Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 474

Search results for: Protein isolate

474 Effect of Transglutaminase Cross Linking on the Functional Properties as a Function of NaCl Concentration of Legumes Protein Isolate

Authors: Nahid A. Ali, Salma H. Ahmed, ElShazali A. Mohamed, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E.Babiker

Abstract:

The effect of cross linking of the protein isolates of three legumes with the microbial enzyme transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13) on the functional properties at different NaCl concentration was studied. The reduction in the total free amino groups (OD340) of the polymerized protein showed that TGase treatment cross-linking the protein subunit of each legume. The solubility of the protein polymer of each legume was greatly improved at high concentration of NaCl. At 1.2 M NaCl the solubility of the native legumes protein was significantly decreased but after polymerization slightly improved. Cross linked proteins were less turbid on heating to higher temperature as compared to native proteins and the temperature at which the protein turns turbid also increased in the polymerized proteins. The emulsifying and foaming properties of the protein polymer were greatly improved at all concentrations of NaCl for all legumes.

Keywords: Functional properties, Legumes, Protein isolate, NaCl, Transglutaminase.

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473 Hydrolysis of Hull-Less Pumpkin Oil Cake Protein Isolate by Pepsin

Authors: Ivan Živanović, Žužana Vaštag, Senka Popović, Ljiljana Popović, Draginja Peričin

Abstract:

The present work represents an investigation of the hydrolysis of hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo L.) oil cake protein isolate (PuOC PI) by pepsin. To examine the effectiveness and suitability of pepsin towards PuOC PI the kinetic parameters for pepsin on PuOC PI were determined and then, the hydrolysis process was studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The hydrolysis was carried out at temperature of 30°C and pH 3.00. Time and initial enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) at three levels were selected as the independent parameters. The degree of hydrolysis, DH, was mesuared after 20, 30 and 40 minutes, at initial E/S of 0.7, 1 and 1.3 mA/mg proteins. Since the proposed second-order polynomial model showed good fit with the experimental data (R2 = 0.9822), the obtained mathematical model could be used for monitoring the hydrolysis of PuOC PI by pepsin, under studied experimental conditions, varying the time and initial E/S. To achieve the highest value of DH (39.13 %), the obtained optimum conditions for time and initial E/S were 30 min and 1.024 mA/mg proteins.

Keywords: Enzymatic hydrolysis, Pepsin, Pumpkin (CucurbitaPepo L.) oil cake protein isolate, Response surface methodology.

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472 Inulinase Immobilization on Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared with Soy Protein Isolate Conjugated Bovine Serum Albumin for High Fructose Syrup Production

Authors: Homa Torabizadeh, Mohaddeseh Mikani

Abstract:

Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs/Fe3O4) covered with soy protein isolate (SPI/Fe3O4) functionalized by bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles. MNPs are promising enzyme carriers because they separate easily under external magnetic fields and have enhanced immobilized enzyme reusability. As MNPs aggregate simply, surface coating strategy was employed. SPI functionalized by BSA was a suitable candidate for nanomagnetite coating due to its superior biocompatibility and hydrophilicity. Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles were synthesized as a novel carrier with narrow particle size distribution. Step by step fabrication monitoring of Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles was performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results illustrated that nanomagnetite with the spherical morphology was well monodispersed with the diameter of about 35 nm. The average size of the SPI-BSA nanoparticles was 80 to 90 nm, and their zeta potential was around −34 mV. Finally, the mean diameter of fabricated Fe3O4@SPI-BSA NPs was less than 120 nm. Inulinase enzyme from Aspergillus niger was covalently immobilized through gluteraldehyde on Fe3O4@SPI-BSA nanoparticles successfully. Fourier transform infrared spectra and field emission scanning electron microscopy images provided sufficient proof for the enzyme immobilization on the nanoparticles with 80% enzyme loading.

Keywords: High fructose syrup, inulinase immobilization, functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, soy protein isolate.

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471 Protein-Protein Interaction Detection Based on Substring Sensitivity Measure

Authors: Nazar Zaki, Safaai Deris, Hany Alashwal

Abstract:

Detecting protein-protein interactions is a central problem in computational biology and aberrant such interactions may have implicated in a number of neurological disorders. As a result, the prediction of protein-protein interactions has recently received considerable attention from biologist around the globe. Computational tools that are capable of effectively identifying protein-protein interactions are much needed. In this paper, we propose a method to detect protein-protein interaction based on substring similarity measure. Two protein sequences may interact by the mean of the similarities of the substrings they contain. When applied on the currently available protein-protein interaction data for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the proposed method delivered reasonable improvement over the existing ones.

Keywords: Protein-Protein Interaction, support vector machine, feature extraction, pairwise alignment, Smith-Waterman score.

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470 An Algebra for Protein Structure Data

Authors: Yanchao Wang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman

Abstract:

This paper presents an algebraic approach to optimize queries in domain-specific database management system for protein structure data. The approach involves the introduction of several protein structure specific algebraic operators to query the complex data stored in an object-oriented database system. The Protein Algebra provides an extensible set of high-level Genomic Data Types and Protein Data Types along with a comprehensive collection of appropriate genomic and protein functions. The paper also presents a query translator that converts high-level query specifications in algebra into low-level query specifications in Protein-QL, a query language designed to query protein structure data. The query transformation process uses a Protein Ontology that serves the purpose of a dictionary.

Keywords: Domain-Specific Data Management, Protein Algebra, Protein Ontology, Protein Structure Data.

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469 One-Class Support Vector Machines for Protein-Protein Interactions Prediction

Authors: Hany Alashwal, Safaai Deris, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

Predicting protein-protein interactions represent a key step in understanding proteins functions. This is due to the fact that proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Machine learning techniques have been applied to predict protein-protein interactions. However, most of these techniques address this problem as a binary classification problem. Although it is easy to get a dataset of interacting proteins as positive examples, there are no experimentally confirmed non-interacting proteins to be considered as negative examples. Therefore, in this paper we solve this problem as a one-class classification problem using one-class support vector machines (SVM). Using only positive examples (interacting protein pairs) in training phase, the one-class SVM achieves accuracy of about 80%. These results imply that protein-protein interaction can be predicted using one-class classifier with comparable accuracy to the binary classifiers that use artificially constructed negative examples.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Protein-protein interactions, One-Class Support Vector Machines

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468 Comparison of Domain and Hydrophobicity Features for the Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Hany Alashwal, Safaai Deris, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

The protein domain structure has been widely used as the most informative sequence feature to computationally predict protein-protein interactions. However, in a recent study, a research group has reported a very high accuracy of 94% using hydrophobicity feature. Therefore, in this study we compare and verify the usefulness of protein domain structure and hydrophobicity properties as the sequence features. Using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the learning system, our results indicate that both features achieved accuracy of nearly 80%. Furthermore, domains structure had receiver operating characteristic (ROC) score of 0.8480 with running time of 34 seconds, while hydrophobicity had ROC score of 0.8159 with running time of 20,571 seconds (5.7 hours). These results indicate that protein-protein interaction can be predicted from domain structure with reliable accuracy and acceptable running time.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, protein-protein interactions, support vector machines, protein features.

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467 Predicting Protein Function using Decision Tree

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parminder Kaur Wadhwa, Surinder Kaur

Abstract:

The drug discovery process starts with protein identification because proteins are responsible for many functions required for maintenance of life. Protein identification further needs determination of protein function. Proposed method develops a classifier for human protein function prediction. The model uses decision tree for classification process. The protein function is predicted on the basis of matched sequence derived features per each protein function. The research work includes the development of a tool which determines sequence derived features by analyzing different parameters. The other sequence derived features are determined using various web based tools.

Keywords: Sequence Derived Features, decision tree.

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466 Optimization of Protein Hydrolysate Production Process from Jatropha curcas Cake

Authors: Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat, Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Phanu Somkliang, Taweesiri Malapant

Abstract:

This was the first document revealing the investigation of protein hydrolysate production optimization from J. curcas cake. Proximate analysis of raw material showed 18.98% protein, 5.31% ash, 8.52% moisture and 12.18% lipid. The appropriate protein hydrolysate production process began with grinding the J. curcas cake into small pieces. Then it was suspended in 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution with ratio between solution/ J. curcas cake at 80:1 (v/w). The hydrolysis reaction was controlled at temperature 50 °C in water bath for 45 minutes. After that, the supernatant (protein hydrolysate) was separated using centrifuge at 8000g for 30 minutes. The maximum yield of resulting protein hydrolysate was 73.27 % with 7.34% moisture, 71.69% total protein, 7.12% lipid, 2.49% ash. The product was also capable of well dissolving in water.

Keywords: Production, protein hydrolysate, Jatropha curcas cake, optimization.

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465 Detecting Remote Protein Evolutionary Relationships via String Scoring Method

Authors: Nazar Zaki, Safaai Deris

Abstract:

The amount of the information being churned out by the field of biology has jumped manifold and now requires the extensive use of computer techniques for the management of this information. The predominance of biological information such as protein sequence similarity in the biological information sea is key information for detecting protein evolutionary relationship. Protein sequence similarity typically implies homology, which in turn may imply structural and functional similarities. In this work, we propose, a learning method for detecting remote protein homology. The proposed method uses a transformation that converts protein sequence into fixed-dimensional representative feature vectors. Each feature vector records the sensitivity of a protein sequence to a set of amino acids substrings generated from the protein sequences of interest. These features are then used in conjunction with support vector machines for the detection of the protein remote homology. The proposed method is tested and evaluated on two different benchmark protein datasets and it-s able to deliver improvements over most of the existing homology detection methods.

Keywords: Protein homology detection; support vectormachine; string kernel.

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464 Biodegradation of Carbazole By a Promising Gram-Negative Bacterium

Authors: G. B. Singh, S. Srivastava, N. Gupta

Abstract:

In the present work we report a gram negative bacterial isolate, from soil of a dye industry, with promising biorefining and bioremediation potential. This isolate (GBS.5) could utilize carbazole (nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon and utilize almost 98% of 3mM carbazole in 100 hours. The specific activity of our GBS.5 isolate for carbazole degradation at 30°C and pH 7.0 was found to be 11.36 μmol/min/g dry cell weight as compared to 10.4 μmol/min/g dry cell weight, the highest reported specific activity till date. The presence of car genes (the genes involved in denitrogenation of carbazole) was confirmed through PCR amplification.

Keywords: Biodenitrogenation, Biorefining, Carbazoledegradation, Crude oil.

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463 Cloning, Expression and Protein Purification of AV1 Gene of Okra Leaf Curl Virus Egyptian Isolate and Genetic Diversity between Whitefly and Different Plant Hosts

Authors: Dalia. G. Aseel

Abstract:

Begomoviruses are economically important plant viruses that infect dicotyledonous plants and exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here, replicative form was isolated from Okra, Cotton, Tomato plants and whitefly infected with Begomoviruses. Using coat protein specific primers (AV1), the viral infection was verified with amplicon at 450 bp. The sequence of OLCuV-AV1 gene was recorded and received an accession number (FJ441605) from Genebank. The phylogenetic tree of OLCuV was closely related to Okra leaf curl virus previously isolated from Cameroon and USA with nucleotide sequence identity of 92%. The protein purification was carried out using His-Tag methodology by using Affinity Chromatography. The purified protein was separated on SDS-PAGE analysis and an enriched expected size of band at 30 kDa was observed. Furthermore, RAPD and SDS-PAGE were used to detect genetic variability between different hosts of okra leaf curl virus (OLCuV), cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCuV) and the whitefly vector. Finally, the present study would help to understand the relationship between the whitefly and different economical crops in Egypt.

Keywords: Begomovirus, AV1 gene, sequence, cloning, whitefly, okra, cotton, tomato, RAPD, phylogenetic tree and SDS-PAGE.

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462 UTMGO: A Tool for Searching a Group of Semantically Related Gene Ontology Terms and Application to Annotation of Anonymous Protein Sequence

Authors: Razib M. Othman, Safaai Deris, Rosli M. Illias

Abstract:

Gene Ontology terms have been actively used to annotate various protein sets. SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, and InterPro are protein databases that are annotated according to the Gene Ontology terms. However, direct implementation of the Gene Ontology terms for annotation of anonymous protein sequences is not easy, especially for species not commonly represented in biological databases. UTMGO is developed as a tool that allows the user to quickly and easily search for a group of semantically related Gene Ontology terms. The applicability of the UTMGO is demonstrated by applying it to annotation of anonymous protein sequence. The extended UTMGO uses the Gene Ontology terms together with protein sequences associated with the terms to perform the annotation task. GOPET, GOtcha, GoFigure, and JAFA are used to compare the performance of the extended UTMGO.

Keywords: Anonymous protein sequence, Gene Ontology, Protein sequence annotation, Protein sequence alignment

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461 A Bayesian Kernel for the Prediction of Protein- Protein Interactions

Authors: Hany Alashwal, Safaai Deris, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

Understanding proteins functions is a major goal in the post-genomic era. Proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the interaction partners of a protein in order to understand its function. Machine learning techniques have been widely applied to predict protein-protein interactions. Kernel functions play an important role for a successful machine learning technique. Choosing the appropriate kernel function can lead to a better accuracy in a binary classifier such as the support vector machines. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian kernel for the support vector machine to predict protein-protein interactions. The use of Bayesian kernel can improve the classifier performance by incorporating the probability characteristic of the available experimental protein-protein interactions data that were compiled from different sources. In addition, the probabilistic output from the Bayesian kernel can assist biologists to conduct more research on the highly predicted interactions. The results show that the accuracy of the classifier has been improved using the Bayesian kernel compared to the standard SVM kernels. These results imply that protein-protein interaction can be predicted using Bayesian kernel with better accuracy compared to the standard SVM kernels.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Protein-protein interactions, Bayesian Kernel, Support Vector Machines.

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460 Protein Delivery from Polymeric Nanoparticles

Authors: G. Spada, E. Gavini, P. Giunchedi

Abstract:

Aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of two loading methods of proteins onto polymeric nanocarriers: adsorption and encapsulation methods. Preliminary studies of protein loading were done using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as model protein. Nanocarriers were prepared starting from polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer; production methods used are two different variants of emulsion evaporation method. Nanoparticles obtained were analyzed in terms of dimensions by Dynamic Light Scattering and Loading Efficiency of BSA by Bradford Assay. Loaded nanoparticles were then submitted to in-vitro protein dissolution test in order to study the effect of the delivery system on the release rate of the protein.

Keywords: Drug delivery, nanoparticles, PLGA, proteinadsorption, protein encapsulation.

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459 Protein Graph Partitioning by Mutually Maximization of cycle-distributions

Authors: Frank Emmert Streib

Abstract:

The classification of the protein structure is commonly not performed for the whole protein but for structural domains, i.e., compact functional units preserved during evolution. Hence, a first step to a protein structure classification is the separation of the protein into its domains. We approach the problem of protein domain identification by proposing a novel graph theoretical algorithm. We represent the protein structure as an undirected, unweighted and unlabeled graph which nodes correspond the secondary structure elements of the protein. This graph is call the protein graph. The domains are then identified as partitions of the graph corresponding to vertices sets obtained by the maximization of an objective function, which mutually maximizes the cycle distributions found in the partitions of the graph. Our algorithm does not utilize any other kind of information besides the cycle-distribution to find the partitions. If a partition is found, the algorithm is iteratively applied to each of the resulting subgraphs. As stop criterion, we calculate numerically a significance level which indicates the stability of the predicted partition against a random rewiring of the protein graph. Hence, our algorithm terminates automatically its iterative application. We present results for one and two domain proteins and compare our results with the manually assigned domains by the SCOP database and differences are discussed.

Keywords: Graph partitioning, unweighted graph, protein domains.

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458 Critical Assessment of Scoring Schemes for Protein-Protein Docking Predictions

Authors: Dhananjay C. Joshi, Jung-Hsin Lin

Abstract:

Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a crucial role in many biological processes such as cell signalling, transcription, translation, replication, signal transduction, and drug targeting, etc. Structural information about protein-protein interaction is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Structures of protein-protein complexes are still difficult to obtain by biophysical methods such as NMR and X-ray crystallography, and therefore protein-protein docking computation is considered an important approach for understanding protein-protein interactions. However, reliable prediction of the protein-protein complexes is still under way. In the past decades, several grid-based docking algorithms based on the Katchalski-Katzir scoring scheme were developed, e.g., FTDock, ZDOCK, HADDOCK, RosettaDock, HEX, etc. However, the success rate of protein-protein docking prediction is still far from ideal. In this work, we first propose a more practical measure for evaluating the success of protein-protein docking predictions,the rate of first success (RFS), which is similar to the concept of mean first passage time (MFPT). Accordingly, we have assessed the ZDOCK bound and unbound benchmarks 2.0 and 3.0. We also createda new benchmark set for protein-protein docking predictions, in which the complexes have experimentally determined binding affinity data. We performed free energy calculation based on the solution of non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation (nlPBE) to improve the binding mode prediction. We used the well-studied thebarnase-barstarsystem to validate the parameters for free energy calculations. Besides,thenlPBE-based free energy calculations were conducted for the badly predicted cases by ZDOCK and ZRANK. We found that direct molecular mechanics energetics cannot be used to discriminate the native binding pose from the decoys.Our results indicate that nlPBE-based calculations appeared to be one of the promising approaches for improving the success rate of binding pose predictions.

Keywords: protein-protein docking, protein-protein interaction, molecular mechanics energetics, Poisson-Boltzmann calculations

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457 Parallezation Protein Sequence Similarity Algorithms using Remote Method Interface

Authors: Mubarak Saif Mohsen, Zurinahni Zainol, Rosalina Abdul Salam, Wahidah Husain

Abstract:

One of the major problems in genomic field is to perform sequence comparison on DNA and protein sequences. Executing sequence comparison on the DNA and protein data is a computationally intensive task. Sequence comparison is the basic step for all algorithms in protein sequences similarity. Parallel computing is an attractive solution to provide the computational power needed to speedup the lengthy process of the sequence comparison. Our main research is to enhance the protein sequence algorithm using dynamic programming method. In our approach, we parallelize the dynamic programming algorithm using multithreaded program to perform the sequence comparison and also developed a distributed protein database among many PCs using Remote Method Interface (RMI). As a result, we showed how different sizes of protein sequences data and computation of scoring matrix of these protein sequence on different number of processors affected the processing time and speed, as oppose to sequential processing.

Keywords: Protein sequence algorithm, dynamic programming algorithm, multithread

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456 Analysis of Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 Protein Value as an Indicator of Neutrophil Chemotaxis Dysfunction in Aggressive Periodontitis

Authors: Prajna Metta, Yanti Rusyanti, Nunung Rusminah, Bremmy Laksono

Abstract:

The decrease of neutrophil chemotaxis function may cause increased susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis (AP). Neutrophil chemotaxis is affected by formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), which when activated will respond to bacterial chemotactic peptide formyl methionyl leusyl phenylalanine (FMLP). FPR1 protein value is decreased in response to a wide number of inflammatory stimuli in AP patients. This study was aimed to assess the alteration of FPR1 protein value in AP patients and if FPR1 protein value could be used as an indicator of neutrophil chemotaxis dysfunction in AP. This is a case control study with 20 AP patients and 20 control subjects. Three milliliters of peripheral blood were drawn and analyzed for FPR1 protein value with ELISA. The data were statistically analyzed with Mann-Whitney test (p>0,05). Results showed that the mean value of FPR1 protein value in AP group is 0,353 pg/mL (0,11 to 1,18 pg/mL) and the mean value of FPR1 protein value in control group is 0,296 pg/mL (0,05 to 0,88 pg/mL). P value 0,787 > 0,05 suggested that there is no significant difference of FPR1 protein value in both groups. The present study suggests that FPR1 protein value has no significance alteration in AP patients and could not be used as an indicator of neutrophil chemotaxis dysfunction.

Keywords: Aggressive periodontitis, chemotaxis dysfunction, FPR1 protein value, neutrophil.

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455 Selection of Pichia kudriavzevii Strain for the Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cassava Processing Waste

Authors: Phakamas Rachamontree, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Natthakorn Woravutthikul, Peerapong Pornwongthong, Malinee Sriariyanun

Abstract:

A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2 strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) = 0.7194 could be explained by the model which is high to support the significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2 strain contains 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast in single-cell protein production.

Keywords: Single cell protein, response surface methodology, yeast, cassava processing waste.

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454 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong

Abstract:

Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: Bioremediation, dyes, fermentation, laccase.

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453 Effects of Functional Protein on Osteoblasts in Rat

Authors: Jie Sun, Guoyou Yin, Xianqing Zhang, Qiusheng She, Zhaohui Xie, Lanying Chen, Anfang Zhao

Abstract:

To assess the effects of functional protein on osteoblast, Large quantity of high-purity osteoblasts had been cultivated successfully by adopting sequential enzyme digestion. The growth curve of osteoblasts was protracted by cell counting. Proliferation of osteoblasts was assessed by MTT colorimetry. The experimental results show the functional protein can enhance proliferation, the properties of adhesion and discuss the effect of osteopontin on osteoblast.

Keywords: functional protein, osteoblast, MTT

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452 Improving Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction by Using Encoding Strategies and Random Indices

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

A New features are extracted and compared to improve the prediction of protein-protein interactions. The basic idea is to select and use the best set of features from the Tensor matrices that are produced by the frequency vectors of the protein sequences. Three set of features are compared, the first set is based on the indices that are the most common in the interacting proteins, the second set is based on the indices that tend to be common in the interacting and non-interacting proteins, and the third set is constructed by using random indices. Moreover, three encoding strategies are compared; that are based on the amino asides polarity, structure, and chemical properties. The experimental results indicate that the highest accuracy can be obtained by using random indices with chemical properties encoding strategy and support vector machine.

Keywords: protein-protein interactions, random indices, encoding strategies, support vector machine.

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451 Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Fancy Carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Koi

Authors: Jin Choi, Zahra Aminikhoei, Yi-Oh Kim, Sang-Min Lee

Abstract:

A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile fancy carp. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 g kg-1) with two lipid levels (70 and 140 g kg-1). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 12.1±0.2 g fish-1) were hand-fed the diets to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Fish growth performance, feed utilization and feed intake were significantly (P<0.0001) affected by dietary protein level, but not by dietary lipid level (P>0.05). Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio tended to increase as dietary protein level increased up to 400 and 500 g kg-1, respectively. Daily feed intake of fish decreased with increasing dietary protein level and that of fish fed diet contained 500 g kg-1 protein was significantly lower than other fish groups. The protein efficiency ratio of fish fed 400 and 500 g kg-1 protein was lower than that of fish fed 200 and 300 g kg-1 protein. Moisture, crude protein and crude lipid contents of muscle and liver were significantly affected by dietary protein, but not by dietary lipid level (P>0.05). The increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increase in linoleic acid in liver and muscle paralleled with a decrease in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids content in muscle of fish. In considering these results, it was concluded that the diet containing 400 g kg-1 protein with 70 g kg-1 lipid level is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fancy carp.

Keywords: Fancy carp, Dietary protein, Dietary lipid, Fatty acid.

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450 The Lymphocytes Number in the Blood of Kwashiorkor Rat Model Induced by Oral Immunization with 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein

Authors: Novi Khila Firani, Elisa Nesdyaningtyas

Abstract:

Kwashiorkor is one of nutritional problem in Indonesia, which lead to decrease immune system. This condition causes susceptibility to infectious disease, especially tuberculosis. Development of new tuberculosis vaccine will be an important strategy to eliminate tuberculosis in kwashiorkor. Previous research showed that 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein is one of the potent immunogen. However, the role of oral immunization with 38- kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein to the number of lymphocytes in the rat model of kwashiorkor is still unknown. We used kwashiorkor rat model groups with 4% and 2% low protein diet. Oral immunization with 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein given with 2 booster every week. The lymphocytes number were measured by flowcytometry. There was no significant difference between the number of lymphocytes in the normal rat group and the kwashiorkor rat groups. It may reveal the role of 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein as a potent immunogen that can increase the lymphocytes number from kwashiorkor rat model same as normal rat.

Keywords: kwashiorkor rat, lymphocytes, 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein

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449 Identification and Analysis of Binding Site Residues in Protein-Protein Complexes

Authors: M. Michael Gromiha, Kiyonobu Yokota, Kazuhiko Fukui

Abstract:

We have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding sites and important residues for binding in protein-protein complexes. We found that the residues and residuepairs with charged and aromatic side chains are important for binding. These residues influence to form cation-¤Ç, electrostatic and aromatic interactions. Our observation has been verified with the experimental binding specificity of protein-protein complexes and found good agreement with experiments. The analysis on surrounding hydrophobicity reveals that the binding residues are less hydrophobic than non-binding sites, which suggests that the hydrophobic core are important for folding and stability whereas the surface seeking residues play a critical role in binding. Further, the propensity of residues in the binding sites of receptors and ligands, number of medium and long-range contacts, and influence of neighboring residues will be discussed.

Keywords: Protein-protein interactions, energy based approach;binding sites, propensity, long-range contacts, hydrophobicity

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448 Prediction of Protein Subchloroplast Locations using Random Forests

Authors: Chun-Wei Tung, Chyn Liaw, Shinn-Jang Ho, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

Protein subchloroplast locations are correlated with its functions. In contrast to the large amount of available protein sequences, the information of their locations and functions is less known. The experiment works for identification of protein locations and functions are costly and time consuming. The accurate prediction of protein subchloroplast locations can accelerate the study of functions of proteins in chloroplast. This study proposes a Random Forest based method, ChloroRF, to predict protein subchloroplast locations using interpretable physicochemical properties. In addition to high prediction accuracy, the ChloroRF is able to select important physicochemical properties. The important physicochemical properties are also analyzed to provide insights into the underlying mechanism.

Keywords: Chloroplast, Physicochemical properties, Proteinlocations, Random Forests.

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447 Using Spectral Vectors and M-Tree for Graph Clustering and Searching in Graph Databases of Protein Structures

Authors: Do Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Phung

Abstract:

In this paper, we represent protein structure by using graph. A protein structure database will become a graph database. Each graph is represented by a spectral vector. We use Jacobi rotation algorithm to calculate the eigenvalues of the normalized Laplacian representation of adjacency matrix of graph. To measure the similarity between two graphs, we calculate the Euclidean distance between two graph spectral vectors. To cluster the graphs, we use M-tree with the Euclidean distance to cluster spectral vectors. Besides, M-tree can be used for graph searching in graph database. Our proposal method was tested with graph database of 100 graphs representing 100 protein structures downloaded from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and we compare the result with the SCOP hierarchical structure.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, m-tree, graph database, protein structure, spectra graph theory.

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446 Detecting Community Structure in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

Authors: Omar GACI, Stefan BALEV, Antoine DUTOT

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the protein-s amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we observe that according to their structural roles, the nodes interact differently. By leading a community structure detection, we confirm this specific behavior and describe thecommunities composition to finally propose a new approach to fold a protein interaction network.

Keywords: interaction network, protein structure, community structure detection.

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445 Protein Residue Contact Prediction using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Chan Weng Howe, Mohd Saberi Mohamad

Abstract:

Protein residue contact map is a compact representation of secondary structure of protein. Due to the information hold in the contact map, attentions from researchers in related field were drawn and plenty of works have been done throughout the past decade. Artificial intelligence approaches have been widely adapted in related works such as neural networks, genetic programming, and Hidden Markov model as well as support vector machine. However, the performance of the prediction was not generalized which probably depends on the data used to train and generate the prediction model. This situation shown the importance of the features or information used in affecting the prediction performance. In this research, support vector machine was used to predict protein residue contact map on different combination of features in order to show and analyze the effectiveness of the features.

Keywords: contact map, protein residue contact, support vector machine, protein structure prediction

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