Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 877

Search results for: Functional properties

877 Effect of Process Parameters on the Proximate Composition, Functional and Sensory Properties

Authors: C. I. Omohimi, O. P. Sobukola, K. O. Sarafadeen, L.O. Sanni

Abstract:

Flour from Mucuna beans (Mucuna pruriens) were used in producing texturized meat analogue using a single screw extruder to monitor modifications on the proximate composition and the functional properties at high moisture level. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken design at three levels of barrel temperature (110, 120, 130°C), screw speed (100,120,140rpm) and feed moisture (44, 47, 50%) were used in 17 runs. Regression models describing the effect of variables on the product responses were obtained. Descriptive profile analyses and consumer acceptability test were carried out on optimized flavoured extruded meat analogue. Responses were mostly affected by barrel temperature and moisture level and to a lesser extent by screw speed. Optimization results based on desirability concept indicated that a barrel temperature of 120.15°C, feed moisture of 47% and screw speed of 119.19 rpm would produce meat analogue of preferable proximate composition, functional and sensory properties which reveals consumers` likeness for the product.

Keywords: Functional properties, mucuna bean flour, optimization, proximate composition, texturized meat analogue.

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876 Effect of Transglutaminase Cross Linking on the Functional Properties as a Function of NaCl Concentration of Legumes Protein Isolate

Authors: Nahid A. Ali, Salma H. Ahmed, ElShazali A. Mohamed, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E.Babiker

Abstract:

The effect of cross linking of the protein isolates of three legumes with the microbial enzyme transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13) on the functional properties at different NaCl concentration was studied. The reduction in the total free amino groups (OD340) of the polymerized protein showed that TGase treatment cross-linking the protein subunit of each legume. The solubility of the protein polymer of each legume was greatly improved at high concentration of NaCl. At 1.2 M NaCl the solubility of the native legumes protein was significantly decreased but after polymerization slightly improved. Cross linked proteins were less turbid on heating to higher temperature as compared to native proteins and the temperature at which the protein turns turbid also increased in the polymerized proteins. The emulsifying and foaming properties of the protein polymer were greatly improved at all concentrations of NaCl for all legumes.

Keywords: Functional properties, Legumes, Protein isolate, NaCl, Transglutaminase.

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875 The effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Nutritional Properties of Functional Products of the Green Banana

Authors: Magda S. Taipina, Maria L. Garbelotti, Mariana G.B. Cadioli

Abstract:

Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the tropics and subtropics. Brazil accounts for about 9% of the world banana production. However, the production losses are as high as 30 to 40% and even much higher in some developing countries. The green banana flour is a complex carbohydrate source, including a high total starch (73.4%), resistant starch (17.5%) with functional properties. Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation. It has been performed due to the need of extending the shelf - life of foods, whilst maintaining their safety and avoiding one of the main concerns: the nutrient loss. In this work data about on the effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical analysis (carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, alimentary fiber, moistures and ashes) of Brazilian functional products (biscuits and bread) of the green banana pulp are presented. The caloric value was calculated. No significant difference was observed between the samples of irradiated and non – irradiated green banana biscuits with the following determinations: carbohydrates, proteins, alimentary fiber and ashes. Only a small significant difference was found in lipids (macronutrients). The results of physical chemical analysis of the irradiated and non- irradiated green banana bread non- irradiated showed no significant difference with the following determinations: carbohydrates, lipids (macronutrients), moisture, ashes and caloric value. A small difference was found in proteins (macronutrients). Irradiation of functional products (biscuits and bread) with doses of 1 and 3kGy maintained their original macronutrients content, showing good radioresistance.

Keywords: Irradiation, Functional Food, Nutritional value.

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874 Asymptotic Properties of a Stochastic Predator-Prey Model with Bedding-DeAngelis Functional Response

Authors: Xianqing Liu, Shouming Zhong, Lijiang Xiang

Abstract:

In this paper, a stochastic predator-prey system with Bedding-DeAngelis functional response is studied. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov founction, sufficient conditions for species to be stochastically permanent is established. Meanwhile, we show that the species will become extinct with probability one if the noise is sufficiently large.

Keywords: Stochastically permanent, extinct, white noise, Bedding-DeAngelis functional response.

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873 Properties of a Stochastic Predator-Prey System with Holling II Functional Response

Authors: Xianqing Liu, Shouming Zhong, Fuli Zhong, Zijian Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, a stochastic predator-prey system with Holling II functional response is studied. First, we show that there is a unique positive solution to the system for any given positive initial value. Then, stochastically bounded of the positive solution to the stochastic system is derived. Moreover, sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability are also established. In the end, some simulation figures are carried out to support the analytical findings.

Keywords: stochastically bounded, global stability, Holling II functional response, white noise, Markovian switching.

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872 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for softwareintensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: Functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis.

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871 Physical Properties of Uranium Dinitride UN2 by Using Density Functional Theory (DFT and DFT+U)

Authors: T. Zergoug, S.H. Abaidia, A. Nedjar, M. Y. Mokeddem

Abstract:

Physical properties of uranium dinitride (UN2) were investigated in detail using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). To study the strong correlation effects due to 5f uranium valence electrons, the on-site coulomb interaction correction U via the Hubbard-like term (DFT+U) was employed. The UN2 structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties were calculated within DFT and Various U of DFT+U approach. The Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE.5.2) version of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to describe the exchange-correlation with the projector-augmented wave (PAW) pseudo potentials. A comparative study shows that results are improved by using the Hubbard formalism for a certain U value correction like the structural parameter. For some physical properties the variation versus Hubbard-U is strong like Young modulus but for others it is weakly noticeable such as bulk modulus. We noticed also that from U=7.5 eV, elastic results don’t agree with the cubic cell because of the C44 values which turn out to be negative.

Keywords: Ab initio, bulk modulus, DFT, DFT + U.

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870 Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound to Modify Millet Protein Concentrate Functionality

Authors: B. Nazari, M. A. Mohammadifar, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi, L. Mirmoghtadaie

Abstract:

Millets as a new source of plant protein were not used in food applications due to its poor functional properties. In this study, the effect of high intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, with contentious flow) (US) in 100% amplitude for varying times (5, 12.5, and 20 min) on solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability (FS) of millet protein concentrate (MPC) were evaluated. In addition, the structural properties of best treatments such as molecular weight and surface charge were compared with the control sample to prove the US effect. The US treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of the native MPC (65.8±0.6%) at all sonicated times with the maximum solubility that is recorded at 12.5 min treatment (96.9±0.82 %). The FC of MPC was also significantly affected by the US treatment. Increase in sonicated time up to 12.5 min significantly increased the FC of native MPC (271.03±4.51 ml), but higher increase reduced it significantly. Minimal improvements were observed in the FS of all sonicated MPC compared to the native MPC. Sonicated time for 12.5 min affected the EAI and ES of the native MPC more markedly than 5 and 20 min that may be attributed to higher increase in proteins tendency to adsorption at the oil and water interfaces after the US treatment at this time. SDS-PAGE analysis showed changes in the molecular weight of MPC that attributed to shearing forces created by cavitation phenomenon. Also, this phenomenon caused an increase in the exposure of more amino acids with negative charge in the surface of US treated MPC, that was demonstrated by Zetasizer data. High intensity ultrasound, as a green technology, can significantly increase the functional properties of MPC and can make this usable for food applications.

Keywords: Millet protein concentrate, Functional properties, Structural properties, High intensity ultrasound.

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869 Replicating Brain’s Resting State Functional Connectivity Network Using a Multi-Factor Hub-Based Model

Authors: B. L. Ho, L. Shi, D. F. Wang, V. C. T. Mok

Abstract:

The brain’s functional connectivity while temporally non-stationary does express consistency at a macro spatial level. The study of stable resting state connectivity patterns hence provides opportunities for identification of diseases if such stability is severely perturbed. A mathematical model replicating the brain’s spatial connections will be useful for understanding brain’s representative geometry and complements the empirical model where it falls short. Empirical computations tend to involve large matrices and become infeasible with fine parcellation. However, the proposed analytical model has no such computational problems. To improve replicability, 92 subject data are obtained from two open sources. The proposed methodology, inspired by financial theory, uses multivariate regression to find relationships of every cortical region of interest (ROI) with some pre-identified hubs. These hubs acted as representatives for the entire cortical surface. A variance-covariance framework of all ROIs is then built based on these relationships to link up all the ROIs. The result is a high level of match between model and empirical correlations in the range of 0.59 to 0.66 after adjusting for sample size; an increase of almost forty percent. More significantly, the model framework provides an intuitive way to delineate between systemic drivers and idiosyncratic noise while reducing dimensions by more than 30 folds, hence, providing a way to conduct attribution analysis. Due to its analytical nature and simple structure, the model is useful as a standalone toolkit for network dependency analysis or as a module for other mathematical models.

Keywords: Functional magnetic resonance imaging, multivariate regression, network hubs, resting state functional connectivity.

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868 Statistical Properties and Performance of Ecological Indices Based On Relative Abundances

Authors: Gebriel M. Shamia

Abstract:

The Improved Generalized Diversity Index (IGDI) has been proposed as a tool that can be used to identify areas that have high conservation value and measure the ecological condition of an area. IGDI is based on the species relative abundances. This paper is concerned with particular attention is given to comparisons involving the MacArthur model of species abundances. The properties and performance of various species indices were assessed. Both IGDI and species richness increased with sampling area according to a power function. IGDI were also found to be acceptable ecological indicators of conditions and consistently outperformed coefficient of conservatism indices.

Keywords: Statistical ecology, MacArthur model, Functional Diversity.

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867 Processing and Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Composite Baby Foods

Authors: Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel, Mehdi Ghiafeh Davoodi

Abstract:

The usefulness of weaning foods to meet the nutrient needs of children is well recognized, and most of them are precooked roller dried mixtures of cereal and/or legume flours which posses a high viscosity and bulk when reconstituted. The objective of this study was to formulate composite weaning foods using cereals, malted legumes and vegetable powders and analyze them for nutrients, functional properties and sensory attributes. Selected legumes (green gram and lentil) were germinated, dried and dehulled. Roasted wheat, rice, carrot powder and skim milk powder also were used. All the ingredients were mixed in different proportions to get four formulations, made into 30% slurry and dried in roller drier. The products were analyzed for proximate principles, mineral content, functional and sensory qualities. The results of analysis showed following range of constituents per 100g of formulations on dry weight basis, protein, 18.1-18.9 g ; fat, 0.78-1.36 g ; iron, 5.09-6.53 mg; calcium, 265-310 mg. The lowest water absorption capacity was in case of wheat green gram based and the highest was in rice lentil based sample. Overall sensory qualities of all foods were graded as “good" and “very good" with no significant differences. The results confirm that formulated weaning foods were nutritionally superior, functionally appropriate and organoleptically acceptable.

Keywords: malted legumes, weaning foods, nutrition, functional properties

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866 Functional and Efficient Query Interpreters: Principle, Application and Performances’ Comparison

Authors: Laurent Thiry, Michel Hassenforder

Abstract:

This paper presents a general approach to implement efficient queries’ interpreters in a functional programming language. Indeed, most of the standard tools actually available use an imperative and/or object-oriented language for the implementation (e.g. Java for Jena-Fuseki) but other paradigms are possible with, maybe, better performances. To proceed, the paper first explains how to model data structures and queries in a functional point of view. Then, it proposes a general methodology to get performances (i.e. number of computation steps to answer a query) then it explains how to integrate some optimization techniques (short-cut fusion and, more important, data transformations). It then compares the functional server proposed to a standard tool (Fuseki) demonstrating that the first one can be twice to ten times faster to answer queries.

Keywords: Data transformation, functional programming, information server, optimization.

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865 Glucose-dependent Functional Heterogeneity In β-TC-6 Murine Insulinoma

Authors: Darren C-W. Tan, Partha Roy

Abstract:

To determine if the murine insulinoma, β-TC-6, is a suitable substitute for primary pancreatic β-cells in the study of β- cell functional heterogeneity, we used three distinct functional assays to ascertain the cell line-s response to glucose or a glucose analog. These assays include: (i) a 2-NBDG uptake assay; (ii) a calcium influx assay, and; (iii) a quinacrine secretion assay. We show that a population of β-TC-6 cells endocytoses the glucose analog, 2- NBDG, at different rates, has non-uniform intracellular calcium ion concentrations and releases quinacrine at different rates when challenged with glucose. We also measured the Km for β-TC-6 glucose uptake to be 46.9 mM and the Vm to be 8.36 x 10-5 mmole/million cells/min. These data suggest that β-TC-6 might be used as an alternative to primary pancreatic β-cells for the study of glucose-dependent β-cell functional heterogeneity.

Keywords: 2-NBDG, Fura-2/AM, functional heterogeneity, quinacrine.

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864 Functional Lipids and Bioactive Compounds from Oil Rich Indigenous Seeds

Authors: Azza. S. Naik, S. S. Lele

Abstract:

Indian subcontinent has a plethora of traditional medicine systems that provide promising solutions to lifestyle disorders in an 'all natural way'. Spices and oilseeds hold prominence in Indian cuisine hence the focus of the current study was to evaluate the bioactive molecules from Linum usitatissinum (LU), Lepidium sativum (LS), Nigella sativa (NS) and Guizotia abyssinica (GA) seeds. The seeds were characterized for functional lipids like omega-3 fatty acid, antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds, dietary fiber and anti-nutritional factors. Analysis of the seeds revealed LU and LS to be a rich source of α-linolenic acid (41.85 ± 0.33%, 26.71 ± 0.63%), an omega 3 fatty acid (using GCMS). While studying antioxidant potential NS seeds demonstrated highest antioxidant ability (61.68 ± 0.21 TEAC/ 100 gm DW) due to the presence of phenolics and terpenes as assayed by the Mass spectral analysis. When screened for anti-nutritional factor cyanogenic glycoside, LS seeds showed content as high as 1674 ± 54 mg HCN / kg. GA is a probable good source of a stable vegetable oil (SFA: PUFA 1:2.3). The seeds showed diversified bioactive profile and hence further studies to use different bio molecules in tandem for the development of a possible 'nutraceutical cocktail' have been initiated..

Keywords: antioxidants, bioactives, functional lipids and oilseeds

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863 Effects of Functional Protein on Osteoblasts in Rat

Authors: Jie Sun, Guoyou Yin, Xianqing Zhang, Qiusheng She, Zhaohui Xie, Lanying Chen, Anfang Zhao

Abstract:

To assess the effects of functional protein on osteoblast, Large quantity of high-purity osteoblasts had been cultivated successfully by adopting sequential enzyme digestion. The growth curve of osteoblasts was protracted by cell counting. Proliferation of osteoblasts was assessed by MTT colorimetry. The experimental results show the functional protein can enhance proliferation, the properties of adhesion and discuss the effect of osteopontin on osteoblast.

Keywords: functional protein, osteoblast, MTT

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862 Chaotic Properties of Hemodynamic Responsein Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of Brain Activity

Authors: Ni Ni Soe , Masahiro Nakagawa

Abstract:

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a practical non-invasive optical technique to detect characteristic of hemoglobin density dynamics response during functional activation of the cerebral cortex. In this paper, fNIRS measurements were made in the area of motor cortex from C4 position according to international 10-20 system. Three subjects, aged 23 - 30 years, were participated in the experiment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of different motor activation tasks of the hemoglobin density dynamics of fNIRS signal. The chaotic concept based on deterministic dynamics is an important feature in biological signal analysis. This paper employs the chaotic properties which is a novel method of nonlinear analysis, to analyze and to quantify the chaotic property in the time series of the hemoglobin dynamics of the various motor imagery tasks of fNIRS signal. Usually, hemoglobin density in the human brain cortex is found to change slowly in time. An inevitable noise caused by various factors is to be included in a signal. So, principle component analysis method (PCA) is utilized to remove high frequency component. The phase pace is reconstructed and evaluated the Lyapunov spectrum, and Lyapunov dimensions. From the experimental results, it can be conclude that the signals measured by fNIRS are chaotic.

Keywords: Chaos, hemoglobin, Lyapunov spectrum, motorimagery, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), principal componentanalysis (PCA).

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861 Functional Food Knowledge and Perceptions among Young Consumers in Malaysia

Authors: G. Rezai, P.K.Teng, Z. Mohamed, M.N Shamsudin

Abstract:

Changing in consumers lifestyles and food consumption patterns provide a great opportunity in developing the functional food sector in Malaysia. There is only a little knowledge about whether Malaysian consumers are aware of functional food and if so what image consumers have of this product. The objective of this research is to determine the extent to which selected socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes influence consumers- awareness of functional food. A survey was conducted in the Klang Valley, Malaysia where 439 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The result shows that most respondents have a positive attitude towards functional food. For the binary logistic estimation, the results indicate that age, income and other factors such as concern about food safety, subscribing to cooking or health magazines, being a vegetarian and consumers who have been involved in a food production company significantly influence Malaysian consumers- awareness towards functional food.

Keywords: Binary logistic model, functional foods, knowledge and awareness, perception

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860 Systematic Functional Analysis Methods for Design Retrieval and Documentation

Authors: L. Zehtaban, D. Roller

Abstract:

Apart from geometry, functionality is one of the most significant hallmarks of a product. The functionality of a product can be considered as the fundamental justification for a product existence. Therefore a functional analysis including a complete and reliable descriptor has a high potential to improve product development process in various fields especially in knowledge-based design. One of the important applications of the functional analysis and indexing is in retrieval and design reuse concept. More than 75% of design activity for a new product development contains reusing earlier and existing design know-how. Thus, analysis and categorization of product functions concluded by functional indexing, influences directly in design optimization. This paper elucidates and evaluates major classes for functional analysis by discussing their major methods. Moreover it is finalized by presenting a noble hybrid approach for functional analysis.

Keywords: Functional analysis, design reuse, functionalindexing and representation.

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859 Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space

Authors: Bilal Saeed Raja, M. Ali Iqbal, Imran Ihsan

Abstract:

Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.

Keywords: Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.

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858 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Proprieties and Health Benefits

Authors: C. S. Marques, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos

Abstract:

The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand, the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: Tomato, lycopene, bioavailability, functional foods, carotenoids, cancer and antioxidants.

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857 On the Existence and Global Attractivity of Solutions of a Functional Integral Equation

Authors: Asadollah Aghajani, Yaghoub Jalilian

Abstract:

Using the concept of measure of noncompactness, we present some results concerning the existence, uniform local attractivity and global attractivity of solutions for a functional integral equation. Our results improve and extend some previous known results and based on weaker conditions. Some examples which show that our results are applicable when the previous results are inapplicable are also included.

Keywords: Functional integral equation, fixed-point, measure of noncompactness, attractive solution, asymptotic stability.

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856 Cereals' Products with Red Grape and Walnut Extracts as Functional Foods for Prevention of Kidney Dysfunction

Authors: Sahar Y. Al-Okbi, Doha A. Mohamed, Thanaa E. Hamed, Ahmed Ms Hussein

Abstract:

In the present research, two nutraceuticals made from red grape and walnut that showed previously to improve kidney dysfunction were incorporated separately into functional foods' bread made from barley and rice bran. The functional foods were evaluated in rats in which chronic renal failure was induced through feeding diet rich in adenine and phosphate (APD). The evaluation based on assessing kidney function, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and body weight gain. Results showed induction of chronic kidney failure reflected in significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor- α and low density lipoprotein cholesterol along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, and total antioxidant and creatinine clearance and body weight gain on feeding APD compared to control healthy group. Feeding the functional foods produced amelioration in the different biochemical parameters and body weight gain indicating improvement in kidney function.

Keywords: Functional food, kidney dysfunction, rats.

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855 Relations of Progression in Cognitive Decline with Initial EEG Resting-State Functional Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating whether the functional brain networks constructed using the initial EEG (obtained when patients first visited hospital) can be correlated with the progression of cognitive decline calculated as the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores between the latest and initial examinations. We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions, and the network analysis based on graph theory to investigate the organization of functional networks in aMCI. Our finding suggested that higher integrated functional network with sufficient connection strengths, dense connection between local regions, and high network efficiency in processing information at the initial stage may result in a better prognosis of the subsequent cognitive functions for aMCI. In conclusion, the functional connectivity can be a useful biomarker to assist in prediction of cognitive declines in aMCI.

Keywords: Cognitive decline, functional connectivity, MCI, MMSE.

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854 Application of Functional Network to Solving Classification Problems

Authors: Yong-Quan Zhou, Deng-Xu He, Zheng Nong

Abstract:

In this paper two models using a functional network were employed to solving classification problem. Functional networks are generalized neural networks, which permit the specification of their initial topology using knowledge about the problem at hand. In this case, and after analyzing the available data and their relations, we systematically discuss a numerical analysis method used for functional network, and apply two functional network models to solving XOR problem. The XOR problem that cannot be solved with two-layered neural network can be solved by two-layered functional network, which reveals a potent computational power of functional networks, and the performance of the proposed model was validated using classification problems.

Keywords: Functional network, neural network, XOR problem, classification, numerical analysis method.

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853 Density Functional Calculations of N-14 andB-11 NQR Parameters in the H-capped (5, 5)Single-Wall BN Nanotube

Authors: Ahmad Seif, Karim Zare, Asadallah Boshra, Mehran Aghaie

Abstract:

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to compute nitrogen-14 and boron-11 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy parameters in the representative model of armchair boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) for the first time. The considered model consisting of 1 nm length of H-capped (5, 5) single-wall BNNT were first allowed to fully relax and then the NQR calculations were carried out on the geometrically optimized model. The evaluated nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and asymmetry parameters for the mentioned nuclei reveal that the model can be divided into seven layers of nuclei with an equivalent electrostatic environment where those nuclei at the ends of tubes have a very strong electrostatic environment compared to the other nuclei along the length of tubes. The calculations were performed via Gaussian 98 package of program.

Keywords: Armchair Nanotube, Density Functional Theory, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance.

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852 An Experiment for Assessment of a “Functional Scenario-based“ Test Case Generation Method

Authors: Cencen Li, Shaoying Liu, Shin Nakajima

Abstract:

Specification-based testing enables us to detect errors in the implementation of functions defined in given specifications. Its effectiveness in achieving high path coverage and efficiency in generating test cases are always major concerns of testers. The automatic test cases generation approach based on formal specifications proposed by Liu and Nakajima is aimed at ensuring high effectiveness and efficiency, but this approach has not been empirically assessed. In this paper, we present an experiment for assessing Liu-s testing approach. The result indicates that this testing approach may not be effective in some circumstances. We discuss the result, analyse the specific causes for the ineffectiveness, and describe some suggestions for improvement.

Keywords: experiment, functional scenario, specification-based, testing.

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851 Dynamics of Functional Composition of a Brazilian Tropical Forest in Response to Drought Stress

Authors: Theodore N.S. Karfakis, Anna Andrade

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of functional composition of a non flooded Amazonian forest in response to drought stress in terms of diameter growth, recruitment and mortality. The survey was carried out in the continuous forest of the Biological dynamics of forest fragments project 90 km outside the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas Brazil. All stems >10 cm dbh where identified to species level and monitored in 18 one hectare permanent sample plots from 1981 to 2004.For statistical analysis all species where aggregated in three ecological guilds. Two distinct drought events occurred in 1983 and 1997. Results showed that more early successional species performed better than later successional ones. Response was significant for both events but for the 1997 event this was more pronounced possibly because of the fact that the event was in the middle of the dry rather than the wet period as was the 1983 one.

Keywords: Brazil, functional composition, drought, Amazonian non flooded forest.

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850 First-Principles Density Functional Study of Nitrogen-Doped P-Type ZnO

Authors: Abdusalam Gsiea, Ramadan Al-habashi, Mohamed Atumi, Khaled Atmimi

Abstract:

We present a theoretical investigation on the structural, electronic properties and vibrational mode of nitrogen impurities in ZnO. The atomic structures, formation and transition energies and vibrational modes of (NO3)i interstitial or NO4 substituting on an oxygen site ZnO were computed using ab initio total energy methods. Based on Local density functional theory, our calculations are in agreement with one interpretation of bound-excition photoluminescence for N-doped ZnO. First-principles calculations show that (NO3)i defects interstitial or NO4 substituting on an Oxygen site in ZnO are important suitable impurity for p-type doping in ZnO. However, many experimental efforts have not resulted in reproducible p-type material with N2 and N2O doping. by means of first-principle pseudo-potential calculation we find that the use of NO or NO2 with O gas might help the experimental research to resolve the challenge of achieving p-type ZnO.

Keywords: Density functional theory, nitrogen, p-type, ZnO.

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849 Comparative Effect of Self-Myofascial Release as a Warm-Up Exercise on Functional Fitness of Young Adults

Authors: Gopal Chandra Saha, Sumanta Daw

Abstract:

Warm-up is an essential component for optimizing performance in various sports before a physical fitness training session. This study investigated the immediate comparative effect of Self-Myofascial Release through vibration rolling (VR), non-vibration rolling (NVR), and static stretching as a part of a warm-up treatment on the functional fitness of young adults. Functional fitness is a classification of training that prepares the body for real-life movements and activities. For the present study 20male physical education students were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects was ranged from 20-25 years. The functional fitness variables undertaken in the present study were flexibility, muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. Each of the three warm-up protocol was administered on consecutive days, i.e. 24 hr time gap and all tests were administered in the morning. The mean and SD were used as descriptive statistics. The significance of statistical differences among the groups was measured by applying ‘F’-test, and to find out the exact location of difference, Post Hoc Test (Least Significant Difference) was applied. It was found from the study that only flexibility showed significant difference among three types of warm-up exercise. The observed result depicted that VR has more impact on myofascial release in flexibility in comparison with NVR and stretching as a part of warm-up exercise as ‘p’ value was less than 0.05. In the present study, within the three means of warm-up exercises, vibration roller showed better mean difference in terms of NVR, and static stretching exercise on functional fitness of young physical education practitioners, although the results were found insignificant in case of muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. These findings suggest that sports professionals and coaches may take VR into account for designing more efficient and effective pre-performance routine for long term to improve exercise performances. VR has high potential to interpret into an on-field practical application means.

Keywords: Self-myofascial release, functional fitness, foam roller, physical education.

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848 Density Functional Calculations of 27Al, 11B,and 14N and NQR Parameters in the (6, 0) BN_AlN Nanotube Junction

Authors: Morteza Farahani, Ahmad Seif, Asadallah Boshra, Hossein Aghaie

Abstract:

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to calculate aluminum-27, boron-11, and nitrogen-14 quadrupole coupling constant (CQ) in the representative considered model of (6, 0) boron nitride-aluminum nitride nanotube junction (BN-AlNNT) for the first time. To this aim, 1.3 nm length of BNAlN consisting of 18 Al, 18 B, and 36 N atoms was selected where the end atoms capped by hydrogen atoms. The calculated CQ values for optimized BN-AlNNT system reveal different electrostatic environment in the mentioned system. The calculations were performed using the Gaussian 98 package of program.

Keywords: Nanotube Junction, Density functional, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance.

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