradiation deposits energy through ionisation changing the bio-system’s net dipole, allowing the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of Moringa leaves extract, natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Having Hb molecule as a representative to the biosystem to be least invasive to the biosystem, dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. The results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of Moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule. This influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.
Keywords: Activation energy, DC conductivity, dielectric relaxation, enthalpy change, moringa leaves extract, relaxation time.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 536
3789 Visualized Characterization of Molecular Mobility for Water Species in Foods
Authors: Yasuyuki Konishi, Masayoshi Kobayashi
Abstract:Six parameters, the effective diffusivity (De), activation energy of De, pre-exponential factor of De, amount (ASOW) of self-organized water species, and amplitude (α) of the forced oscillation of the molecular mobility (1/tC) derived from the forced cyclic temperature change operation, were characterized by using six typical foods, squid, sardines, scallops, salmon, beef, and pork, as a function of the correlation time (tC) of the water molecule-s proton retained in the foods. Each of the six parameters was clearly divided into the water species A1 and A2 at a specified value of tC =10-8s (=CtC), indicating an anomalous change in the physicochemical nature of the water species at the CtC. The forced oscillation of 1/tC clearly demonstrated a characteristic mode depending on the food shown as a three dimensional map associated with 1/tC, the amount of self-organized water, and tC.
Keywords: molecular mobility, self-organization, hysteresis, water species A1 and A2, forced cyclic temperature change operation (FCTCO)Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1292
3788 Role of Sodium Concentration, Waiting Time and Constituents’ Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete
Authors: Muhammet M. Erdem, Erdoğan Özbay, Ibrahim H. Durmuş, Mustafa Erdemir, Murat Bikçe, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı
Abstract:In this paper, rheological behavior of alkali activated slag concretes were investigated depending on the sodium concentration (SC), waiting time (WT) after production, and constituents’ temperature (CT) parameters. For this purpose, an experimental program was conducted with four different SCs of 1.85, 3.0, 4.15, and 5.30%, three different WT of 0 (just after production), 15, and 30 minutes and three different CT of 18, 30, and 40 °C. Solid precursors are activated by water glass and sodium hydroxide solutions with silicate modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 1. Slag content and (water + activator solution)/slag ratio were kept constant in all mixtures. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values were defined for each mixture by using the ICAR rheometer. Test results were demonstrated that all of the three studied parameters have tremendous effect on the yield stress and plastic viscosity values of the alkali activated slag concretes. Increasing the SC, WT, and CT drastically augmented the rheological parameters. At the 15 and 30 minutes WT after production, most of the alkali activated slag concretes were set instantaneously, and rheological measurements were not performed.
Keywords: Alkali activation, slag, rheology, yield stress, plastic viscosity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 967
3787 A Self Supervised Bi-directional Neural Network (BDSONN) Architecture for Object Extraction Guided by Beta Activation Function and Adaptive Fuzzy Context Sensitive Thresholding
Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharyya, Paramartha Dutta, Ujjwal Maulik, Prashanta Kumar Nandi
Abstract:A multilayer self organizing neural neural network (MLSONN) architecture for binary object extraction, guided by a beta activation function and characterized by backpropagation of errors estimated from the linear indices of fuzziness of the network output states, is discussed. Since the MLSONN architecture is designed to operate in a single point fixed/uniform thresholding scenario, it does not take into cognizance the heterogeneity of image information in the extraction process. The performance of the MLSONN architecture with representative values of the threshold parameters of the beta activation function employed is also studied. A three layer bidirectional self organizing neural network (BDSONN) architecture comprising fully connected neurons, for the extraction of objects from a noisy background and capable of incorporating the underlying image context heterogeneity through variable and adaptive thresholding, is proposed in this article. The input layer of the network architecture represents the fuzzy membership information of the image scene to be extracted. The second layer (the intermediate layer) and the final layer (the output layer) of the network architecture deal with the self supervised object extraction task by bi-directional propagation of the network states. Each layer except the output layer is connected to the next layer following a neighborhood based topology. The output layer neurons are in turn, connected to the intermediate layer following similar topology, thus forming a counter-propagating architecture with the intermediate layer. The novelty of the proposed architecture is that the assignment/updating of the inter-layer connection weights are done using the relative fuzzy membership values at the constituent neurons in the different network layers. Another interesting feature of the network lies in the fact that the processing capabilities of the intermediate and the output layer neurons are guided by a beta activation function, which uses image context sensitive adaptive thresholding arising out of the fuzzy cardinality estimates of the different network neighborhood fuzzy subsets, rather than resorting to fixed and single point thresholding. An application of the proposed architecture for object extraction is demonstrated using a synthetic and a real life image. The extraction efficiency of the proposed network architecture is evaluated by a proposed system transfer index characteristic of the network.
Keywords: Beta activation function, fuzzy cardinality, multilayer self organizing neural network, object extraction,Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
3786 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel
Authors: S. N. Turkmen, A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin
Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.
Keywords: Activated carbon, chemical activation, microwave, pomegranate peel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2692
3785 Multilevel Activation Functions For True Color Image Segmentation Using a Self Supervised Parallel Self Organizing Neural Network (PSONN) Architecture: A Comparative Study
Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharyya, Paramartha Dutta, Ujjwal Maulik, Prashanta Kumar Nandi
The paper describes a self supervised parallel self organizing neural network (PSONN) architecture for true color image segmentation. The proposed architecture is a parallel extension of the standard single self organizing neural network architecture (SONN) and comprises an input (source) layer of image information, three single self organizing neural network architectures for segmentation of the different primary color components in a color image scene and one final output (sink) layer for fusion of the segmented color component images. Responses to the different shades of color components are induced in each of the three single network architectures (meant for component level processing) by applying a multilevel version of the characteristic activation function, which maps the input color information into different shades of color components, thereby yielding a processed component color image segmented on the basis of the different shades of component colors. The number of target classes in the segmented image corresponds to the number of levels in the multilevel activation function. Since the multilevel version of the activation function exhibits several subnormal responses to the input color image scene information, the system errors of the three component network architectures are computed from some subnormal linear index of fuzziness of the component color image scenes at the individual level. Several multilevel activation functions are employed for segmentation of the input color image scene using the proposed network architecture. Results of the application of the multilevel activation functions to the PSONN architecture are reported on three real life true color images. The results are substantiated empirically with the correlation coefficients between the segmented images and the original images.
Keywords: Colour image segmentation, fuzzy set theory, multi-level activation functions, parallel self-organizing neural network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1908
3784 Fuzzy Estimation of Parameters in Statistical Models
Authors: A. Falsafain, S. M. Taheri, M. Mashinchi
Abstract:Using a set of confidence intervals, we develop a common approach, to construct a fuzzy set as an estimator for unknown parameters in statistical models. We investigate a method to derive the explicit and unique membership function of such fuzzy estimators. The proposed method has been used to derive the fuzzy estimators of the parameters of a Normal distribution and some functions of parameters of two Normal distributions, as well as the parameters of the Exponential and Poisson distributions.
Keywords: Confidence interval. Fuzzy number. Fuzzy estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2131
3783 Investigation of Dissolution in Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions of Gypsum
Authors: Turan Çalban, Nursel Keskin, Sabri Çolak, Soner Kuşlu
Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a mineral that is found in large quantities in the Turkey and in the World. In this study, the dissolution of this mineral in the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions has been studied. The dissolution and dissolution kinetics of gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions will be useful for evaluating of solid wastes containing gypsum. Parameters such as diammonium hydrogen phosphate concentration, temperature and stirring speed affecting on the dissolution rate of the gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions were investigated. In experimental studies have researched effectiveness of the selected parameters. The dissolution of gypsum were examined in two parts at low and high temperatures. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solidfluid systems. The activation energy was found to be 34.58 kJ/mol and 44.45 kJ/mol for the low and the high temperatures. The dissolution of gypsum was controlled by chemical reaction both low temperatures and high temperatures.
Keywords: Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, Dissolution, Gypsum, Kinetics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1928
3782 Adsorption Capacities of Activated Carbons Prepared from Bamboo by KOH Activation
Authors: Samorn Hirunpraditkoon, Nathaporn Tunthong, Anotai Ruangchai, Kamchai Nuithitikul
The production of activated carbon from low or zero cost of agricultural by-products or wastes has received great attention from academics and practitioners due to its economic and environmental benefits. In the production of bamboo furniture, a significant amount of bamboo waste is inevitably generated. Therefore, this research aimed to prepare activated carbons from bamboo furniture waste by chemical (KOH) activation and determine their properties and adsorption capacities for water treatment. The influence of carbonization time on the properties and adsorption capacities of activated carbons was also investigated. The finding showed that the bamboo-derived activated carbons had microporous characteristics. They exhibited high tendency for the reduction of impurities present in effluent water. Their adsorption capacities were comparable to the adsorption capacity of a commercial activated carbon regarding to the reduction in COD, TDS and turbidity of the effluent water.
Keywords: Activated carbon, Bamboo, Water treatment, Chemical activation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4810
3781 Test of Moisture Sensor Activation Speed
Authors: I. Parkova, A. Vališevskis, A. Viļumsone
Nocturnal enuresis or bed-wetting is intermittent incontinence during sleep of children after age 5 that may precipitate wide range of behavioral and developmental problems. One of the non-pharmacological treatment methods is the use of a bed-wetting alarm system. In order to improve comfort conditions of nocturnal enuresis alarm system, modular moisture sensor should be replaced by a textile sensor. In this study behavior and moisture detection speed of woven and sewn sensors were compared by analyzing change in electrical resistance after solution (salt water) was dripped on sensor samples. Material of samples has different structure and yarn location, which affects solution detection rate. Sensor system circuit was designed and two sensor tests were performed: system activation test and false alarm test to determine the sensitivity of the system and activation threshold. Sewn sensor had better result in system’s activation test – faster reaction, but woven sensor had better result in system’s false alarm test – it was less sensitive to perspiration simulation. After experiments it was found that the optimum switching threshold is 3V in case of 5V input voltage, which provides protection against false alarms, for example – during intensive sweating.
Keywords: Conductive yarns, moisture textile sensor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2238
3780 Physical Parameters for Reliability Evaluation
This paper presents ageing experiments controlled by the evolution of junction parameters. The deterioration of the device is related to high injection effects which modified the transport mechanisms in the space charge region of the junction. Physical phenomena linked to the degradation of junction parameters that affect the devices reliability are reported and discussed. We have used the method based on numerical analysis of experimental current-voltage characteristic of the junction, in order to extract the electrical parameters. The simultaneous follow-up of the evolutions of the series resistance and of the transition voltage allow us to introduce a new parameter for reliability evaluation.
Keywords: High injection, junction, parameters, reliabilityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1232
3779 Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location
Authors: Marian Dragomir, Alin Dragomir
In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.
Keywords: Estimation algorithms, fault location, line parameters, simulation tool.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1015
3778 Significance of Bike-Frame Geometric Factors for Cycling Efficiency and Muscle Activation
Authors: Luen Chow Chan
With the advocacy of green transportation and green traveling, cycling has become increasingly popular nowadays. Physiology and bike design are key factors for the influence of cycling efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the significance of bike-frame geometric factors on cycling efficiency and muscle activation for different body sizes of non-professional Asian male cyclists. Participants who represented various body sizes, as measured by leg and back lengths, carried out cycling tests using a tailor-assembled road bike with different ergonomic design configurations including seat-height adjustments (i.e., 96%, 100%, and 104% of trochanteric height) and bike frame sizes (i.e., small and medium frames) for an assessable distance of 1 km. A specific power meter and self-developed adaptable surface electromyography (sEMG) were used to measure average pedaling power and cadence generated and muscle activation, respectively. The results showed that changing the seat height was far more significant than the body and bike frame sizes. The sEMG data evidently provided a better understanding of muscle activation as a function of different seat heights. Therefore, the interpretation of this study is that the major bike ergonomic design factor dominating the cycling efficiency of Asian participants with different body sizes was the seat height.
Keywords: Bike frame sizes, cadence rate, pedaling power, seat height.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 655
3777 Analytical and Statistical Study of the Parameters of Expansive Soil
Authors: A. Medjnoun, R. Bahar
The disorders caused by the shrinking-swelling phenomenon are prevalent in arid and semi-arid in the presence of swelling clay. This soil has the characteristic of changing state under the effect of water solicitation (wetting and drying). A set of geotechnical parameters is necessary for the characterization of this soil type, such as state parameters, physical and chemical parameters and mechanical parameters. Some of these tests are very long and some are very expensive, hence the use or methods of predictions. The complexity of this phenomenon and the difficulty of its characterization have prompted researchers to use several identification parameters in the prediction of swelling potential. This document is an analytical and statistical study of geotechnical parameters affecting the potential of swelling clays. This work is performing on a database obtained from investigations swelling Algerian soil. The obtained observations have helped us to understand the soil swelling structure and its behavior.
Keywords: Analysis, estimated model, parameter identification, Swelling of clay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1157
3776 The Removal of Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Synthetic Zeolite NaA
Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Yancho Hristov, Irena Markovska
In this study the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions on synthetic zeolite NaA was evaluated. The effect of solution temperature and the determination of the kinetic parameters of adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution on zeolite NaA is important in understanding the adsorption mechanism. Variables of the system include adsorption time, temperature (293- 328K), initial solution concentration and pH for the system. The sorption kinetics of the copper ions were found to be strongly dependent on pH (the optimum pH 3-5), solute ion concentration and temperature (293 – 328 K). It was found, the pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among all the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto ziolite NaA, suggesting that the adsorption mechanism might be a chemisorptions process The activation energy of adsorption (Ea) was determined as Cu(II) 13.5 kJ mol-1. The low value of Ea shows that Cu(II) adsorption process by zeolite NaA may be an activated chemical adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results show that the process of adsorption Cu(II) is spontaneous and endothermic process and rise in temperature favors the adsorption.
Keywords: Zeolite NaA, adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorptionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2056
3775 Microstructure Parameters of a Super-Ionic Sample (Csag2i3)
Authors: Samir Osman M., Mohammed Hassan S.
Sample of CsAg2I3 was prepared by solid state reaction. Then, microstructure parameters of this sample have been determined using wide angle X-ray scattering WAXS method. As well as, Cell parameters of crystal structure have been refined using CHEKCELL program. This analysis states that the lattice intrinsic strainof the sample is so small and the crystal size is on the order of 559Å.
Keywords: WAXS, Microstructure parameters, super-ionic conductor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1227
3774 The Impact of Process Parameters on the Output Characteristics of an LDMOS Device
Authors: M. A. Malakoutian, V. Fathipour, M. Fathipour, A. Mojab, M. M. Allame, M. Moradinasab
Abstract:In this paper, we have examined the effect of process parameter variation on the electrical characteristics of an LDMOS device. The rate of change in the electrical parameters such as cut off frequency, breakdown voltage and drain saturation current as a function of the process parameters is investigated
Keywords: LDMOS, Process Parameters, characteristics, parameter variation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1827