Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 426

Search results for: Forward Osmosis

426 Energy Consumption in Forward Osmosis Desalination Compared to other Desalination Techniques

Authors: Ali Shoeb Moon, Moonyong Lee

Abstract:

The draw solute separation process in Forward Osmosis desalination was simulated in Aspen Plus chemical process modeling software, to estimate the energy consumption and compare it with other desalination processes, mainly the Reverse Osmosis process which is currently most prevalent. The electrolytic chemistry for the system was retrieved using the Elec – NRTL property method in the Aspen Plus database. Electrical equivalent of energy required in the Forward Osmosis desalination technique was estimated and compared with the prevalent desalination techniques.

Keywords: Desalination, Energy, Forward Osmosis, Separation

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425 Synthesis and Performance of Polyamide Forward Osmosis Membrane for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal

Authors: M. N. Abu Seman, L. M. Kei, M. A. Yusoff

Abstract:

Forward Osmosis (FO) polyamide thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by interfacial polymerization using commercial UF polyethersulfoneas membrane support. Different interfacial polymerization times (10s, 30s and 60s) in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) at constant m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration (2% w/v) were studied. The synthesized polyamide membranes then tested for treatment of natural organic matter (NOM) and compared to commercial Cellulose TriAcetate (CTA) membrane. It was found that membrane prepared with higher reaction time (30s and 60s) exhibited better membrane performance (flux and humic acid removal) over commercial CTA membrane.

Keywords: Cellulose Triacetate, Forward Osmosis, Humic Acid, Polyamide.

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424 Effect of Operating Conditions on Forward Osmosis for Nutrient Rejection Using Magnesium Chloride as a Draw Solution

Authors: Yatnanta Padma Devia, Tsuyoshi Imai, Takaya Higuchi, Ariyo Kanno, Koichi Yamamoto, Masahiko Sekine

Abstract:

Advanced treatments such as forward osmosis (FO) can be used to separate or reject nutrients from secondary treated effluents. Forward osmosis uses the chemical potential across the membrane, which is the osmotic pressure gradient, to induce water to flow through the membrane from a feed solution (FS) into a draw solution (DS). The performance of FO is affected by the membrane characteristics, composition of the FS and DS, and operating conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum velocity and temperature for nutrient rejection and water flux performance in FO treatments. MgCl2 was used as the DS in the FO process. The results showed that higher cross flow velocities yielded higher water fluxes. High rejection of nutrients was achieved by using a moderate cross flow velocity at 0.25 m/s. Nutrient rejection was insensitive to temperature variation, whereas water flux was significantly impacted by it. A temperature of 25°C was found to be good for nutrient rejection.

Keywords: Cross flow velocity, forward osmosis, magnesium chloride, temperature.

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423 Exergy Analysis of Reverse Osmosis for Potable Water and Land Irrigation

Authors: M. Sarai Atab, A. Smallbone, A. P. Roskilly

Abstract:

A thermodynamic study is performed on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process for brackish water. The detailed RO model of thermodynamics properties with and without an energy recovery device was built in Simulink/MATLAB and validated against reported measurement data. The efficiency of desalination plants can be estimated by both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. While the first law focuses on the quantity of energy, the second law analysis (i.e. exergy analysis) introduces quality. This paper used the Main Outfall Drain in Iraq as a case study to conduct energy and exergy analysis of RO process. The result shows that it is feasible to use energy recovery method for reverse osmosis with salinity less than 15000 ppm as the exergy efficiency increases twice. Moreover, this analysis shows that the highest exergy destruction occurs in the rejected water and lowest occurs in the permeate flow rate accounting 37% for 4.3% respectively.

Keywords: Brackish water, exergy, irrigation, reverse osmosis.

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422 Periodic Control of a Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Unit

Authors: Ali Emad

Abstract:

Enhancement of the performance of a reverse osmosis (RO) unit through periodic control is studied. The periodic control manipulates the feed pressure and flow rate of the RO unit. To ensure the periodic behavior of the inputs, the manipulated variables (MV) are transformed into the form of sinusoidal functions. In this case, the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal functions become the surrogate MV and are thus regulated via nonlinear model predictive control algorithm. The simulation results indicated that the control system can generate cyclic inputs necessary to enhance the closedloop performance in the sense of increasing the permeate production and lowering the salt concentration. The proposed control system can attain its objective with arbitrary set point for the controlled outputs. Successful results were also obtained in the presence of modeling errors.

Keywords: Reverse osmosis, water desalination, periodic control, model predictive control.

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421 Effects of Oilfield Water Treated by Electroflocculation and Reverse Osmosis in a Typical Brazilian Semiarid Soil

Authors: P. S. A. Souza, M. R. C. Marques, M. M. Rigo, A. A. Cerqueira, J. L. Paiva, F. Merçon, D. V. Perez

Abstract:

Produced water (PW), which is water extracted along with oil, is the largest waste stream in the oil and gas industry. With the proper treatment, this wastewater can be used in agricultural irrigation. This study evaluated the effects the application of PW treated by electroflocculation (EF) and combined electroflocculation-reverse osmosis (EF-RO) on soil salinity and sodification parameters. Excessive sodium levels in PW treated by EF may affect soil structural stability and plant growth, and tends to accumulate in upper layers, displacing the nutrient K to deeper layers of the soil profile. PW treated by EF-RO did not promote salinization and soil sodification, indicating that this combined technique may be a viable alternative for oily water treatment aiming at irrigation use in semiarid regions.

Keywords: Electroflocculation, irrigation, produced water, reverse osmosis, soil.

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420 An Approaching Index to Evaluate a forward Collision Probability

Authors: Yuan-Lin Chen

Abstract:

This paper presents an approaching forward collision probability index (AFCPI) for alerting and assisting driver in keeping safety distance to avoid the forward collision accident in highway driving. The time to collision (TTC) and time headway (TH) are used to evaluate the TTC forward collision probability index (TFCPI) and the TH forward collision probability index (HFCPI), respectively. The Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm is presented combining TFCPI and HFCPI to calculate the approaching collision probability index of the vehicle. The AFCPI is easier to understand for the driver who did not even have any professional knowledge in vehicle professional field. At the same time, the driver’s behavior is taken into account for suiting each driver. For the approaching index, the value 0 is indicating the 0% probability of forward collision, and the values 0.5 and 1 are indicating the 50% and 100% probabilities of forward collision, respectively. The AFCPI is useful and easy-to-understand for alerting driver to avoid the forward collision accidents when driving in highway.

Keywords: Approaching index, forward collision probability, time to collision, time headway.

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419 Feed-Forward Control in Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in resonant dc link inverter. The feed-forward control configuration is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation. The simulation results showing the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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418 Using Reverse Osmosis Membrane for Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: S. A. Mousavi Rad, S. A. Mirbagheri, T. Mohammadi

Abstract:

In this paper, removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution has been researched using reverse osmosis. The influence of transmembrane pressure and feed concentration on permeate flux, water recovery, permeate concentration, and salt rejection was studied. The results showed that according to the variation of transmembrane pressure and feed concentration, the permeate flux and salt rejection were in the range 19.17 to 58.75 l/m2.min and 99.51 to 99.8 %, respectively. The highest permeate flux, 58.75 l/m2.min, and water recovery, 42.47 %, were obtained in the highest pressure and the lowest feed concentration. On the other hand, the lowest permeate concentration, 0.01 mg/l, and the highest salt rejection, 99.8 %, were obtained in the highest pressure and the lowest feed concentration.

Keywords: solution, Chromium, Removal, Reverse osmosis.

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417 Neural Networks Approaches for Computing the Forward Kinematics of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

Authors: H. Sadjadian , H.D. Taghirad Member, A. Fatehi

Abstract:

In this paper, different approaches to solve the forward kinematics of a three DOF actuator redundant hydraulic parallel manipulator are presented. On the contrary to series manipulators, the forward kinematic map of parallel manipulators involves highly coupled nonlinear equations, which are almost impossible to solve analytically. The proposed methods are using neural networks identification with different structures to solve the problem. The accuracy of the results of each method is analyzed in detail and the advantages and the disadvantages of them in computing the forward kinematic map of the given mechanism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that ANFIS presents the best performance compared to MLP, RBF and PNN networks in this particular application.

Keywords: Forward Kinematics, Neural Networks, Numerical Solution, Parallel Manipulators.

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416 Mathematical Modelling for Separation of Binary Aqueous Solution using Hollow Fiber Reverse Osmosis Module

Authors: Anil Kumar, S. Deswal

Abstract:

The mathematical equation for Separation of the binary aqueous solution is developed by using the Spiegler- Kedem theory. The characteristics of a B-9 hollow fibre module of Du Pont are determined by using these equations and their results are compared with the experimental results of Ohya et al. The agreement between these results is found to be excellent.

Keywords: Binary aqueous solution, modeling, reverse osmosis module, Spiegler-Kedem theory.

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415 Capsule-substrate Adhesion in the Presence of Osmosis by the Immersed Interface Method

Authors: P.G. Jayathilake, B.C. Khoo, Zhijun Tan

Abstract:

A two-dimensional thin-walled capsule of a flexible semi-permeable membrane is adhered onto a rigid planar substrate under adhesive forces (derived from a potential function) in the presence of osmosis across the membrane. The capsule is immersed in a hypotonic and diluted binary solution of a non-electrolyte solute. The Stokes flow problem is solved by the immersed interface method (IIM) with equal viscosities for the enclosed and surrounding fluid of the capsule. The numerical results obtained are verified against two simplified theoretical solutions and the agreements are good. The osmotic inflation of the adhered capsule is studied as a function of the solute concentration field, hydraulic conductivity, and the initial capsule shape. Our findings indicate that the contact length shrinks in dimension as capsule inflates in the hypotonic medium, and the equilibrium contact length does not depend on the hydraulic conductivity of the membrane and the initial shape of the capsule.

Keywords: Capsule-substrate adhesion, Fluid mechanics, Immersed interface method, Osmosis, Mass transfer.

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414 Low Energy Technology for Leachate Valorisation

Authors: Jesús M. Martín, Francisco Corona, Dolores Hidalgo

Abstract:

Landfills present long-term threats to soil, air, groundwater and surface water due to the formation of greenhouse gases (methane gas and carbon dioxide) and leachate from decomposing garbage. The composition of leachate differs from site to site and also within the landfill. The leachates alter with time (from weeks to years) since the landfilled waste is biologically highly active and their composition varies. Mainly, the composition of the leachate depends on factors such as characteristics of the waste, the moisture content, climatic conditions, degree of compaction and the age of the landfill. Therefore, the leachate composition cannot be generalized and the traditional treatment models should be adapted in each case. Although leachate composition is highly variable, what different leachates have in common is hazardous constituents and their potential eco-toxicological effects on human health and on terrestrial ecosystems. Since leachate has distinct compositions, each landfill or dumping site would represent a different type of risk on its environment. Nevertheless, leachates consist always of high organic concentration, conductivity, heavy metals and ammonia nitrogen. Leachate could affect the current and future quality of water bodies due to uncontrolled infiltrations. Therefore, control and treatment of leachate is one of the biggest issues in urban solid waste treatment plants and landfills design and management. This work presents a treatment model that will be carried out "in-situ" using a cost-effective novel technology that combines solar evaporation/condensation plus forward osmosis. The plant is powered by renewable energies (solar energy, biomass and residual heat), which will minimize the carbon footprint of the process. The final effluent quality is very high, allowing reuse (preferred) or discharge into watercourses. In the particular case of this work, the final effluents will be reused for cleaning and gardening purposes. A minority semi-solid residual stream is also generated in the process. Due to its special composition (rich in metals and inorganic elements), this stream will be valorized in ceramic industries to improve the final products characteristics.

Keywords: Forward osmosis, landfills, leachate valorization, solar evaporation.

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413 The Impact of Market-Related Variables on Forward-Looking Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Non-Financial Egyptian Companies

Authors: Bassam Baroma

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to test the relationship between numbers of variables representing the firm characteristics (market-related variables) and the extent of voluntary disclosure levels (forward-looking disclosure) in the annual reports of Egyptian firms listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange. The results show that audit firm size is significantly positively correlated (in all the three years) with the level of forward-looking disclosure. However, industry type variable (which divided to: industries, cement, construction, petrochemicals and services), is found being insignificantly association with the level of forward-looking information disclosed in the annual reports for all the three years.

Keywords: Forward-looking disclosure, market-related variables, annual reports, Egyptian Stock Exchange.

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412 Feed-Forward Control in Half-Bridge Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in a halfbridge resonant dc link inverter. The configuration of feed-forward control is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation and the halfbridge resonant dc link inverter consists of two inductors, one capacitor and two power switches. The simulation results show the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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411 Auto Tuning PID Controller based on Improved Genetic Algorithm for Reverse Osmosis Plant

Authors: Jin-Sung Kim, Jin-Hwan Kim, Ji-Mo Park, Sung-Man Park, Won-Yong Choe, Hoon Heo

Abstract:

An optimal control of Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant is studied in this paper utilizing the auto tuning concept in conjunction with PID controller. A control scheme composing an auto tuning stochastic technique based on an improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed. For better evaluation of the process in GA, objective function defined newly in sense of root mean square error has been used. Also in order to achieve better performance of GA, more pureness and longer period of random number generation in operation are sought. The main improvement is made by replacing the uniform distribution random number generator in conventional GA technique to newly designed hybrid random generator composed of Cauchy distribution and linear congruential generator, which provides independent and different random numbers at each individual steps in Genetic operation. The performance of newly proposed GA tuned controller is compared with those of conventional ones via simulation.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Auto tuning, Hybrid random number generator, Reverse Osmosis, PID controller

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410 Margin-Based Feed-Forward Neural Network Classifiers

Authors: Han Xiao, Xiaoyan Zhu

Abstract:

Margin-Based Principle has been proposed for a long time, it has been proved that this principle could reduce the structural risk and improve the performance in both theoretical and practical aspects. Meanwhile, feed-forward neural network is a traditional classifier, which is very hot at present with a deeper architecture. However, the training algorithm of feed-forward neural network is developed and generated from Widrow-Hoff Principle that means to minimize the squared error. In this paper, we propose a new training algorithm for feed-forward neural networks based on Margin-Based Principle, which could effectively promote the accuracy and generalization ability of neural network classifiers with less labelled samples and flexible network. We have conducted experiments on four UCI open datasets and achieved good results as expected. In conclusion, our model could handle more sparse labelled and more high-dimension dataset in a high accuracy while modification from old ANN method to our method is easy and almost free of work.

Keywords: Max-Margin Principle, Feed-Forward Neural Network, Classifier.

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409 A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Trained Inspectors in Different Workloads between Feed Forward and Feedback Training

Authors: Sittichai K., Anucha W., Phonsak L.

Abstract:

Objective of this study was to study and compare the effectiveness of inspectors who had different workloads for feed forward and feedback training. The visual search task was simulated to search for specified alphabets called defects. These defects were included of four alphabets in Thai and English such as s ภ, ถ, X, and V with different background. These defects were combined in the specified alphabets and were given the different three backgrounds i.e., Thai, English, and mixed English and Thai alphabets. Sixty students were chosen as a sample in this study and test for final selection subject. Finally, five subjects were taken into testing process. They were asked to search for defects after they were provided basic information. Experiment design was used factorial design and subjects were trained for feed forward and the feedback training. The results show that both trainings were affected on mean search time. It was also found that the feedback training can increase the effectiveness of visual inspectors rather than the feed forward training significantly different at the level of .05

Keywords: visual search, feed forward, feedback training.

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408 A Simplified Analytical Approach for Coupled Injection Method of Colloidal Silica with Time Dependent Properties

Authors: M. A. Nozari, R. Ziaie Moayed

Abstract:

Electro-osmosis in clayey soils and sediments, for purposes of clay consolidation, dewatering, or cleanup, and electro injection in porous media is widespread recent decades. It is experimentally found that the chemical properties of porous media especially PH change the characteristics of media. Electro-osmotic conductivity is a function of soil and grout material chemistry, altering with time. Many numerical approaches exist to simulate the of electro kinetic flow rate considering chemical changes. This paper presents a simplified analytical solution for constant flow rate based on varying electro osmotic conductivity and time dependent viscosity for injection of colloidal silica.

Keywords: Colloidal silica, electro-osmosis, pH, viscosity, zeta potential.

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407 Power Flow Analysis for Radial Distribution System Using Backward/Forward Sweep Method

Authors: J. A. Michline Rupa, S. Ganesh

Abstract:

This paper proposes a backward/forward sweep method to analyze the power flow in radial distribution systems. The distribution system has radial structure and high R/X ratios. So the newton-raphson and fast decoupled methods are failed with distribution system. The proposed method presents a load flow study using backward/forward sweep method, which is one of the most effective methods for the load-flow analysis of the radial distribution system. By using this method, power losses for each bus branch and voltage magnitudes for each bus node are determined. This method has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and effective results are obtained using MATLAB.

Keywords: Backward/Forward sweep method, Distribution system, Load flow analysis.

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406 Forward Kinematics Analysis of a 3-PRS Parallel Manipulator

Authors: Ghasem Abbasnejad, Soheil Zarkandi, Misagh Imani

Abstract:

In this article the homotopy continuation method (HCM) to solve the forward kinematic problem of the 3-PRS parallel manipulator is used. Since there are many difficulties in solving the system of nonlinear equations in kinematics of manipulators, the numerical solutions like Newton-Raphson are inevitably used. When dealing with any numerical solution, there are two troublesome problems. One is that good initial guesses are not easy to detect and another is related to whether the used method will converge to useful solutions. Results of this paper reveal that the homotopy continuation method can alleviate the drawbacks of traditional numerical techniques.

Keywords: Forward kinematics, Homotopy continuationmethod, Parallel manipulators, Rotation matrix

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405 Power Minimization in Decode-and-XOR-Forward Two-Way Relay Networks

Authors: Dong-Woo Lim, Chang-Jae Chun, Hyung-Myung Kim

Abstract:

We consider a two-way relay network where two sources exchange information. A relay helps the two sources exchange information using the decode-and-XOR-forward protocol. We investigate the power minimization problem with minimum rate constraints. The system needs two time slots and in each time slot the required rate pair should be achievable. The power consumption is minimized in each time slot and we obtained the closed form solution. The simulation results confirm that the proposed power allocation scheme consumes lower total power than the conventional schemes.

Keywords: Decode-and-XOR-forward, power minimization, two-way relay

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404 Decode and Forward Cooperative Protocol Enhancement Using Interference Cancellation

Authors: Siddeeq Y. Ameen, Mohammed K. Yousif

Abstract:

Cooperative communication systems are considered to be a promising technology to improve the system capacity, reliability and performances over fading wireless channels. Cooperative relaying system with a single antenna will be able to reach the advantages of multiple antenna communication systems. It is ideally suitable for the distributed communication systems; the relays can cooperate and form virtual MIMO systems. Thus the paper will aim to investigate the possible enhancement of cooperated system using decode and forward protocol. On the decode and forward an attempt to cancel or at least reduce the interference instead of increasing the SNR values is achieved. The latter can be achieved via the use group of relays depending on the channel status from source to relay and relay to destination respectively.

In the proposed system, the transmission time has been divided into two phases to be used by the decode and forward protocol. The first phase has been allocated for the source to transmit its data whereas the relays and destination nodes are in receiving mode. On the other hand, the second phase is allocated for the first and second groups of relay nodes to relay the data to the destination node. Simulations results have shown an improvement in performance is achieved compared to the conventional decode and forward in terms of BER and transmission rate.

Keywords: Cooperative systems, decode and forward, interference cancellation, virtual MIMO.

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403 Influence of Cavity Length on Forward-facing Cavity and Opposing Jet Combined Thermal Protection System Cooling Efficiency

Authors: Hai-bo Lu, Wei-qiang Liu

Abstract:

A numerical study on the influence of forward-facing cavity length upon forward-facing cavity and opposing jet combined thermal protection system (TPS) cooling efficiency under hypersonic flow is conducted, by means of which the flow field parameters, heat flux distribution along the outer body surface are obtained. The numerical simulation results are validated by experiments and the cooling effect of the combined TPS with different cavity length is analyzed. The numerical results show that the combined configuration dose well in cooling the nose of the hypersonic vehicle. The deeper the cavity is, the weaker the heat flux is. The recirculation region plays a key role for the reduction of the aerodynamic heating.

Keywords: Thermal protection, hypersonic vehicle, aerodynamic heating, forward-facing cavity, opposing jet

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402 Kinematic Analysis of 2-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Jolly Shah, S.S.Rattan, B.C.Nakra

Abstract:

Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 2-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 2-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Forward Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics, Robotic Manipulator

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401 Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluid Flow over Vertical Double Forward-Facing Step

Authors: Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, Hussein Togun, M. K. A. Ariffin, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, N. M Adam, S. Masuri

Abstract:

Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow over vertical double forward facing step were presented. The k-w model with finite volume method was employed to solve continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Different step heights were adopted for range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 40000, and range of temperature varied from 310K to 340 K. The straight side of duct is insulated while the side of double forward facing step is heated. The result shows augmentation of heat transfer due to the recirculation region created after and before steps. Effect of step length and Reynolds number observed on increase of local Nusselt number particularly at recirculation regions. Contour of streamline velocity is plotted to show recirculation regions after and before steps. Numerical simulation in this paper done by used ANSYS FLUENT 14.

Keywords: Turbulent flow, Double forward, Heat transfer, Separation flow.

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400 Scorbot-ER 4U Using Forward Kinematics Modelling and Analysis

Authors: D. Maneetham, L. Sivhour

Abstract:

Robotic arm manipulators are widely used to accomplish many kinds of tasks. SCORBOT-ER 4u is a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) vertical articulated educational robotic arm, and all joints are revolute. It is specifically designed to perform pick and place task with its gripper. The pick and place task consists of consideration of the end effector coordinate of the robotic arm and the desired position coordinate in its workspace. This paper describes about forward kinematics modeling and analysis of the robotic end effector motion through joint space. The kinematics problems are defined by the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space. Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) model is used in order to model the robotic links and joints with 4x4 homogeneous matrix. The forward kinematics model is also developed and simulated in MATLAB. The mathematical model is validated by using robotic toolbox in MATLAB. By using this method, it may be applicable to get the end effector coordinate of this robotic arm and other similar types to this arm. The software development of SCORBOT-ER 4u is also described here. PC-and EtherCAT based control technology from BECKHOFF is used to control the arm to express the pick and place task.

Keywords: Forward kinematics, D-H model, robotic toolbox, PC-and EtherCAT based control.

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399 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyacrylonitrile Composite as Novel Semi-Permeable Mixed Matrix Membrane in Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. M. Doroodmand, Z.Tahvildar, M. H.Sheikhi

Abstract:

novel and simple method is introduced for rapid and highly efficient water treatment by reverse osmosis (RO) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) / polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer as a flexible, highly efficient, reusable and semi-permeable mixed matrix membrane (MMM). For this purpose, MWCNTs were directly synthesized and on-line purified by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, followed by directing the MWCNT bundles towards an ultrasonic bath, in which PAN polymer was simultaneously suspended inside a solid porous silica support in water at temperature to ~70 οC. Fabrication process of MMM was finally completed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. In accordance with the analytical figures of merit, the efficiency of fabricated MMM was ~97%. The rate of water treatment process was also evaluated to 6.35 L min-1. The results reveal that, the CNT-based MMM is suitable for rapid treatment of different forms of industrial, sea, drinking and well water samples.

Keywords: Mixed Matrix Membrane, Carbon Nanostructures, Chemical Vapour Deposition, Hot Isostatic Pressing

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398 A Closed-Loop Design Model for Sustainable Manufacturing by Integrating Forward Design and Reverse Design

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Yi-Shiuan Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, a new concept of closed-loop design for a product is presented. The closed-loop design model is developed by integrating forward design and reverse design. Based on this new concept, a closed-loop design model for sustainable manufacturing by integrated evaluation of forward design, reverse design, and green manufacturing using a fuzzy analytic network process is developed. In the design stage of a product, with a given product requirement and objective, there can be different ways to design the detailed components and specifications. Therefore, there can be different design cases to achieve the same product requirement and objective. Subsequently, in the design evaluation stage, it is required to analyze and evaluate the different design cases. The purpose of this research is to develop a model for evaluating the design cases by integrated evaluating the criteria in forward design, reverse design, and green manufacturing. A fuzzy analytic network process method is presented for integrated evaluation of the criteria in the three models. The comparison matrices for evaluating the criteria in the three groups are established. The total relational values among the three groups represent the total relational effects. In applications, a super matrix model is created and the total relational values can be used to evaluate the design cases for decision-making to select the final design case. An example product is demonstrated in this presentation. It shows that the model is useful for integrated evaluation of forward design, reverse design, and green manufacturing to achieve a closed-loop design for sustainable manufacturing objective.

Keywords: Design evaluation, forward design, reverse design, closed-loop design, supply chain management, closed-loop supply chain, fuzzy analytic network process.

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397 Calculation of the Forces Acting on the Knee Joint When Rising from Kneeling Positions (Effects of the Leg Alignment and the Arm Assistance on the Knee Joint Forces)

Authors: S. Hirokawa, M. Fukunaga, M. Mawatari

Abstract:

Knee joint forces are available by in vivo measurement using an instrumented knee prosthesis for small to moderate knee flexion but not for high flexion yet. We created a 2D mathematical model of the lower limb incorporating several new features such as a patello-femoral mechanism, a thigh-calf contact at high knee flexion and co-contracting muscles' force ratio, then used it to determine knee joint forces arising from high knee flexions in four kneeling conditions: rising with legs in parallel, with one foot forward, with or without arm use. With arms used, the maximum values of knee joint force decreased to about 60% of those with arms not used. When rising with one foot forward, if arms are not used, the forward leg sustains a force as large as that sustained when rising with legs parallel.

Keywords: Knee joint force, kneeling, mathematical model, biomechanics.

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