Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels
For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132625Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Z. Hamdi and M. Awang, "Improving Oil Recovery by Cold CO2 Injection: A Simulation Study," International Journal of Petroleum and Geoscience Engineering (IJPGE), vol. 1, pp. 167-177, 30/09/2013 2013.
 Z. Hamdi, M. Bt. Awang, and B. Moradi, "Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High Temperature Oil Reservoirs," presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, 2014.
 J. R. Christensen, E. H. Stenby, and A. Skauge, "Review of WAG Field Experience," SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 97-106, 04/01/2001 2001.
 S. Elgaghah, A. Y. Zekri, R. A. Almehaideb, and S. A. Shedid, "Laboratory Investigation of Influences of Initial Oil Saturation and Oil Viscosity on Oil Recovery by CO2 Miscible Flooding," presented at the EUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, London, U.K., 2007.
 S. Chen, H. Li, D. Yang, and P. Tontiwachwuthikul, "Optimal Parametric Design for Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) Process in a CO2-Miscible Flooding Reservoir," 2010/10/1/.
 A. Spivak, W. H. Garrison, and J. P. Nguyen, "Review of an Immiscible CO2 Project, Tar Zone, Fault Block V, Wilmington Field, California," SPE Reservoir Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 155-162, 05/01/1990 1990.
 T. D. Ma and G. K. Youngren, "Performance of Immiscible Water-Alternating-Gas (IWAG) Injection at Kuparuk River Unit, North Slope, Alaska."
 Z. Hamdi and M. Awang, "CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressure Determination of Pure Hydrocarbons in Different Temperatures Using Slimtube Simulations," Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, pp. 3159-3163, 2014.
 L. Minssieux, "WAG Flow Mechanisms in Presence of Residual Oil", Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/28623-MS, 1994
 A. Y. Zekri and A. A. Natuh, "Laboratory Study of the Effects of Miscible WAG Process on Tertiary Oil Recovery."
 J. R. Christensen, E. H. Stenby, and A. Skauge, "Compositional and Relative Permeability Hysteresis Effects on Near-Miscible WAG."
 J. A. Larsen and A. Skauge, "Simulation of the Immiscible WAG Process Using Cycle-Dependent Three-Phase Relative Permeabilities."
 M. I. J. v. Dijke, M. Lorentzen, M. Sohrabi, and K. S. Sorbie, "Pore-Scale Simulation of WAG Floods in Mixed-Wet Micromodels," SPE Journal, vol. 15, pp. pp. 238-247, 03/01/2010 2010.
 M. Sohrabi, D. H. Tehrani, A. Danesh, and G. D. Henderson, "Visualisation of Oil Recovery by Water Alternating Gas (WAG) Injection Using High Pressure Micromodels - Oil-Wet & Mixed-Wet Systems," presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2001.
 c. c. a. K. Mattax, j.r., "Ever see waterflood?," Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 59, 1961.
 R. Lenormand, C. Zarcone, and A. Sarr, "Mechanisms of the displacement of one fluid by another in a network of capillary ducts," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 135, pp. 337-353, 1983.
 M. Blunt and P. King, "Relative permeabilities from two- and three-dimensional pore-scale network modelling," Transport in Porous Media, vol. 6, pp. 407-433, 1991/08/01 1991.
 J. A. Billiotte, H. De Moegen, and P. Oren, "Experimental Micromodeling and Numerical Simulation of Gas/Water Injection/Withdrawal Cycles as Applied to Underground Gas Storage," 1993/4/1/.
 M. Sohrabi, G. D. Henderson, D. H. Tehrani, and A. Danesh, "Visualisation of Oil Recovery by Water Alternating Gas (WAG) Injection Using High Pressure Micromodels - Water-Wet System," presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 2000.
 M. Sohrabi, D. H. Tehrani, A. Danesh, and G. D. Henderson, "Visualization of Oil Recovery by Water-Alternating-Gas Injection Using High-Pressure Micromodels," SPE Journal, vol. 9, pp. 290-301, 09/01/2004 2004.
 Z. Hamdi, M. Awang, & A. Zamani, “Evaluating Liquid CO2 Injection Technique for Oil Recovery Using Core Flood Experiments”, Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/184092-MS, 2016.
 S. G. Sayegh and D. B. Fisher, "Enhanced Oil Recovery by CO2 Flooding in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous 2D Micromodels," Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, vol. 48, pp. 30-36, 08/01/2009 2009.
 P. Y. Zhang, S. Huang, S. Sayegh, and X. L. Zhou, "Effect of CO2 Impurities on Gas-Injection EOR Processes," 2004.