Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 571

Search results for: Lyapunov spectrum

571 Chaotic Properties of Hemodynamic Responsein Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of Brain Activity

Authors: Ni Ni Soe , Masahiro Nakagawa

Abstract:

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a practical non-invasive optical technique to detect characteristic of hemoglobin density dynamics response during functional activation of the cerebral cortex. In this paper, fNIRS measurements were made in the area of motor cortex from C4 position according to international 10-20 system. Three subjects, aged 23 - 30 years, were participated in the experiment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of different motor activation tasks of the hemoglobin density dynamics of fNIRS signal. The chaotic concept based on deterministic dynamics is an important feature in biological signal analysis. This paper employs the chaotic properties which is a novel method of nonlinear analysis, to analyze and to quantify the chaotic property in the time series of the hemoglobin dynamics of the various motor imagery tasks of fNIRS signal. Usually, hemoglobin density in the human brain cortex is found to change slowly in time. An inevitable noise caused by various factors is to be included in a signal. So, principle component analysis method (PCA) is utilized to remove high frequency component. The phase pace is reconstructed and evaluated the Lyapunov spectrum, and Lyapunov dimensions. From the experimental results, it can be conclude that the signals measured by fNIRS are chaotic.

Keywords: Chaos, hemoglobin, Lyapunov spectrum, motorimagery, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), principal componentanalysis (PCA).

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570 The Global Stability Using Lyapunov Function

Authors: R. Kongnuy, E. Naowanich, T. Kruehong

Abstract:

An important technique in stability theory for differential equations is known as the direct method of Lyapunov. In this work we deal global stability properties of Leptospirosis transmission model by age group in Thailand. First we consider the data from Division of Epidemiology Ministry of Public Health, Thailand between 1997-2011. Then we construct the mathematical model for leptospirosis transmission by eight age groups. The Lyapunov functions are used for our model which takes the forms of an Ordinary Differential Equation system. The globally asymptotically for equilibrium states are analyzed.

Keywords: Age Group, Leptospirosis, Lyapunov Function, Ordinary Differential Equation.

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569 Dynamics and Control of a Chaotic Electromagnetic System

Authors: Shun-Chang Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, different nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques are employed to unveil the rich nonlinear phenomena of the electromagnetic system. In particular, bifurcation diagrams, time responses, phase portraits, Poincare maps, power spectrum analysis, and the construction of basins of attraction are all powerful and effective tools for nonlinear dynamics problems. We also employ the method of Lyapunov exponents to show the occurrence of chaotic motion and to verify those numerical simulation results. Finally, two cases of a chaotic electromagnetic system being effectively controlled by a reference signal or being synchronized to another nonlinear electromagnetic system are presented.

Keywords: bifurcation, Poincare map, Lyapunov exponent, chaotic motion.

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568 Nonlinear Torque Control for PMSM: A Lyapunov Technique Approach

Authors: M. Ouassaid, M. Cherkaoui, A. Nejmi, M. Maaroufi

Abstract:

This study presents a novel means of designing a simple and effective torque controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM). The overall stability of the system is shown using Lyapunov technique. The Lyapunov functions used contain a term penalizing the integral of the tracking error, enhancing the stability. The tracking error is shown to be globally uniformly bounded. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: Integral action, Lyapunov Technique, Non Linear Control, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors, Torque Control, Stability.

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567 Stability Analysis of Linear Switched Systems with Mixed Delays

Authors: Xiuyong Ding, Lan Shu

Abstract:

This paper addresses the stability of the switched systems with discrete and distributed time delays. By applying Lyapunov functional and function method, we show that, if the norm of system matrices Bi is small enough, the asymptotic stability is always achieved. Finally, a example is provided to verify technically feasibility and operability of the developed results.

Keywords: Switched system, stability, Lyapunov function, Lyapunov functional, delays.

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566 New Stabilization for Switched Neutral Systems with Perturbations

Authors: Lianglin Xiong, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

This paper addresses the stabilization issues for a class of uncertain switched neutral systems with nonlinear perturbations. Based on new classes of piecewise Lyapunov functionals, the stability assumption on all the main operators or the convex combination of coefficient matrices is avoid, and a new switching rule is introduced to stabilize the neutral systems. The switching rule is designed from the solution of the so-called Lyapunov-Metzler linear matrix inequalities. Finally, three simulation examples are given to demonstrate the significant improvements over the existing results.

Keywords: Switched neutral system, piecewise Lyapunov functional, nonlinear perturbation, Lyapunov-Metzler linear matrix inequality.

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565 Implicit Lyapunov Control of Multi-Control Hamiltonians Systems Based On the State Error

Authors: Fangfang Meng, Shuang Cong

Abstract:

In the closed quantum system, if the control system is strongly regular and all other eigenstates are directly coupled to the target state, the control system can be asymptotically stabilized at the target eigenstate by the Lyapunov control based on the state error. However, if the control system is not strongly regular or as long as there is one eigenstate not directly coupled to the target state, the situations will become complicated. In this paper, we propose an implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state error to solve the convergence problems for these two degenerate cases. And at the same time, we expand the target state from the eigenstate to the arbitrary pure state. Especially, the proposed method is also applicable in the control system with multi-control Hamiltonians. On this basis, the convergence of the control systems is analyzed using the LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the relation between the implicit Lyapunov functions of the state distance and the state error is investigated. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implicit Lyapunov control method. The comparisons of the control effect using the implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state distance with that of the state error are given.

Keywords: Implicit Lyapunov control, state error, degenerate cases, convergence.

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564 Lyapunov-Based Tracking Control for Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robot

Authors: Raouf Fareh, Maarouf Saad, Sofiane Khadraoui, Tamer Rabie

Abstract:

This paper presents a tracking control strategy based on Lyapunov approach for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot. This control strategy consists of two levels. First, a kinematic controller is developed to adjust the right and left wheel velocities. Using this velocity control law, the stability of the tracking error is guaranteed using Lyapunov approach. This kinematic controller cannot be generated directly by the motors. To overcome this problem, the second level of the controllers, dynamic control, is designed. This dynamic control law is developed based on Lyapunov theory in order to track the desired trajectories of the mobile robot. The stability of the tracking error is proved using Lupunov and Barbalat approaches. Simulation results on a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: Mobile robot, trajectory tracking, Lyapunov, stability.

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563 Unscented Transformation for Estimating the Lyapunov Exponents of Chaotic Time Series Corrupted by Random Noise

Authors: K. Kamalanand, P. Mannar Jawahar

Abstract:

Many systems in the natural world exhibit chaos or non-linear behavior, the complexity of which is so great that they appear to be random. Identification of chaos in experimental data is essential for characterizing the system and for analyzing the predictability of the data under analysis. The Lyapunov exponents provide a quantitative measure of the sensitivity to initial conditions and are the most useful dynamical diagnostic for chaotic systems. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the Lyapunov exponents of chaotic signals which are corrupted by a random noise. In this work, a method for estimation of Lyapunov exponents from noisy time series using unscented transformation is proposed. The proposed methodology was validated using time series obtained from known chaotic maps. In this paper, the objective of the work, the proposed methodology and validation results are discussed in detail.

Keywords: Lyapunov exponents, unscented transformation, chaos theory, neural networks.

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562 Ten Limit Cycles in a Quintic Lyapunov System

Authors: Li Feng

Abstract:

In this paper, center conditions and bifurcation of limit cycles at the nilpotent critical point in a class of quintic polynomial differential system are investigated.With the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the first 10 quasi Lyapunov constants are deduced. As a result, sufficient and necessary conditions in order to have a center are obtained. The fact that there exist 10 small amplitude limit cycles created from the three order nilpotent critical point is also proved. Henceforth we give a lower bound of cyclicity of three-order nilpotent critical point for quintic Lyapunov systems. At last, we give an system which could bifurcate 10 limit circles.

Keywords: Three-order nilpotent critical point, center-focus problem, bifurcation of limit cycles, Quasi-Lyapunov constant.

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561 Controlled Synchronization of an Array of Nonlinear System with Time Delays

Authors: S.M. Lee, J.H. Koo, J.H. Park, S.C. Won

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose synchronization of an array of nonlinear systems with time delays. The array of systems is decomposed into isolated systems to establish appropriate Lyapunov¬Krasovskii functional. Using the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a sufficient condition for the synchronization is derived in terms of LMIs(Linear Matrix Inequalities). Delayed feedback control gains are obtained by solving the sufficient condition. Numerical examples are given to show the validity the proposed method.

Keywords: Synchronization, Delay, Lyapunov method, LMI.

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560 Design of Adaptive Controller Based On Lyapunov Stability for a CSTR

Authors: S. Anbu, N. Jaya

Abstract:

Nonlinearity is the inherent characteristics of all the industrial processes. The Classical control approach used for a generation often fails to show better results particularly for non-linear systems and in the systems, whose parameters changes over a period of time for a variety of reasons. Alternatively, adaptive control strategies provide very good performance. The Model Reference Adaptive Control based on Lyapunov stability analysis and classical PI control strategies are designed and evaluated for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which shows appreciable dynamic nonlinear characteristics.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, CSTR, Lyapunov stability, MRAS, PID.

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559 Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Maninder Jeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K. Verma

Abstract:

The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Fitness Functions, Fuzzy Logic, Quality of Service (QoS)

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558 Wavelet-Based Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios using Hilbert Transform

Authors: Shiann-Shiun Jeng, Jia-Ming Chen, Hong-Zong Lin, Chen-Wan Tsung

Abstract:

For cognitive radio networks, there is a major spectrum sensing problem, i.e. dynamic spectrum management. It is an important issue to sense and identify the spectrum holes in cognitive radio networks. The first-order derivative scheme is usually used to detect the edge of the spectrum. In this paper, a novel spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio is presented. The proposed algorithm offers efficient edge detection. Then, simulation results show the performance of the first-order derivative scheme and the proposed scheme and depict that the proposed scheme obtains better performance than does the first-order derivative scheme.

Keywords: cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, wavelet, edgedetection

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557 Linear Maps That Preserve Left Spectrum of Diagonal Quaternionic Matrices

Authors: Geng Yuan, Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai, Shuhua Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss some properties of left spectrum and give the representation of linear preserver map the left spectrum of diagonal quaternionic matrices.

Keywords: Quaternionic matrix, left spectrum, linear preserver map.

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556 Statistics over Lyapunov Exponents for Feature Extraction: Electroencephalographic Changes Detection Case

Authors: Elif Derya UBEYLI, Inan GULER

Abstract:

A new approach based on the consideration that electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are chaotic signals was presented for automated diagnosis of electroencephalographic changes. This consideration was tested successfully using the nonlinear dynamics tools, like the computation of Lyapunov exponents. This paper presented the usage of statistics over the set of the Lyapunov exponents in order to reduce the dimensionality of the extracted feature vectors. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) architectures were formulated and used as basis for detection of electroencephalographic changes. Three types of EEG signals (EEG signals recorded from healthy volunteers with eyes open, epilepsy patients in the epileptogenic zone during a seizure-free interval, and epilepsy patients during epileptic seizures) were classified. The selected Lyapunov exponents of the EEG signals were used as inputs of the MLPNN trained with Levenberg- Marquardt algorithm. The classification results confirmed that the proposed MLPNN has potential in detecting the electroencephalographic changes.

Keywords: Chaotic signal, Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, Feature extraction/selection, Lyapunov exponents

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555 Ψ-Eventual Stability of Differential System with Impulses

Authors: Bhanu Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, the criteria of Ψ-eventual stability have been established for generalized impulsive differential systems of multiple dependent variables. The sufficient conditions have been obtained using piecewise continuous Lyapunov function. An example is given to support our theoretical result.

Keywords: impulsive differential equations, Lyapunov function, eventual stability

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554 Fast Wavelength Calibration Algorithm for Optical Spectrum Analyzers

Authors: Thomas Fuhrmann

Abstract:

In this paper an algorithm for fast wavelength calibration of Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) using low power reference gas spectra is proposed. In existing OSAs a reference spectrum with low noise for precise detection of the reference extreme values is needed. To generate this spectrum costly hardware with high optical power is necessary. With this new wavelength calibration algorithm it is possible to use a noisy reference spectrum and therefore hardware costs can be cut. With this algorithm the reference spectrum is filtered and the key information is extracted by segmenting and finding the local minima and maxima. Afterwards slope and offset of a linear correction function for best matching the measured and theoretical spectra are found by correlating the measured with the stored minima. With this algorithm a reliable wavelength referencing of an OSA can be implemented on a microcontroller with a calculation time of less than one second.

Keywords: correlation, gas reference, optical spectrum analyzer, wavelength calibration

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553 A Cohesive Lagrangian Swarm and Its Application to Multiple Unicycle-like Vehicles

Authors: Jito Vanualailai, Bibhya Sharma

Abstract:

Swarm principles are increasingly being used to design controllers for the coordination of multi-robot systems or, in general, multi-agent systems. This paper proposes a two-dimensional Lagrangian swarm model that enables the planar agents, modeled as point masses, to swarm whilst effectively avoiding each other and obstacles in the environment. A novel method, based on an extended Lyapunov approach, is used to construct the model. Importantly, the Lyapunov method ensures a form of practical stability that guarantees an emergent behavior, namely, a cohesive and wellspaced swarm with a constant arrangement of individuals about the swarm centroid. Computer simulations illustrate this basic feature of collective behavior. As an application, we show how multiple planar mobile unicycle-like robots swarm to eventually form patterns in which their velocities and orientations stabilize.

Keywords: Attractive-repulsive swarm model, individual-based swarm model, Lagrangian swarm model, Lyapunov stability, Lyapunov-like function, practical stability, unicycle.

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552 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing

Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha

Abstract:

Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as Pf Vs Pd for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.

Keywords: Spectrum sensing, Energy detection, fading channels, Probability of detection, probability of false alarm.

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551 Spherical Spectrum Properties of Quaternionic Operators

Authors: Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai

Abstract:

In this paper, the similarity invariant and the upper semi-continuity of spherical spectrum, and the spherical spectrum properties for infinite direct sums of quaternionic operators are characterized, respectively. As an application of some results established, a concrete example about the computation of the spherical spectrum of a compact quaternionic operator with form of infinite direct sums of quaternionic matrices is also given.

Keywords: Spherical spectrum, Quaternionic operator, Upper semi-continuity, Direct sum of operators.

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550 On General Stability for Switched Positive Linear Systems with Bounded Time-varying Delays

Authors: Xiu Liu, Shouming Zhong, Xiuyong Ding

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the problem of a common linear copositive Lyapunov function(CLCLF) existence for discrete-time switched positive linear systems(SPLSs) with bounded time-varying delays. In particular, applying system matrices, a special class of matrices are constructed in an appropriate manner. Our results reveal that the existence of a common copositive Lyapunov function can be related to the Schur stability of such matrices. A simple example is provided to illustrate the implication of our results.

Keywords: Common linear co-positive Lyapunov functions, positive systems, switched systems, delays.

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549 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: Cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing.

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548 Improved Asymptotic Stability Analysis for Lure Systems with Neutral Type and Time-varying Delays

Authors: Changchun Shen, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of absolute stability and robust stability of a class of Lur-e systems with neutral type and time-varying delays. By using Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality technique, new delay-dependent stability criteria are obtained and formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which are easy to check the stability of the considered systems. To obtain less conservative stability conditions, an operator is defined to construct the Lyapunov functional. Also, the free weighting matrices approach combining a matrix inequality technique is used to reduce the entailed conservativeness. Numerical examples are given to indicate significant improvements over some existing results.

Keywords: Lur'e system, linear matrix inequalities, Lyapunov, stability.

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547 Autonomous Control of Multiple Mobile Manipulators

Authors: Shonal Singh, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Avinesh Prasad

Abstract:

This paper considers the autonomous navigation problem of multiple n-link nonholonomic mobile manipulators within an obstacle-ridden environment. We present a set of nonlinear acceleration controllers, derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme, which generates collision-free trajectories of the mobile manipulators from initial configurations to final configurations in a constrained environment cluttered with stationary solid objects of different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate the efficiency of the control scheme and the resulting acceleration controllers of the mobile manipulators with results through computer simulations of an interesting scenario.

Keywords: Artificial potential fields, kinodynamic constraints, Lyapunov-based control scheme, Lyapunov stability, minimum distance technique, nonholonomic manipulator.

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546 ψ-exponential Stability for Non-linear Impulsive Differential Equations

Authors: Bhanu Gupta, Sanjay K. Srivastava

Abstract:

In this paper, we shall present sufficient conditions for the ψ-exponential stability of a class of nonlinear impulsive differential equations. We use the Lyapunov method with functions that are not necessarily differentiable. In the last section, we give some examples to support our theoretical results.

Keywords: Exponential stability, globally exponential stability, impulsive differential equations, Lyapunov function, ψ-stability.

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545 Reachable Set Bounding Estimation for Distributed Delay Systems with Disturbances

Authors: Li Xu, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

The reachable set bounding estimation for distributed delay systems with disturbances is a new problem. In this paper,we consider this problem subject to not only time varying delay and polytopic uncertainties but also distributed delay systems which is not studied fully untill now. we can obtain improved non-ellipsoidal reachable set estimation for neural networks with time-varying delay by the maximal Lyapunov-Krasovskii fuctional which is constructed as the pointwise maximum of a family of Lyapunov-Krasovskii fuctionals corresponds to vertexes of uncertain polytope.On the other hand,matrix inequalities containing only one scalar and Matlabs LMI Toolbox is utilized to give a non-ellipsoidal description of the reachable set.finally,numerical examples are given to illustrate the existing results.

Keywords: Reachable set, Distributed delay, Lyapunov-Krasovskii function, Polytopic uncertainties.

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544 Autonomous Control of a Mobile Manipulator

Authors: Shonal Singh, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper considers the design of a motion planner that will simultaneously accomplish control and motion planning of a n-link nonholonomic mobile manipulator, wherein, a n-link holonomic manipulator is coupled with a nonholonomic mobile platform, within an obstacle-ridden environment. This planner, derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme, generates collision-free trajectories from an initial configuration to a final configuration in a constrained environment cluttered with stationary solid objects of different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate the efficiency of the control scheme and the resulting acceleration controllers of the mobile manipulator with results through computer simulations of an interesting scenario.

Keywords: Artificial potential fields, Lyapunov-based control scheme, Lyapunov stability, nonholonomic manipulator, minimum distance technique, kinodynamic constraints.

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543 A New Nonlinear Excitation Controller for Transient Stability Enhancement in Power Systems

Authors: M. Ouassaid, A. Nejmi, M. Cherkaoui, M. Maaroufi

Abstract:

The very nonlinear nature of the generator and system behaviour following a severe disturbance precludes the use of classical linear control technique. In this paper, a new approach of nonlinear control is proposed for transient and steady state stability analysis of a synchronous generator. The control law of the generator excitation is derived from the basis of Lyapunov stability criterion. The overall stability of the system is shown using Lyapunov technique. The application of the proposed controller to simulated generator excitation control under a large sudden fault and wide range of operating conditions demonstrates that the new control strategy is superior to conventional automatic voltage regulator (AVR), and show very promising results.

Keywords: Excitation control, Lyapunov technique, non linearcontrol, synchronous generator, transient stability, voltage regulation.

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542 Comparison of Parameterization Methods in Recognizing Spoken Arabic Digits

Authors: Ali Ganoun

Abstract:

This paper proposes evaluation of sound parameterization methods in recognizing some spoken Arabic words, namely digits from zero to nine. Each isolated spoken word is represented by a single template based on a specific recognition feature, and the recognition is based on the Euclidean distance from those templates. The performance analysis of recognition is based on four parameterization features: the Burg Spectrum Analysis, the Walsh Spectrum Analysis, the Thomson Multitaper Spectrum Analysis and the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) features. The main aim of this paper was to compare, analyze, and discuss the outcomes of spoken Arabic digits recognition systems based on the selected recognition features. The results acqired confirm that the use of MFCC features is a very promising method in recognizing Spoken Arabic digits.

Keywords: Speech Recognition, Spectrum Analysis, Burg Spectrum, Walsh Spectrum Analysis, Thomson Multitaper Spectrum, MFCC.

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