Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31584
Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound to Modify Millet Protein Concentrate Functionality

Authors: B. Nazari, M. A. Mohammadifar, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi, L. Mirmoghtadaie


Millets as a new source of plant protein were not used in food applications due to its poor functional properties. In this study, the effect of high intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, with contentious flow) (US) in 100% amplitude for varying times (5, 12.5, and 20 min) on solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability (FS) of millet protein concentrate (MPC) were evaluated. In addition, the structural properties of best treatments such as molecular weight and surface charge were compared with the control sample to prove the US effect. The US treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of the native MPC (65.8±0.6%) at all sonicated times with the maximum solubility that is recorded at 12.5 min treatment (96.9±0.82 %). The FC of MPC was also significantly affected by the US treatment. Increase in sonicated time up to 12.5 min significantly increased the FC of native MPC (271.03±4.51 ml), but higher increase reduced it significantly. Minimal improvements were observed in the FS of all sonicated MPC compared to the native MPC. Sonicated time for 12.5 min affected the EAI and ES of the native MPC more markedly than 5 and 20 min that may be attributed to higher increase in proteins tendency to adsorption at the oil and water interfaces after the US treatment at this time. SDS-PAGE analysis showed changes in the molecular weight of MPC that attributed to shearing forces created by cavitation phenomenon. Also, this phenomenon caused an increase in the exposure of more amino acids with negative charge in the surface of US treated MPC, that was demonstrated by Zetasizer data. High intensity ultrasound, as a green technology, can significantly increase the functional properties of MPC and can make this usable for food applications.

Keywords: Millet protein concentrate, Functional properties, Structural properties, High intensity ultrasound.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1215


[1] S.M. Ahmed, Zh. Qing, Ch. Jing and Sh. Qun, “Millet Grains: Nutritional Quality, Processing, and Potential Health Benefits” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol.12. 2013.
[2] T. Awad, H. Moharram, O. Shaltout, D. Asker, and M. Youssef, “Applications of ultrasound in analysis, processing and quality control of food: A review”. Food Research International, 48(2), 410-427. 2012
[3] C. Arzeni, K. Martínez, P. Zema, A. Arias, O. Pérez, and A.M.R. Pilosof. “Comparative study of high intensity ultrasound effects on food proteins functionality”. Journal of Food Engineering, 108(3), 463-472. 2012.
[4] B. Karki, B. P. Lamsal, D. Grewell, A. L. Pometto, J. van Leeuwen, S. K. Khanal, and S. Jung, “Functional Properties of Soy Protein Isolates Produced from Ultrasonicated Defatted Soy Flakes”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86, 1021-1028, 2009.
[5] A. R Jambrak, V. Lelas, T. J. Mason, G. KrešićandM.Badanjak, “Physical properties of ultrasound treated soy proteins”. Journal of Food Engineering, 93(4), 386-393. 2009.
[6] L. Chen, J. S. Chen, L. Yu, K. G. Wu, X. L. Liu, and X. H. Chai “Modifications of Soy Protein Isolates Using Ultrasound Treatment for Improved Emulsifying Properties”. In Advanced Materials Research. Vol. 554, pp. 944-948: Trans Tech Publ. 2012.
[7] C. Arzeni, O. E. Pérez, and A. M. Pilosof, “Functionality of egg white proteins as affected by high intensity ultrasound”. Food Hydrocolloids, 29(2), 308-316. 2012.
[8] Mirmoghtadaie, L., Kadivar, M., &Shahedi, M. “Effect of Modified Oat Starch and Protein on Batter Properties and Quality of Cake”. Cereal chemistry, 86(6), 685-691. 2009.
[9] AOAC. “Association of Official Analytical Chemists”. In Official methods of analysis. Washington, DC: 14th ed. 1985.
[10] M. Britten, H. J. Giroux, and V. Gaudin, “Effect of pH during heat processing of partially hydrolyzed whey protein”. Journal of dairy science, 77(3), 676-684. 1994.
[11] L. Mirmoghtadaie, M. Kadivar, and M. Shahedi, “Effects of succinylation and deamidation on functional properties of oat protein isolate”. Food Chemistry, 114(1), 127-131. 2009.
[12] O. S. Lawal, “Functionality of native and succinylated Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus) protein concentrate”. Food Hydrocolloids, 19(1), 63-72. 2005.
[13] J. Sambrook, and D. W. Russell Molecular cloning. A laboratory manual. Third. Cold pring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York. 2001.
[14] A. R. Jambrak, T. J. Mason, V. Lelas, Z. Herceg, and I. L. Herceg “Effect of ultrasound treatment on solubility and foaming properties of whey protein suspensions”. Journal of Food Engineering, 86(2), 281-287. 2008.
[15] L. Jiang, J. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Wang. J. Liang, R. Wang, Y. Chen, and M. Zhang, “Effects of ultrasound on the structure and physical properties of black bean protein isolates”. Food Research International, 62, 595-601. 2014.
[16] N. A. Camino, O. E.Pérez, and A. M. Pilosof, “Molecular and functional modification of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose by high-intensity ultrasound”. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(4), 1089-1095. 2009.
[17] A. R. Jambrak, V. Lelas, T. J. Mason, and G. Krešic, “Ultrasonic effect on physicochemical and functional properties of a-lactalbumin”. Food Science and Technology, 43, 254-262. 2010.
[18] H. Zhang, I.P. Claver, K.X. Zhu, and Z. H., “The Effect of Ultrasound on the Functional Properties of Wheat Gluten”. Molecules, 16, 4231-4240. 2011.
[19] L. Chen, J. S. Chen, L. Yu, K. G. Wu, X. L. Liu, and X. H. Chai, “Modifications of Soy Protein Isolates Using Ultrasound Treatment for Improved Emulsifying Properties”. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 554, pp. 944-948): Trans Tech Publ. 2012.
[20] J. O'Sullivan, B. Murray, C. Flynn, and I. Norton, “The effect of ultrasound treatment on the structural, physical and emulsifying properties of animal and vegetable proteins”. Food Hydrocolloids. 2015.
[21] J. O'Sullivan, M. Arellano, R. Pichot, and I. Norton, “The effect of ultrasound treatment on the structural, physical and emulsifying properties of dairy proteins”. Food Hydrocolloids, 42, 386-396. 2014.
[22] S. Yanjun, C. Jianhang, Z. Shuwen, L. Hongjuan, L. Jing, L. Lu, H. Uluko, S. Yanling, C. Wenming, and G. Wupeng, “Effect of power ultrasound pre-treatment on the physical and functional properties of reconstituted milk protein concentrate”. Journal of Food Engineering, 124, 11-18. 2014.