Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 665

Search results for: Multiplicative functional

665 Multiplicative Functional on Upper Triangular Fuzzy Matrices

Authors: Liu Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, for an arbitrary multiplicative functional f from the set of all upper triangular fuzzy matrices to the fuzzy algebra, we prove that there exist a multiplicative functional F and a functional G from the fuzzy algebra to the fuzzy algebra such that the image of an upper triangular fuzzy matrix under f can be represented as the product of all the images of its main diagonal elements under F and other elements under G.

Keywords: Multiplicative functional, triangular fuzzy matrix, fuzzy addition operation, fuzzy multiplication operation.

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664 The Stability of Almost n-multiplicative Maps in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

Authors: E. Ansari-Piri, N. Eghbali

Abstract:

Let A and B be two linear algebras. A linear map ϕ : A → B is called an n-homomorphism if ϕ(a1...an) = ϕ(a1)...ϕ(an) for all a1, ..., an ∈ A. In this note we have a verification on the behavior of almost n-multiplicative linear maps with n > 2 in the fuzzy normed spaces

Keywords: Almost multiplicative maps, n-homomorphism maps, almost n-multiplicative maps, fuzzy normed space, stability.

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663 Improved Back Propagation Algorithm to Avoid Local Minima in Multiplicative Neuron Model

Authors: Kavita Burse, Manish Manoria, Vishnu P. S. Kirar

Abstract:

The back propagation algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a training algorithm consisting of a learning rate and a momentum factor. The major drawbacks of above learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds. The addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor reduces the convergence of the back propagation algorithm. We have applied the three term back propagation to multiplicative neural network learning. The algorithm is tested on XOR and parity problem and compared with the standard back propagation training algorithm.

Keywords: Three term back propagation, multiplicative neuralnetwork, proportional factor, local minima.

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662 Military Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Multiplicative Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Multiplicative multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) method is a systematic decision support system to aid decision makers reach appropriate decisions. The application of multiplicative MCDMA in the military aircraft selection problem is significant for proper decision making process, which is the decisive factor in minimizing expenditures and increasing defense capability and capacity. Nine military fighter aircraft alternatives were evaluated by ten decision criteria to solve the decision making problem. In this study, multiplicative MCDMA model aims to evaluate and select an appropriate military fighter aircraft for the Air Force fleet planning. The ranking results of multiplicative MCDMA model were compared with the ranking results of additive MCDMA, logarithmic MCDMA, and regrettive MCDMA models under the L2 norm data normalization technique to substantiate the robustness of the proposed method. The final ranking results indicate the military fighter aircraft Su-57 as the best available solution.

Keywords: Aircraft Selection, Military Fighter Aircraft Selection, Air Force Fleet Planning, Multiplicative MCDMA, Additive MCDMA, Logarithmic MCDMA, Regrettive MCDMA, Mean Weight, Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis

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661 Forecasting Malaria Cases in Bujumbura

Authors: Hermenegilde Nkurunziza, Albrecht Gebhardt, Juergen Pilz

Abstract:

The focus in this work is to assess which method allows a better forecasting of malaria cases in Bujumbura ( Burundi) when taking into account association between climatic factors and the disease. For the period 1996-2007, real monthly data on both malaria epidemiology and climate in Bujumbura are described and analyzed. We propose a hierarchical approach to achieve our objective. We first fit a Generalized Additive Model to malaria cases to obtain an accurate predictor, which is then used to predict future observations. Various well-known forecasting methods are compared leading to different results. Based on in-sample mean average percentage error (MAPE), the multiplicative exponential smoothing state space model with multiplicative error and seasonality performed better.

Keywords: Burundi, Forecasting, Malaria, Regressionmodel, State space model.

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660 Phase Noise Impact on BER in Space Communication

Authors: Ondrej Baran, Miroslav Kasal, Petr Vagner, Tomas Urbanec

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modeling and the evaluation of a multiplicative phase noise influence on the bit error ratio in a general space communication system. Our research is focused on systems with multi-state phase shift keying modulation techniques and it turns out, that the phase noise significantly affects the bit error rate, especially for higher signal to noise ratios. These results come from a system model created in Matlab environment and are shown in a form of constellation diagrams and bit error rate dependencies. The change of a user data bit rate is also considered and included into simulation results. Obtained outcomes confirm theoretical presumptions.

Keywords: Additive thermal noise, AWGN, BER, bit error rate, multiplicative phase noise, phase shift keying.

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659 Application of Functional Network to Solving Classification Problems

Authors: Yong-Quan Zhou, Deng-Xu He, Zheng Nong

Abstract:

In this paper two models using a functional network were employed to solving classification problem. Functional networks are generalized neural networks, which permit the specification of their initial topology using knowledge about the problem at hand. In this case, and after analyzing the available data and their relations, we systematically discuss a numerical analysis method used for functional network, and apply two functional network models to solving XOR problem. The XOR problem that cannot be solved with two-layered neural network can be solved by two-layered functional network, which reveals a potent computational power of functional networks, and the performance of the proposed model was validated using classification problems.

Keywords: Functional network, neural network, XOR problem, classification, numerical analysis method.

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658 Systematic Functional Analysis Methods for Design Retrieval and Documentation

Authors: L. Zehtaban, D. Roller

Abstract:

Apart from geometry, functionality is one of the most significant hallmarks of a product. The functionality of a product can be considered as the fundamental justification for a product existence. Therefore a functional analysis including a complete and reliable descriptor has a high potential to improve product development process in various fields especially in knowledge-based design. One of the important applications of the functional analysis and indexing is in retrieval and design reuse concept. More than 75% of design activity for a new product development contains reusing earlier and existing design know-how. Thus, analysis and categorization of product functions concluded by functional indexing, influences directly in design optimization. This paper elucidates and evaluates major classes for functional analysis by discussing their major methods. Moreover it is finalized by presenting a noble hybrid approach for functional analysis.

Keywords: Functional analysis, design reuse, functionalindexing and representation.

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657 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: Consumer choice, consumer knowledge, functional food, healthy lifestyle.

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656 Functional Food Knowledge and Perceptions among Young Consumers in Malaysia

Authors: G. Rezai, P.K.Teng, Z. Mohamed, M.N Shamsudin

Abstract:

Changing in consumers lifestyles and food consumption patterns provide a great opportunity in developing the functional food sector in Malaysia. There is only a little knowledge about whether Malaysian consumers are aware of functional food and if so what image consumers have of this product. The objective of this research is to determine the extent to which selected socioeconomic characteristics and attitudes influence consumers- awareness of functional food. A survey was conducted in the Klang Valley, Malaysia where 439 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The result shows that most respondents have a positive attitude towards functional food. For the binary logistic estimation, the results indicate that age, income and other factors such as concern about food safety, subscribing to cooking or health magazines, being a vegetarian and consumers who have been involved in a food production company significantly influence Malaysian consumers- awareness towards functional food.

Keywords: Binary logistic model, functional foods, knowledge and awareness, perception

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655 Effects of Functional Protein on Osteoblasts in Rat

Authors: Jie Sun, Guoyou Yin, Xianqing Zhang, Qiusheng She, Zhaohui Xie, Lanying Chen, Anfang Zhao

Abstract:

To assess the effects of functional protein on osteoblast, Large quantity of high-purity osteoblasts had been cultivated successfully by adopting sequential enzyme digestion. The growth curve of osteoblasts was protracted by cell counting. Proliferation of osteoblasts was assessed by MTT colorimetry. The experimental results show the functional protein can enhance proliferation, the properties of adhesion and discuss the effect of osteopontin on osteoblast.

Keywords: functional protein, osteoblast, MTT

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654 Hyers-Ulam Stability of Functional Equationf(3x) = 4f(3x − 3) + f(3x − 6)

Authors: Soon-Mo Jung

Abstract:

The functional equation f(3x) = 4f(3x-3)+f(3x- 6) will be solved and its Hyers-Ulam stability will be also investigated in the class of functions f : R → X, where X is a real Banach space.

Keywords: Functional equation, Lucas sequence of the first kind, Hyers-Ulam stability.

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653 Relations of Progression in Cognitive Decline with Initial EEG Resting-State Functional Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating whether the functional brain networks constructed using the initial EEG (obtained when patients first visited hospital) can be correlated with the progression of cognitive decline calculated as the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores between the latest and initial examinations. We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions, and the network analysis based on graph theory to investigate the organization of functional networks in aMCI. Our finding suggested that higher integrated functional network with sufficient connection strengths, dense connection between local regions, and high network efficiency in processing information at the initial stage may result in a better prognosis of the subsequent cognitive functions for aMCI. In conclusion, the functional connectivity can be a useful biomarker to assist in prediction of cognitive declines in aMCI.

Keywords: Cognitive decline, functional connectivity, MCI, MMSE.

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652 Conflicts Identification among Non-functional Requirements using Matrix Maps

Authors: Abdul H, Jamil A, Imran U

Abstract:

Conflicts identification among non-functional requirements is often identified intuitively which impairs conflict analysis practices. This paper proposes a new model to identify conflicts among non-functional requirements. The proposed model uses the matrix mechanism to identify the quality based conflicts among non-functional requirements. The potential conflicts are identified through the mapping of low level conflicting quality attributes to low level functionalities using the matrices. The proposed model achieves the identification of conflicts among product and process requirements, identifies false conflicts, decreases the documentation overhead, and maintains transparency of identified conflicts. The attributes are not concomitantly taken into account by current models in practice.

Keywords: Conflict Identification, Matrix Maps, Non-functional Requirements, Requirements Analysis, Software Engineering

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651 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for softwareintensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: Functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis.

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650 A Functional Interpretation of Quantum Theory

Authors: Hans H. Diel

Abstract:

In this paper a functional interpretation of quantum theory (QT) with emphasis on quantum field theory (QFT) is proposed. Besides the usual statements on relations between a functions initial state and final state, a functional interpretation also contains a description of the dynamic evolution of the function. That is, it describes how things function. The proposed functional interpretation of QT/QFT has been developed in the context of the author-s work towards a computer model of QT with the goal of supporting the largest possible scope of QT concepts. In the course of this work, the author encountered a number of problems inherent in the translation of quantum physics into a computer program. He came to the conclusion that the goal of supporting the major QT concepts can only be satisfied, if the present model of QT is supplemented by a "functional interpretation" of QT/QFT. The paper describes a proposal for that

Keywords: Computability, Foundation of Quantum Mechanics, Measurement Problem, Models of Physics.

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649 Functional and Efficient Query Interpreters: Principle, Application and Performances’ Comparison

Authors: Laurent Thiry, Michel Hassenforder

Abstract:

This paper presents a general approach to implement efficient queries’ interpreters in a functional programming language. Indeed, most of the standard tools actually available use an imperative and/or object-oriented language for the implementation (e.g. Java for Jena-Fuseki) but other paradigms are possible with, maybe, better performances. To proceed, the paper first explains how to model data structures and queries in a functional point of view. Then, it proposes a general methodology to get performances (i.e. number of computation steps to answer a query) then it explains how to integrate some optimization techniques (short-cut fusion and, more important, data transformations). It then compares the functional server proposed to a standard tool (Fuseki) demonstrating that the first one can be twice to ten times faster to answer queries.

Keywords: Data transformation, functional programming, information server, optimization.

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648 Observation of the Correlations between Pair Wise Interaction and Functional Organization of the Proteins, in the Protein Interaction Network of Saccaromyces Cerevisiae

Authors: N. Tuncbag, T. Haliloglu, O. Keskin

Abstract:

Understanding the cell's large-scale organization is an interesting task in computational biology. Thus, protein-protein interactions can reveal important organization and function of the cell. Here, we investigated the correspondence between protein interactions and function for the yeast. We obtained the correlations among the set of proteins. Then these correlations are clustered using both the hierarchical and biclustering methods. The detailed analyses of proteins in each cluster were carried out by making use of their functional annotations. As a result, we found that some functional classes appear together in almost all biclusters. On the other hand, in hierarchical clustering, the dominancy of one functional class is observed. In brief, from interaction data to function, some correlated results are noticed about the relationship between interaction and function which might give clues about the organization of the proteins.

Keywords: Pair-wise protein interactions, DIP database, functional correlations, biclustering.

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647 Functional Store Image and Corporate Social Responsibility Image: A Congruity Analysis on Store Loyalty

Authors: Jamaliah Mohd. Yusof, Rosidah Musa, Sofiah Abd. Rahman

Abstract:

With previous studies that examined the importance of functional store image and CSR, this study is aimed at examining their effects in the self-congruity model in influencing store loyalty. In particular, this study developed and tested a structural model in the context of retailing industry on the self-congruity theory. Whilst much of the self-congruity studies have incorporated functional store image, there has been lack of studies that examined social responsibility image of retail stores in the self-congruity studies. Findings indicate that self-congruity influence on store loyalty was mediated by both functional store image and social responsibility image. In influencing store loyalty, the findings have shown that social responsibility image has a stronger influence on store loyalty than functional store image. This study offers important findings and implications for future research as it presents a new framework on the importance of social responsibility image.

Keywords: Self-congruity, functional store image, social responsibility image, store loyalty

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646 Glucose-dependent Functional Heterogeneity In β-TC-6 Murine Insulinoma

Authors: Darren C-W. Tan, Partha Roy

Abstract:

To determine if the murine insulinoma, β-TC-6, is a suitable substitute for primary pancreatic β-cells in the study of β- cell functional heterogeneity, we used three distinct functional assays to ascertain the cell line-s response to glucose or a glucose analog. These assays include: (i) a 2-NBDG uptake assay; (ii) a calcium influx assay, and; (iii) a quinacrine secretion assay. We show that a population of β-TC-6 cells endocytoses the glucose analog, 2- NBDG, at different rates, has non-uniform intracellular calcium ion concentrations and releases quinacrine at different rates when challenged with glucose. We also measured the Km for β-TC-6 glucose uptake to be 46.9 mM and the Vm to be 8.36 x 10-5 mmole/million cells/min. These data suggest that β-TC-6 might be used as an alternative to primary pancreatic β-cells for the study of glucose-dependent β-cell functional heterogeneity.

Keywords: 2-NBDG, Fura-2/AM, functional heterogeneity, quinacrine.

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645 Spatial Resilience of the Ageing Population in the Romanian Functional Urban Areas

Authors: Marinela Istrate, Ionel Muntele, Alexandru Bănică

Abstract:

The authors propose the identification, analysis and prognosis of the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the elderly population in the functional urban areas. The present paper takes into account the analysis of some representative indicators (the weight of the elderly population, ageing index, dynamic index of economic ageing of productive population etc.) and the elaboration of an integrated indicator that would help differentiate the population ageing forms in the 48 functional urban areas that were defined based on demographic and social-economic criteria for all large and medium cities in Romania.

Keywords: Ageing, demographic transition, functional urban areas, spatial resilience.

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644 Statistical Modeling of Local Area Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Fading noise degrades the performance of cellular communication, most notably in femto- and pico-cells in 3G and 4G systems. When the wireless channel consists of a small number of scattering paths, the statistics of fading noise is not analytically tractable and poses a serious challenge to developing closed canonical forms that can be analysed and used in the design of efficient and optimal receivers. In this context, noise is multiplicative and is referred to as stochastically local fading. In many analytical investigation of multiplicative noise, the exponential or Gamma statistics are invoked. More recent advances by the author of this paper utilized a Poisson modulated-weighted generalized Laguerre polynomials with controlling parameters and uncorrelated noise assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of multidiversity stochastically local area fading channel when the channel consists of randomly distributed Rayleigh and Rician scattering centers with a coherent Nakagami-distributed line of sight component and an underlying doubly stochastic Poisson process driven by a lognormal intensity. These combined statistics form a unifying triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process model.

Keywords: Cellular communication, femto- and pico-cells, stochastically local area fading channel, triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process.

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643 H∞ Approach to Functional Projective Synchronization for Chaotic Systems with Disturbances

Authors: S. M. Lee, J. H. Park, H. Y. Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for functional projective H∞ synchronization problem of chaotic systems with external disturbance. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) formulation, the novel feedback controller is established to not only guarantee stable synchronization of both drive and response systems but also reduce the effect of external disturbance to an H∞ norm constraint.

Keywords: Chaotic systems, functional projective H∞ synchronization, LMI.

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642 A Functional Framework for Large Scale Application Software Systems

Authors: Han-hua Lu, Shun-yi Zhang, Yong Zheng, Ya-shi Wang, Li-juan Min

Abstract:

From the perspective of system of systems (SoS) and emergent behaviors, this paper describes large scale application software systems, and proposes framework methods to further depict systems- functional and non-functional characteristics. Besides, this paper also specifically discusses some functional frameworks. In the end, the framework-s applications in system disintegrations, system architecture and stable intermediate forms are additionally dealt with in this in building, deployment and maintenance of large scale software applications.

Keywords: application software system, framework methods, system of systems, emergent behaviors

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641 Determining the Minimum Threshold for the Functional Relatedness of Inner-Outer Class

Authors: Sim Hui Tee, Rodziah Atan, Abdul Azim Abd Ghani

Abstract:

Inner class is a specialized class that defined within a regular outer class. It is used in some programming languages such as Java to carry out the task which is related to its outer class. The functional relatedness between inner class and outer class is always the main concern of defining an inner class. However, excessive use of inner class could sabotage the class cohesiveness. In addition, excessive inner class leads to the difficulty of software maintenance and comprehension. Our research aims at determining the minimum threshold for the functional relatedness of inner-outer class. Such minimum threshold is a guideline for removing or relocating the excessive inner class. Our research provides a feasible way for software developers to define inner classes which are functionally related to the outer class.

Keywords: Cohesion, functional relatedness of inner-outer class, inner class.

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640 Mining Frequent Patterns with Functional Programming

Authors: Nittaya Kerdprasop, Kittisak Kerdprasop

Abstract:

Frequent patterns are patterns such as sets of features or items that appear in data frequently. Finding such frequent patterns has become an important data mining task because it reveals associations, correlations, and many other interesting relationships hidden in a dataset. Most of the proposed frequent pattern mining algorithms have been implemented with imperative programming languages such as C, Cµ, Java. The imperative paradigm is significantly inefficient when itemset is large and the frequent pattern is long. We suggest a high-level declarative style of programming using a functional language. Our supposition is that the problem of frequent pattern discovery can be efficiently and concisely implemented via a functional paradigm since pattern matching is a fundamental feature supported by most functional languages. Our frequent pattern mining implementation using the Haskell language confirms our hypothesis about conciseness of the program. The performance studies on speed and memory usage support our intuition on efficiency of functional language.

Keywords: Association, frequent pattern mining, functionalprogramming, pattern matching.

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639 HaskellFL: A Tool for Detecting Logical Errors in Haskell

Authors: Vanessa Vasconcelos, Mariza A. S. Bigonha

Abstract:

Understanding and using the functional paradigm is a challenge for many programmers. Looking for logical errors in code may take a lot of a developer’s time when a program grows in size. In order to facilitate both processes, this paper presents HaskellFL, a tool that uses fault localization techniques to locate a logical error in Haskell code. The Haskell subset used in this work is sufficiently expressive for those studying Functional Programming to get immediate help debugging their code and to answer questions about key concepts associated with the functional paradigm. HaskellFL was tested against Functional Programming assignments submitted by students enrolled at the Functional Programming class at the Federal University of Minas Gerais and against exercises from the Exercism Haskell track that are publicly available in GitHub. This work also evaluated the effectiveness of two fault localization techniques, Tarantula and Ochiai, in the Haskell context. Furthermore, the EXAM score was chosen to evaluate the tool’s effectiveness, and results showed that HaskellFL reduced the effort needed to locate an error for all tested scenarios. The results also showed that the Ochiai method was more effective than Tarantula.

Keywords: Debug, fault localization, functional programming, Haskell.

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638 Pain and Lumbar Muscle Activation before and after Functional Task in Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Lídia E. O. Cruz, Adriano P. C. Calvo, Renato J. Soares, Regiane A. Carvalho

Abstract:

Individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain may present altered movement patterns during functional activities. However, muscle behavior before and after performing a functional task with different load conditions is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to analyze lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground (with and without load) in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain. 20 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 20 healthy subjects participated in this study. A surface electromyography was performed in the ilio-costal, longissimus and multifidus muscles to evaluate lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground, with and without load. The symptomatic participants had greater lumbar muscle activation compared to the asymptomatic group, more evident in performing the task without load, with statistically significant difference (p = 0,033) between groups for the right multifidus muscle. This study showed that individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain have higher muscle activation before and after performing a functional task compared to healthy participants.

Keywords: Chronic low back pain, functional task, lumbar muscles, muscle activity.

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637 Manufacturing Dispersions Based Simulation and Synthesis of Design Tolerances

Authors: Nassima Cheikh, Abdelmadjid Cheikh, Said Hamou

Abstract:

The objective of this work which is based on the approach of simultaneous engineering is to contribute to the development of a CIM tool for the synthesis of functional design dimensions expressed by average values and tolerance intervals. In this paper, the dispersions method known as the Δl method which proved reliable in the simulation of manufacturing dimensions is used to develop a methodology for the automation of the simulation. This methodology is constructed around three procedures. The first procedure executes the verification of the functional requirements by automatically extracting the functional dimension chains in the mechanical sub-assembly. Then a second procedure performs an optimization of the dispersions on the basis of unknown variables. The third procedure uses the optimized values of the dispersions to compute the optimized average values and tolerances of the functional dimensions in the chains. A statistical and cost based approach is integrated in the methodology in order to take account of the capabilities of the manufacturing processes and to distribute optimal values among the individual components of the chains.

Keywords: functional tolerances, manufacturing dispersions, simulation, CIM.

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636 On the Existence and Global Attractivity of Solutions of a Functional Integral Equation

Authors: Asadollah Aghajani, Yaghoub Jalilian

Abstract:

Using the concept of measure of noncompactness, we present some results concerning the existence, uniform local attractivity and global attractivity of solutions for a functional integral equation. Our results improve and extend some previous known results and based on weaker conditions. Some examples which show that our results are applicable when the previous results are inapplicable are also included.

Keywords: Functional integral equation, fixed-point, measure of noncompactness, attractive solution, asymptotic stability.

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